OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1791–1796

Electrically tunable prism grating based on a liquid crystal film with a photoconductive layer

Shuan-Yu Huang, He-Yi Zheng, Kai-Yu Yu, Bing-Yau Huang, Hong-Ren Lin, Chia-Rong Lee, and Chie-Tong Kuo  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 12, pp. 1791-1796 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2421 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



This study is the first to investigate an optically addressed, electrically tunable prism grating based on homogeneously aligned liquid crystals (LCs) with a photoconductive layer. A conductivity-gradient electrode-like grating pattern of the polymer layer results in a spatially periodic gradient of the effective electric-field drop, producing a prism grating with a spatially periodic LC gradient reorientation. The asymmetric diffraction pattern can be adjusted by varying the dc voltage. The first-order diffraction efficiency is 64% at optimal conditions. The proposed prism grating exhibits extremely low diffraction noise in the off state, a high switching contrast inthe on–off state (~1000), simplicity of fabrication, and high controllability at a low voltage range (0 to 0.4 V/μm).

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices

ToC Category:
Liquid Crystals

Original Manuscript: October 26, 2012
Revised Manuscript: November 15, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 16, 2012
Published: November 19, 2012

Shuan-Yu Huang, He-Yi Zheng, Kai-Yu Yu, Bing-Yau Huang, Hong-Ren Lin, Chia-Rong Lee, and Chie-Tong Kuo, "Electrically tunable prism grating based on a liquid crystal film with a photoconductive layer," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1791-1796 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, “Optically generated liquid crystal gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(20), 2542–2544 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, “An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2588–2590 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21(9), 689–691 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Okada, P. J. Bos, and H. Onnagawa, “In-plane liquid crystal beam steering devices with a beam separation structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 1, No. 5A), 2576–2580 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. S. W. Kang, S. Sprunt, and L. C. Chien, “Structure and morphology of polymer-stabilized cholesteric diffraction gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(24), 3516–3518 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Sakata and M. Nishimura, “Switchable zero-order diffraction filters using fine-pitch phase gratings filled with liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 3B), 1516–1521 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. C. M. Titus, J. R. Kelly, E. C. Gartland, S. V. Shiyanovskii, J. A. Anderson, and P. J. Bos, “Asymmetric transmissive behavior of liquid-crystal diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 26(15), 1188–1190 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Wang, D. Wilson, R. Muller, P. Maker, and D. Psaltis, “Liquid-crystal blazed-grating beam deflector,” Appl. Opt. 39(35), 6545–6555 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Apter, U. Efron, and E. Bahat-Treidel, “On the fringing-field effect in liquid-crystal beam-steering devices,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 11–19 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Inhomogeneous nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals with gradient refractive index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(19), 3537–3539 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Ren, Y.-H. Fan, and S.-T. Wu, “Prism grating using polymer stabilized nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3168–3170 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. K.-C. Lo, J.-D. Wang, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, “Electrically controllable and polarization-independent Fresnel zone plate in a circularly symmetric hybrid-aligned liquid crystal film with a photoconductive polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181104 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Wang, “Photoconductivity of fullerene-doped polymers,” Nature 356(6370), 585–587 (1992). [CrossRef]
  15. F. L. Vladimirov, A. N. Chaika, I. E. Morichev, N. I. Pletneva, A. F. Naumov, and M. Yu. Loktev, “Modulation characteristics of optically controllable transparencies based on a photoconductor-liquid-crystal structure,” J. Opt. Technol. 67(8), 712–716 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Magnusson and T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction regimes of transmission gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68(6), 809–814 (1978). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited