OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2014
  • pp: 101–110

Two-step fabrication of R-PbI4(1-y)Br4y type light emitting inorganic-organic hybrid photonic structures

Shahab Ahmad and G. Vijaya Prakash  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 101-110 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (4666 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An easy fabrication approach for highly c-axis oriented Inorganic-Organic (IO) mixed hybrid semiconductor thin films has been demonstrated for the first time. A simple vacuum deposition technique followed by chemical processing is utilized to fabricate controlled thin films of wide range of selective compositions from R-PbI4(1-y)Br4y (R = organic; y = 0 to 1) type IO hybrids. These thin films are alternative stack of inorganic and organic nanoscale layers, resembles multiple quantum wells. As a result, they show several novel features including tunable strong room-temperature excitons over a broad spectral range from 380 nm to 520 nm. Structural and in situ optical studies confirm that the methodology can be directly adoptable in top-down technology and also extendable for many varieties of inorganic-organic frameworks. The device quality fabrication process and optoelectronic multi-functionality has been demonstrated by template based 3D microstructures, exciton PL imaging and photodetector response.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(250.5230) Optoelectronics : Photoluminescence
(310.3840) Thin films : Materials and process characterization
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(250.4745) Optoelectronics : Optical processing devices

ToC Category:
Fluorescent and Luminescent Materials

Original Manuscript: August 22, 2013
Revised Manuscript: November 3, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: November 6, 2013
Published: December 16, 2013

Shahab Ahmad and G. Vijaya Prakash, "Two-step fabrication of R-PbI4(1-y)Br4y type light emitting inorganic-organic hybrid photonic structures," Opt. Mater. Express 4, 101-110 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-inorganic hybrid materials as semiconducting channels in thin-film field-effect transistors,” Science286(5441), 945–947 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. B. Mitzi, S. Wang, C. A. Feild, C. A. Chess, and A. M. Guloy, “Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets,” Science267(5203), 1473–1476 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Ishihara, J. Takahashi, and T. Goto, “Optical Properties Due to Electronics Transitions in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4,” Phys. Rev. B42(17), 11099–11107 (1990). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Shimizu, J. Fujisawa, and J. Ishi-Hayase, “Influence of dielectric confinement on excitonic nonlinearity in inorganic-organic layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B71(20), 205306 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. D. B. Mitzi, K. Chondroudis, and C. R. Kagan, “Organic–inorganic electronics,” IBM J. Res. Develop.45(1), 29–45 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Xu, D. B. Mitzi, C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, and K. R. Maxcy, “Semiconducting perovskites (2-XC6H4C2H4NH3)2SnI4 (X = F, Cl, Br): Steric interaction between the organic and inorganic layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(6), 2031–2039 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Era, S. Morimoto, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(6), 676–678 (1994). [CrossRef]
  8. K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Strong exciton-photon coupling in inorganic-organic multiple quantum wells embedded low-Q microcavity,” Opt. Express17, 22171– 22178 (2009).
  9. Z. Xu and D. B. Mitzi, “[CH3(CH2)11NH3]SnI3: A hybrid semiconductor with MoO3-type Tin(II) iodide layers,” Inorg. Chem.42(21), 6589–6591 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Kitazawa, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Excitons in organic–inorganic hybrid compounds (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbBr4 (n = 4, 5, 7, and 12),” Thin Solid Films518(12), 3199–3203 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Calabrese, N. L. Jones, R. L. Harlow, N. Herron, D. L. Thorn, and Y. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.113(6), 2328–2330 (1991). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Ahmad, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in mixed inorganic-organic hybrids,” (in preparation).
  13. N. Kitazawa, K. Enomoto, M. Aono, and Y. Watanabe, “Optical Properties of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4−xBrx (x =0–4) mixed-crystal doped PMMA films,” J. Mater. Sci.39(2), 749–751 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “In situ intercalation strategies for device-quality hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 033309 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Matsui, A. Yamaguchi, Y. Takeoka, M. Rikukawa, and K. Sanui, “Fabrication of two-dimensional layered perovskite [NH3(CH2)12NH3]PbX4 thin films using a self-assembly method,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)10(10), 1094–1095 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Matsushima, K. Fujita, and T. Tsutsui, “High field-effect hole mobility in organic-inorganic hybrid thin films prepared by vacuum vapor deposition technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 9A/B), L1199–L1201 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. K. Ikegami, “Spectroscopic study of J aggregates of amphiphilic merocyanine dyes formed in their pure Langmuir films,” J. Chem. Phys.121, 2337–2341 (2004).
  18. D. B. Mitzi, M. T. Prikas, and K. Chondroudis, “Thin film deposition of organic-inorganic hybrid materials using a single source thermal ablation technique,” Chem. Mater.11(3), 542–544 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, Z. W. Quan, C. K. Lin, J. Lin, and Y. C. Han, “Layered organic-inorganic perovskite-type hybrid materials fabricated by spray pyrolysis route,” J. Cryst. Growth285(3), 352–357 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. D. B. Mitzi, D. R. Medeiros, and P. W. DeHaven, “Low temperature melt processing of organic-inorganic hybrid films,” Chem. Mater.14(7), 2839–2841 (2002). [CrossRef]
  21. V. K. Dwivedi, J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Direct deposition of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors and their template-assisted microstructures,” Mater. Chem. Phys.137(3), 941–946 (2013). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Takeda, T. Tayu, S. Saito, and S. Kurita, “Exciton-phonon interaction and potential fluctuation effect in PbI2(1-x)Br2x mixed crystals,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.60(11), 3874–3881 (1991). [CrossRef]
  23. H. Abid, A. Samet, T. Dammak, A. Mlayah, E. K. Hlil, and Y. Abid, “Electronic structure calculations and optical properties of a new organic–inorganic luminescent perovskite: (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2,” J. Lumin.131(8), 1753–1757 (2011). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Kawabata, F. M. Yoshizawa, Y. Takeoka, and M. Rikukawa, “Relationship between structure and optoelectrical properties of organic–inorganic hybrid materials containing fullerene derivatives,” Synth. Met.159(9-10), 776–779 (2009). [CrossRef]
  25. I. B. Koutselas, L. Ducasse, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Electronic properties of three- and low-dimensional semiconducting materials with Pb halide and Sn halide units,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter8(9), 1217–1227 (1996). [CrossRef]
  26. K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Exciton switching and Peierls transitions in hybrid inorganic-organic self-assembled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 173305 (2009). [CrossRef]
  27. K. Pradeesh, J. J. Baumberg, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Temperature-induced exciton switching in long alkyl chain based inorganic-organic hybrids,” J. Appl. Phys.111(1), 013511 (2012). [CrossRef]
  28. K. Pradeesh, K. Nageswara Rao, and G. Vijaya Prakash, “Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors, R-PbI4,” J. Appl. Phys.113(8), 083523 (2013). [CrossRef]
  29. I. Koutselas, P. Bampoulis, E. Maratou, T. Evagelinou, G. Pagona, and G. C. Papavassiliou, “Some unconventional organic-inorganic hybrid low-dimensional semiconductors and related light-emitting devices,” J. Phys. Chem. C115(17), 8475–8483 (2011). [CrossRef]
  30. Z. Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, R. B. Xing, Y. C. Han, and J. Lin, “Patterning and photoluminescent properties of perovskite-type organic/inorganic hybrid luminescent films by soft lithography,” Chem. Phys. Lett.376(3-4), 481–486 (2003). [CrossRef]
  31. M. M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T. N. Murakami, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient hybrid solar cells based on meso-superstructured organometal halide perovskites,” Science338(6107), 643–647 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: JPG (2 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited