OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 3 — Jul. 1, 2011
  • pp: 489–502

On Yb:CaF2 and Yb:SrF2: review of spectroscopic and thermal properties and their impact on femtosecond and high power laser performance [Invited]

Frédéric Druon, Sandrine Ricaud, Dimitris N. Papadopoulos, Alain Pellegrina, Patrice Camy, Jean Louis Doualan, Richard Moncorgé, Antoine Courjaud, Eric Mottay, and Patrick Georges  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 3, pp. 489-502 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.000489


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2083 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present an overview of laser results we obtained with Yb-doped calcium fluoride and its isotype strontium fluoride. In order to study the laser performance in femtosecond and high power regimes, spectral and thermal properties are first discussed including the potential of these crystals at room and cryogenic temperatures. Experimental demonstrations of high-power and ultrashort pulse oscillators and amplifiers are presented and analyzed.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

ToC Category:
Laser Materials

History
Original Manuscript: May 18, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 16, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 23, 2011
Published: June 30, 2011

Virtual Issues
Advances in Optical Materials (2011) Optical Materials Express
(2011) Advances in Optics and Photonics

Citation
Frédéric Druon, Sandrine Ricaud, Dimitris N. Papadopoulos, Alain Pellegrina, Patrice Camy, Jean Louis Doualan, Richard Moncorgé, Antoine Courjaud, Eric Mottay, and Patrick Georges, "On Yb:CaF2 and Yb:SrF2: review of spectroscopic and thermal properties and their impact on femtosecond and high power laser performance [Invited]," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 489-502 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-3-489


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. W. J. Humphreys, “On the presence of yttrium and ytterbium in Fluor-Spar,” Astrophys. J. 20, 266–273 (1904). [CrossRef]
  2. P. P. Sorokin and M. J. Stevenson, “Stimulated infrared emission from trivalent uranium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 5(12), 557–559 (1960). [CrossRef]
  3. S. E. Hatch, W. F. Parsons, and R. J. Weagley, “Hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2:Dy2+ laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(8), 153–153 (1964). [CrossRef]
  4. V. Petit, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, V. Menard, and R. Moncorgé, “CW and tunable laser operation of Yb3+ doped CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 78(6), 681–684 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Lucca, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power tunable diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1879–1881 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Lucca, G. Debourg, M. Jacquemet, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “High-power diode-pumped Yb3+:CaF2 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2767–2769 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Siebold, S. Bock, U. Schramm, B. Xu, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, and R. Moncorgé, “Yb:CaF2 — a new old laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 327–338 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Benayad, V. Ménard, R. Moncorgé, J. Boudeile, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Yb3+ doped (Ca,Sr,Ba)F2 for high power laser applications,” Laser Phys. 20(2), 533–536 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Siebold, M. Hornung, R. Boedefeld, S. Podleska, S. Klingebiel, C. Wandt, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, R. Uecker, A. Jochmann, J. Hein, and M. C. Kaluza, “Terawatt diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(23), 2770–2772 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. A. Slack, “Thermal conductivity of CaF2, MnF2, CoF2, and ZnF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. 122(5), 1451–1464 (1961). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Boudeile, J. Didierjean, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Ménard, R. Moncorgé, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “Thermal behaviour of ytterbium-doped fluorite crystals under high power pumping,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10098–10109 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. R. A. Catlow, A. V. Chadwick, G. N. Greaves, and L. M. Moroney, “Direct observations of the dopant environment in fluorites using EXAFS,” Nature 312(5995), 601–604 (1984). [CrossRef]
  13. M. L. Falin, K. I. Gerasimov, V. A. Latypov, A. M. Leushin, H. Bill, and D. Lovy, “EPR and optical spectroscopy of Yb3+ ions in CaF2: an analysis of the structure of tetragonal centers,” J. Lumin. 269, 102–103 (2003).
  14. M. Ito, C. Goutaudier, Y. Guyot, K. Lebbou, T. Fukuda, and G. Boulon, “Crystal growth, Yb spectroscopy, concentration quenching analysis and potentiality of laser emission in Ca1-xYbxF2+x,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 16(8), 1501–1521 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. V. Petit, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, X. Portier, and R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy of Yb3+:CaF2: From isolated centers to clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085131 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, M. von Edlinger, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, “Comparative spectroscopic and laser properties of Yb3+-doped CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 539–542 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Pugžlys, G. Andriukaitis, D. Sidorov, A. Irshad, A. Baltuška, W. J. Lai, P. B. Phua, L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, R. Li, S. Ališauskas, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, L. Giniunas, and R. Danielius, “Spectroscopy and lasing of cryogenically cooled Yb,Na:CaF2,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 339–350 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. J. L. Ladison, J. J. Price, J. D. Helfinstine, and W. R. Rosch, “Hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness bulk properties in Corning calcium fluoride,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 1329–1338 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. W. F. Krupke, M. D. Shinn, J. E. Marion, J. A. Caird, and S. E. Stokowski, “Spectroscopic, optical, and thermomechanical properties of neodymium- and chromium-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(1), 102–114 (1986). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part I: theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Chénais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part II: evaluation of quantum efficiencies and thermo-optic coefficients,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1235–1243 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Chénais, F. Druon, S. Forget, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “On thermal effects in solid-state lasers: the case of ytterbium-doped materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 89–153 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. R. Gaumé, B. Viana, D. Vivien, J. P. Roger, and D. Fournier, “A simple model for the prediction of thermal conductivity in pure and doped in saluting crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(7), 1355–1357 (2003). [CrossRef]
  25. P. Popov, P. Fedorov, S. Kuznetsov, V. Konyushkin, V. Osiko, and T. Basiev, “Thermal conductivity of single crystals of Ca1-xYbxF2+x solid solution,” Dokl. Phys. 53(4), 198–200 (2008). [CrossRef]
  26. V. Cardinali, “Matériaux lasers dopés à l’ion ytterbium: Performances lasers en pompage par diodes lasers et étude des propriétés thermo-optiques à des températures cryogéniques,” PhD manuscript (2011).
  27. D. F. Bezuidenhout, “Calcium fluoride (CaF2)” Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, 1991).
  28. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystal (Clarendon Press, 1985).
  29. http://www.alkor.net/images/CaF2%20data.pdf
  30. http://www.corning.com/docs/specialtymaterials/pisheets/H0607_CaF2_Product_Sheet.pdf
  31. http://www.crystran.co.uk/ .
  32. http://www.vidrine.com/iropmat4.htm
  33. http://mpfpi.com/Calcium%20Fluoride-CF.html
  34. One can notice that a better fit can be obtained by replacing d by d(1–2.8d) for d<0.25 in the Eq. (1).
  35. L. E. Zapata, D. J. Ripin, and T. Y. Fan, “Power scaling of cryogenic Yb:LiYF4 lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1854–1856 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 448–459 (2007).
  37. S. Ricaud, D. N. Papadopoulos, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, A. Courjaud, E. Mottay, P. Georges, and F. Druon, “Highly efficient, high-power, broadly tunable, cryogenically cooled and diode-pumped Yb:CaF2.,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3757–3759 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. F. Friebel, F. Druon, J. Boudeile, D. N. Papadopoulos, M. Hanna, P. Georges, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, R. Moncorgé, C. Cassagne, and G. Boudebs, “Diode-pumped 99 fs Yb:CaF2 oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1474–1476 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, J. Boudeile, M. Hanna, P. Georges, A. Benayad, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, V. Ménard, and R. Moncorgé, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:SrF2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2354–2356 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. D. Milam, M. J. Weber, and A. J. Glass, “Nonlinear refractive index of fluoride crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31(12), 822–825 (1977). [CrossRef]
  41. F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 16–18 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. U. Keller, “Semiconductor nonlinearities for solid-state laser modelocking and Q-switching,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals (1998), Vol. 39, Chap. 4.
  43. H. A. Haus, “Theory of modelocking with a fast saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), 3049–3058 (1975). [CrossRef]
  44. F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New laser crystals for the generation of ultrashort pulses,” C. R. Phys. 8(2), 153–164 (2007). [CrossRef]
  45. S. Ricaud, F. Druon, D. N. Papadopoulos, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, M. Delaigue, Y. Zaouter, A. Courjaud, P. Georges, and E. Mottay, “Short-pulse and high-repetition-rate diode-pumped Yb:CaF2 regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2415–2417 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. D. N. Papadopoulos, F. Druon, J. Boudeile, I. Martial, M. Hanna, P. Georges, P. O. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Low-repetition-rate femtosecond operation in extended-cavity mode-locked Yb:CALGO laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 196–198 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. T. T. Basiev, M. E. Doroshenko, P. P. Fedorov, V. A. Konyushkin, S. V. Kuznetsov, V. V. Osiko, and M. Sh. Akchurin, “Efficient laser based on CaF2-SrF2-YbF3 nanoceramics,” Opt. Lett. 33(5), 521–523 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, “New materials for short-pulse amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 268–273 (2011).
  49. A. Pugžlys, G. Andriukaitis, A. Baltuška, L. Su, J. Xu, H. Li, R. Li, W. J. Lai, P. B. Phua, A. Marcinkevičius, M. E. Fermann, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, and S. Ališauskas, “Multi-mJ, 200-fs, cw-pumped, cryogenically cooled, Yb,Na:CaF2 amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2075–2077 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. M. Siebold, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, and R. Uecker, “High-peak-power tunable laser operation of Yb:SrF2.,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1818–1820 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. M. Siebold, M. Hornung, S. Bock, J. Hein, M. C. Kaluza, J. Wemans, and R. Uecker, “Broad-band regenerative laser amplification in ytterbium-doped calcium fluoride (Yb:CaF2),” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 543–547 (2007). [CrossRef]
  52. G. Andriukaitis, D. Kartashov, D. Lorenc, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, J. Limpert, T. Clausnitzer, E.-B. Kley, A. Voronin, and A. Zheltikov, “Hollow-fiber compression of 6 mJ pulses from a continuous-wave diode-pumped single-stage Yb,Na:CaF2 chirped pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1914–1916 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, M. E. Doroshenko, T. T. Basiev, V. A. Konyushkin, and P. P. Fedorov, “Tunability of lasers based on Yb3+-doped fluorides SrF2, SrF2-CaF2, SrF2-BaF2, and YLF,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper WB16.
  54. O. K. Alimov, T. T. Basiev, M. E. Doroshenko, P. P. Fedorov, V. A. Konyushkin, S. V. Kouznetsov, A. N. Nakladov, V. V. Osiko, H. Jelinkova, and J. Šulc, “Spectroscopic and oscillation properties of Yb3+ ions in BaF2-SrF2-CaF2 crystals and ceramics,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP), OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper WB25.
  55. P. Popov, K. V. Dukel’skii, I. A. Mironov, A. N. Smirnov, P. L. Smolyanskii, P. P. Fedorov, V. Osiko, and T. Basiev, “Thermal conductivity of CaF2 optical ceramic,” Dokl. Phys. 412(2), 185–187 (2007).
  56. P. A. Popov, P. P. Fedorov, V. A. Konyushkin, A. N. Nakladov, S. V. Kuznetsov, V. V. Osiko, and T. T. Basiev, “Thermal conductivity of single crystals of Sr1–xYbxF2+x solid solution,” Dokl. Phys. 421(5), 614–616 (2008).
  57. P. A. Popov, P. P. Fedorov, S. V. Kuznetsov, V. A. Konyushkin, V. V. Osiko, and T. T. Basiev, “Thermal conductivity of single crystals of Ba1–xYbxF2+x solid solution,” Dokl. Phys. 421(2), 183–185 (2008).
  58. P. Aubry, A. Bensalah, P. Gredin, G. Patriarche, D. Vivien, and M. Mortier, “Synthesis and optical characterizations of Yb-doped CaF2 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. 31(5), 750–753 (2009). [CrossRef]
  59. T. Toepfer, J. Neukum, J. Hein, and M. Siebold, “Very-large-scale DPSS lasers are coming,” Laser Focus World 46(10), 64–67 (2010).
  60. T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100- femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009). [CrossRef]
  61. U. Buenting, H. Sayinc, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, and D. Kracht, “Regenerative thin disk amplifier with combined gain spectra producing 500 μJ sub 200 fs pulses,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8046–8050 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  62. J. Neuhaus, D. Bauer, J. Zhang, A. Killi, J. Kleinbauer, M. Kumkar, S. Weiler, M. Guina, D. H. Sutter, and T. Dekorsy, “Subpicosecond thin-disk laser oscillator with pulse energies of up to 25.9 microjoules by use of an active multipass geometry,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20530–20539 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. P. Russbueldt, T. Mans, J. Weitenberg, H. D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “Compact diode-pumped 1.1 kW Yb:YAG Innoslab femtosecond amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4169–4171 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. Y. Zaouter, I. Martial, N. Aubry, J. Didierjean, C. Hönninger, E. Mottay, F. Druon, P. Georges, and F. Balembois, “Direct amplification of ultrashort pulses in μ-pulling-down Yb:YAG single crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 748–750 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. S. Ricaud, D. N. Papadopoulos, A. Pellegrina, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Courjaud, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, and F. Druon, “High-power diode-pumped cryogenically cooled Yb:CaF₂ laser with extremely low quantum defect,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1602–1604 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. http://cmdo.cnrs.fr/ and http://www.lasur-femto.cnrs.fr/

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited