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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 4 — Aug. 1, 2011
  • pp: 564–575

Performance of ultrafast laser written active waveguides by rigorous modeling of optical gain measurements

J.A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, V. Berdejo, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, Inés Ortega-Feliu, M.Á. Rebolledo, and J. Solís  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 4, pp. 564-575 (2011)

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An Er:Yb co-doped P2O5-La2O5 based glass has been synthesized and used for producing 1.6 cm-long active optical waveguides using a low repetition (1 kHz) rate Ti:Al2O3 fs-laser amplifier. Before processing, the laser energy deposition profile for an elliptically shaped beam was simulated, and the best processing conditions for optimizing the focal volume shape, minimizing non-linear propagation effects, were determined. Under these conditions, a multi-scan writing approach was used to maximize the refractive index change induced and to minimize the transmission losses. After processing, the optical powers propagating inside the waveguide (pump absorption, co- and counter-propagating ASE, low signal gain, …) were measured for uni- and bi-directional pumping schemes, and the measurements were simulated and fitted using an ad hoc developed model to describe the behavior of laser written waveguides. The measurements provide internal gain figures comparable to the best ones reported in phosphate glasses for low repetition rate writing even with larger insertion losses. The simulations provide access to key parameters of the waveguide characteristics (coupling losses and propagation losses, Yb3+ ⇔ Er3+ energy transfer rates, Er3+ upconversion coefficient), which have been used to model the expected performance of these structures in terms of length and doping level. A moderate increase of the Er3+ and Yb3+ doping level would potentially lead to net gain values up to 9.4 dB for a waveguide length of 25 mm.

© 2011 OSA

OCIS Codes
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.4480) Lasers and laser optics : Optical amplifiers
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(130.2755) Integrated optics : Glass waveguides

ToC Category:
Artificially Engineered Structures

Original Manuscript: April 6, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 22, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 1, 2011
Published: July 11, 2011

Virtual Issues
Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing and Structuring of Materials (2011) Optical Materials Express

J.A. Vallés, A. Ferrer, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, V. Berdejo, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, Inés Ortega-Feliu, M.Á. Rebolledo, and J. Solís, "Performance of ultrafast laser written active waveguides by rigorous modeling of optical gain measurements," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 564-575 (2011)

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