OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1612–1623

Defect population variability in deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals

Zhi M. Liao, R. Roussell, J. J. Adams, M. Runkel, W. T. Frenk, J. Luken, and C. W. Carr  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 11, pp. 1612-1623 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1752 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Bulk laser damage variability in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals is well known and makes online conditioning of multiple-beam laser systems difficult to optimize. By using an empirical model, called Absorption Distribution Model (ADM), we were able to map the damage variability of the crystals (boule to boule as well as within same boule) in terms of defect population variations. The defect population variation was found to coalesce into two distinct groupings that can be identified by the defect population in the late growth region of the boule. This result allows us to optimize the conditioning protocol for an arbitrary number of beams with crystals of differing damage quality.

© 2012 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.3330) Lasers and laser optics : Laser damage
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optical Materials

Original Manuscript: July 11, 2012
Revised Manuscript: September 28, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: October 8, 2012
Published: October 15, 2012

Zhi M. Liao, R. Roussell, J. J. Adams, M. Runkel, W. T. Frenk, J. Luken, and C. W. Carr, "Defect population variability in deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1612-1623 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. Wegner, J. Auerbach, T. Biesiada, S. Dixit, J. Lawson, J. Menapace, T. Parham, D. Swift, P. Whitman, and W. Williams, “NIF final optics systems: frequency conversion and beam conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5341, 180–189 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.40(4), 350–352 (1982). [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KD2PO4,” Proc. SPIE5647, 265 (2004).
  4. M. Runkel, K. Neeb, M. Staggs, J. Auerbach, and A. Burnham, “Results of raster scan laser conditioning studies on DKDP triplers using Nd:YAG and excimer lasers,” Proc. SPIE4679, 348 (2001).
  5. M. Runkel and A. K. Burnham, “Difference in bulk damage probability distributions between tripler and z-cuts of KDP and DKDP at 355nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 408 (2000).
  6. A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, R. A. Hawley-Fedder, M. L. Carman, R. A. Torres, and P. K. Whitman, “Low-temperature growth of DKDP for improving laser-induced damage resistance at 350nm,” Proc. SPIE4347, 373 (2000).
  7. S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, M. Yan, H. B. Radousky, and J. J. De Yoreo, “Investigation of optically active defect clusters in KH2PO4 under laser photoexcitation,” J. Appl. Phys.85(8), 3988–3992 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Yan, R. Torres, M. Runkel, B. Woods, I. Hutcheon, N. Zaitseva, and J. DeYoreo, “Investigation of impurity and laser-induced damage in the growth sectors of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE2966, 11–16 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Pommiès, D. Damiani, B. Bertussi, J. Capoulade, H. Piombini, J. Y. Natoli, and H. Mathis, “Detection and characterization of absorption heterogeneities in KH2PO4 crystals,” Opt. Commun.267(1), 154–161 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “An expedited approach to evaluate the importance of different crystal growth parameters on laser damage performance in KDP and DKDP,” Proc. SPIE6403, 64031S (2007).
  11. M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).
  12. C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(7), 1958–1962 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Adams, J. A. Jarboe, M. Feit, and R. P. Hackel, “Comparison between S/1 and R/1 tests and damage density vs. fluence (rho(phi)) results for unconditioned and sub-nanosecond laser-conditioned KD2PO4 crystals,” Proc. SPIE6720, 672014 (2008).
  14. Z. M. Liao, M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, J. J. Adams, and C. W. Carr, “Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using an absorption distribution model,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2538–2540 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Spaeth, “Absorption distribution model,” LLNL Internal Presentation (2007).
  16. C. W. Carr, J. D. Bude, and P. DeMange, “Laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts in silica,” Phys. Rev. B82(18), 184304 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE5273, 74–82 (2003).
  18. J. B. Trenholme, M. D. Feit, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Size-selection initiation model extended to include shape and random factors,” Proc. SPIE5991, 59910X (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Runkel, M. Yan, J. De Yoreo, and N. Zaitseva, “The effect of impurities and stress on the damage distributions of rapidly grown KDP crystals,” Proc. SPIE3244, 211 (1997).
  20. M. Runkel, J. Bruere, W. Sell, T. Weiland, D. Milam, D. Hahn, and M. Nostrand, “Effects of pulse duration of bulk laser damage in 350-nm raster-scanned DKDP,” Proc. SPIE4392, 405 (2002).
  21. C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 041110 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. Z. M. Liao, J. Huebel, J. Trenholme, K. Manes, and C. W. Carr, “Modeling max-of-N fluence distribution using measured shot-to-shot beam contrast,” Appl. Opt.50(20), 3547–3552 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited