OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1397–1406

Analysis of TM mode light extraction efficiency enhancement for deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with III-nitride micro-domes

Peng Zhao, Lu Han, Matthew R. McGoogan, and Hongping Zhao  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 10, pp. 1397-1406 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1028 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) mode light extraction efficiency enhancement for AlGaN quantum wells (QWs) based deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with III-nitride micro-hemisphere and micro-dome structures on the p-type layer are studied and compared to that of the conventional deep-UV LEDs with flat surface. The transverse electric (TE) and TM components of the spontaneous emission of AlGaN QWs with AlN barriers were calculated by using a self-consistent 6-band k∙p method, which shows the TM component overtakes the TE component and becomes the dominant contribution of the spontaneous emission when the Al-content of the AlGaN QWs is larger than 0.66. The TM mode light extraction efficiency of the deep-UV LEDs emitting at 250 nm with AlGaN micro-domes as compared to the conventional LEDs with flat surface is calculated based on three dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method. The effects of the III-nitride micro-dome diameter and height as well as the p-type layer thickness on the light extraction efficiency were comprehensively studied. The results indicate optimized light extraction efficiency enhancement (>7.3 times) of the dominant TM polarized spontaneous emission for deep-UV LEDs with III-nitride micro-domes.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(230.0250) Optical devices : Optoelectronics
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: August 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 15, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 15, 2012
Published: September 18, 2012

Peng Zhao, Lu Han, Matthew R. McGoogan, and Hongping Zhao, "Analysis of TM mode light extraction efficiency enhancement for deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with III-nitride micro-domes," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1397-1406 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(7), 071901 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Asif Khan, “AlGaN multiple quantum well based deep UV LEDs and their applications,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(7), 1764–1770 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. A. A. Allerman, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, K. H. A. Bogart, S. R. Lee, D. M. Follstaedt, P. P. Provencio, and D. D. Koleske, “Growth and design of deep-UV (240-290 nm) light emitting diodes using AlGaN alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth272(1-4), 227–241 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A206(6), 1176–1182 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Dai, M. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Internal quantum efficiency and nonradiative recombination coefficient of GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells with different dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(11), 111109 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. J.-H. Ryou, W. Lee, J. Limb, D. Yoo, J. P. Liu, R. D. Dupuis, Z. H. Wu, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region by p-type layer for III-nitride-based visible light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(10), 101113 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1−xN/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091906 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design analysis of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes at 500–540 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1104–1114 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, “Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface,” J. Appl. Phys.93(11), 9383–9385 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photoniccrystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(22), 221107 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, R. A. Arif, H. Tong, H. Zhao, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Optimization of light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride light emitting diodes with self-assembled colloidal-based microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1218–1225 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Kumnorkaew, Y. K. Ee, N. Tansu, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Investigation of the deposition of microsphere monolayers for fabrication of microlens arrays,” Langmuir24(21), 12150–12157 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 489–499 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S. Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics1, 176–179 (2007).
  19. P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express20(S5), A765–A776 (2012). [CrossRef]
  20. W. N. Ng, C. H. Leung, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Nanostructuring GaN using microsphere lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B26(1), 76–79 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. W. Y. Fu, K.-K. Wong, and H. W. Choi, “Close-packed hemiellipsoid arrays: a photonic band gap structure patterned by nanosphere lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(13), 133125 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. Lumerical FDTD Solution.
  23. M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics, Vol. 2: Devices, Measurements, and Properties (Optical Society of America, 1994).
  24. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  25. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011). [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011). [CrossRef]
  27. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Optical gain analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum well active regions for lasers emitting at 420-500 nm,” Opt. Quantum Electron.40(5-6), 301–306 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(10), 1791–1800 (1996). [CrossRef]
  30. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, in Nitride Semiconductor Devices, J. Piprek, ed. (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 2.
  31. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics2(2), 77–84 (2008). [CrossRef]
  33. M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–nitride UV devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(10), 7191–7206 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited