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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2013
  • pp: 598–611

Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modifications in fluoride glass

Jean-Philippe Bérubé, Martin Bernier, and Réal Vallée  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 5, pp. 598-611 (2013)

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The interaction of focused 800 nm femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at low (1–45 kHz) and moderate (50–250 kHz) repetition rates with fluoride (ZBLAN-type) bulk glass is investigated in detail. It is shown that at repetition rates lower than ~50 kHz and low pulse energies, the refractive index change induced by pulse filamentation is mainly negative at the irradiated zone. At repetition rates above 50 kHz, structures are formed as a result of the fs laser pulse induced heat accumulation and subsequent melting of the glass. The refractive index profile of the structures produced in this regime is influenced by the laser writing conditions (repetition rate, pulse energy and translation speed). It is shown that waveguides with large circular cross sections and smooth positive index changes can be formed through a precise control of glass exposure. Those waveguides can exhibit low propagation losses (~0.4–2 dB/cm) and are thus good candidates for the development of mid-IR integrated photonic devices. Both absorbed energy and repetition rate thresholds for heat accumulation are determined experimentally.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena
(130.2755) Integrated optics : Glass waveguides

ToC Category:
Laser Materials Processing

Original Manuscript: February 21, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 9, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: April 9, 2013
Published: April 12, 2013

Jean-Philippe Bérubé, Martin Bernier, and Réal Vallée, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modifications in fluoride glass," Opt. Mater. Express 3, 598-611 (2013)

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