OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2013
  • pp: 1450–1458

Nanostructure study of the coalescence growth of GaN columns with molecular beam epitaxy

Yung-Sheng Chen, Che-Hao Liao, Yung-Chen Cheng, Chie-Tong Kuo, and Hsiang-Chen Wang  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 9, pp. 1450-1458 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (4526 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We investigate the structural properties of molecular-beam-epitaxy coalescence overgrowth of GaN columns at the nanoscale with transmission electron microscopy and other characterization techniques. Two samples grown over nanocolumns of different widths and spatial densities (columns/area) are compared. It is found that columns with a larger cross section (~500 nm) and correspondingly lower spatial density normally lead to un-coalesced overgrown domains ranging 5-8 μm in size. On the other hand, the overgrowth on the columns of a smaller cross section (~100 nm) and correspondingly higher density results in coalesced domains ranging from 1 to 5 μm in size. It is believed that among the smaller, more closely spaced columns the strain distribution resulting from overgrowth is more effective in leading to the uniformity of crystalline orientation, and hence successful coalescence. The optical characterization leads to the conclusion that the defect density in the sample grown on smaller columns is lower when compared with that grown on larger columns.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(160.5293) Materials : Photonic bandgap materials
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 21, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 21, 2013
Published: August 26, 2013

Yung-Sheng Chen, Che-Hao Liao, Yung-Chen Cheng, Chie-Tong Kuo, and Hsiang-Chen Wang, "Nanostructure study of the coalescence growth of GaN columns with molecular beam epitaxy," Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1450-1458 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Sun, G. Xu, Y. J. Ding, H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of fast and slow decays in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(8), 081104 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-Assembled Vertical Gallium Nitride Nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 1601–1603 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. C. C. Lin, C. H. Chiu, H. W. Huang, S. P. Chang, and H. C. Kuo, “Highly efficient InGaN-based light emitting devices grown on nanoscale patterned substrates by MOCVD,” Proc. SPIE, Display, Solid-State Lighting, Photovoltaics, and Optoelectronics in Energy III, 83120C (2011).
  4. E. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcya, F. J. Sanchez, F. Calle, F. B. Naranjo, E. Munoz, U. Jahn, and K. Ploog, “Luminescence properties and defects in GaN nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B62(24), 16826–16834 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Iwanaga, T. Suzuki, S. Yagi, and T. Motooka, “Optical absorption properties of Mg-doped GaN nanocolumns,” J. Appl. Phys.98(10), 104303 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. Van Nostrand, K. L. Averett, R. Cortez, J. Boeckl, C. E. Stutz, N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, and J. D. Albrecht, “Molecular beam epitaxial growth of high-quality GaN nanocolumns,” J. Cryst. Growth287(2), 500–503 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. R. Walther, D. Litvinov, M. Fotouhi, R. Schneider, D. Gerthsen, R. Vohringer, D. Z. Hu, and D. M. Schaadt, “Microstructure of PAMBE-grown InN layers on Si(1 1 1),” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 34–40 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. H.-M. Kim, D. S. Kim, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, Y.-H. Cho, and K. S. Chung, “Growth and characterization of single-crystal GaN nanorods by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 2193 (2001).
  9. J. Sanchez-Paramo, J. M. Calleja, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and U. Jahn, “Structural and optical characterization of intrinsic GaN nanocolumns,” Physica E13(2-4), 1070–1073 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Bardoux, M. Funato, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Complex strain distribution in individual facetted InGaN/GaN nano-columnar heterostructures,” Opt. Mater. Express3(1), 47–53 (2013). [CrossRef]
  11. I.-W. Feng, J. Li, J. Lin, H. Jiang, and J. Zavada, “Effects of growth pressure on erbium doped GaN infrared emitters synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Opt. Mater. Express2(8), 1095–1100 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Hite, M. Twigg, M. Mastro, J. Freitas, J. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, S. O’Connor, N. Condon, F. Kub, S. Bowman, and C. Eddy, “Development of periodically oriented gallium nitride for non-linear optics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express2(9), 1203–1208 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. K. Oikawa, C. Feldmeier, U. T. Schwarz, Y. Kawakami, and R. Micheletto, “Real-time near-field evidence of optical blinking in the photoluminescence of InGaN by scanning near-field optical microscope,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 158–163 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Inoue, T. Hoshino, S. Takeda, K. Ishino, A. Ishida, H. Fujiyasu, H. Kominami, H. Mimura, Y. Nakanishi, and S. Sakakibara, “Strong luminescence from dislocation-free GaN nanopillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2340 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE6129, 612905, 612905-8 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. K. L. Averett, J. E. Van Nostrand, J. D. Albrecht, Y. S. Chen, and C. C. Yang, “Epitaxial overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(3), 964–968 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Kikuchi, M. Kawai, M. Tada, and K. Kishino, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum disk nanocolumn light-emitting diodes grown on (111) si substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 12A), L1524–L1526 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. K. Kusakabe, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Characterization of Overgrown GaN Layers on Nano-Columns Grown by RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Vol.40(Part 2, No. 3A), L192–L194 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, T. Malinauskas, and K. Jarasiunas, “Carrier dynamics in coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns,” Thin Solid Films519(2), 863–867 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(17), 171111 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(25), 251112 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Y. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. D. Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 061111 (2012).
  24. G. Liu, J. Zhang, X. H. Li, G. S. Huang, T. Paskova, K. R. Evans, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy and characterizations of nearly-lattice-matched AlInN alloys on GaN/sapphire templates and free-standing GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth340(1), 66–73 (2012). [CrossRef]
  25. R. B. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and ipurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth324(1), 163–167 (2011). [CrossRef]
  26. B. Heying, I. Smorchkova, C. Poblenz, C. Elsass, P. Fini, S. DenBaars, U. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Optimization of the surface morphologies and electron mobilities in GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(18), 2885 (2000). [CrossRef]
  27. L. W. Tu, C. L. Hsiao, T. W. Chi, I. Lo, and K. Y. Hsieh, “Self-assembled vertical GaN nanorods grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(10), 1601 (2003). [CrossRef]
  28. C. Wetzel, S. Fischer, J. Kruger, E. E. Haller, R. J. Molnar, T. D. Moustakas, E. N. Mokhov, and P. G. Baranov, “Strongly localized excitons in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(18), 2556 (1996). [CrossRef]
  29. C. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, H. V. Han, C. Y. Liu, Y. H. Chen, Y. P. Lan, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “High efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded air voids/SiO2 nanomasks,” Nanotechnology23(4), 045303 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. T. Matsumoto and M. Aoki, “Temperature Dependence of Photoluminescence from GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.13(11), 1804–1807 (1974). [CrossRef]
  31. F. Calley, F. J. Sanchez, J. M. G. Tijeroz, M. A. Sanchez-Garcia, E. Calleja, and R. Beresfordx, “Exciton and donor–acceptor recombination in undoped GaN on Si(111),” Semicond. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1396–1403 (1997). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, G. Bruederl, J. Wagner, M. Strassburg, E. Baur, H. Braun, U. T. Schwarz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, N. Linder, R. Oberschmid, and B. Hahn, “Measurement of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN quantum wells,” SPIE Vol. 6486 (2007).
  33. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1066–1072 (2009). [CrossRef]
  34. Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the excitation power dependent internal quantum efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1137–1143 (2009). [CrossRef]
  35. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. E. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth312(8), 1311–1315 (2010). [CrossRef]
  36. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 151102 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited