OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 9 — Sep. 1, 2013
  • pp: 1523–1536

Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared

Gunther Roelkens, Utsav Dave, Alban Gassenq, Nannicha Hattasan, Chen Hu, Bart Kuyken, Francois Leo, Aditya Malik, Muhammad Muneeb, Eva Ryckeboer, Sarah Uvin, Zeger Hens, Roel Baets, Yosuke Shimura, Federica Gencarelli, Benjamin Vincent, Roger Loo, Joris Van Campenhout, Laurent Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, Eric Tournié, Xia Chen, Milos Nedeljkovic, Goran Mashanovich, Li Shen, Noel Healy, Anna C. Peacock, Xiaoping Liu, Richard Osgood, and William Green  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 9, pp. 1523-1536 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.3.001523


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2383 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In this paper we present our recent work on mid-infrared photonic integrated circuits for spectroscopic sensing applications. We discuss the use of silicon-based photonic integrated circuits for this purpose and detail how a variety of optical functions in the mid-infrared besides passive waveguiding and filtering can be realized, either relying on nonlinear optics or on the integration of other materials such as GaSb-based compound semiconductors, GeSn epitaxy and PbS colloidal nanoparticles.

© 2013 OSA

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics

ToC Category:
Materials for Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 17, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 6, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 7, 2013
Published: August 28, 2013

Virtual Issues
Mid-IR Photonic Materials (2013) Optical Materials Express

Citation
Gunther Roelkens, Utsav Dave, Alban Gassenq, Nannicha Hattasan, Chen Hu, Bart Kuyken, Francois Leo, Aditya Malik, Muhammad Muneeb, Eva Ryckeboer, Sarah Uvin, Zeger Hens, Roel Baets, Yosuke Shimura, Federica Gencarelli, Benjamin Vincent, Roger Loo, Joris Van Campenhout, Laurent Cerutti, Jean-Baptiste Rodriguez, Eric Tournié, Xia Chen, Milos Nedeljkovic, Goran Mashanovich, Li Shen, Noel Healy, Anna C. Peacock, Xiaoping Liu, Richard Osgood, and William Green, "Silicon-based heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared," Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1523-1536 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-9-1523


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. Y. Vlasov, “Silicon integrated nanophotonics: road from scientific explorations to practical applications,” plenary talk CLEO, United States, 2012.
  2. K. De Vos, J. Molera, T. Claes, Y. De Koninck, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Multiplexed antibody detection with an array of silicon-on-insulator microring resonators,” IEEE Photonics Journal1(4), 225–235 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Li and R. Baets, “Homodyne laser Doppler vibrometer on silicon-on-insulator with integrated 90 degree optical hybrids,” Opt. Express21(11), 13342–13350 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. G. Crowder, S. D. Smith, A. Vass, and J. Keddie, “Infrared methods for gas detection,” in Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
  5. H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, S. Kozacik, M. Murakowski, D. Prather, P. T. Lin, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Hu, “Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators,” Opt. Lett.38(9), 1470–1472 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Shankar, I. Bulu, and M. Loncar, “Integrated high-quality factor silicon-on-sapphire ring resonators for the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(5), 051108 (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express18(12), 12127–12135 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(12), 121104 (2013). [CrossRef]
  9. P. T. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(25), 251121 (2013). [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal4(5), 1510–1519 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express19(8), 7112–7119 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. T. Lin, V. Singh, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Air-clad silicon pedestal structures for broadband mid-infrared microphotonics,” Opt. Lett.38(7), 1031–1033 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J. M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2883–2885 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 495–497 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. N. Hattasan, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, E. Ryckeboer, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency SOI fiber-to-chip grating couplers and low-loss waveguides for the short-wave infrared,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(17), 1536–1538 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. F. Leo, B. Kuyken, N. Hattasan, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Passive SOI devices for the short-wave infrared,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO 2012), 156–158, Spain (2012)
  17. E. Ryckeboer, A. Gassenq, M. Muneeb, N. Hattasan, S. Pathak, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Silicon-on-insulator spectrometers with integrated GaInAsSb photodiodes for wide-band spectroscopy from 1510 to 2300 nm,” Opt. Express21(5), 6101–6108 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. Roelkens, “Demonstration of Silicon-on-insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8 μm,” Opt. Express21(10), 11659–11669 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens,” Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” accepted for publication in IEEE Photonics Conference (2013).
  20. L. Zhang, Q. Lin, Y. Yue, Y. Yan, R. Beausoleil, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, J. Michel, and A. Willner, “On-chip octave-spanning supercontinuum in nanostructured silicon waveguides using ultralow pulse energy,” Journal of Sel. Topics in Quantum Electronics18(6), 1799–1806 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear Fiber Optics,” 195–211 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006).
  22. B. Kuyken, X. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “50 dB parametric on-chip gain in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Lett.36(22), 4401–4403 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express19(21), 20172–20181 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “A silicon-based widely tunable short-wave infrared optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Express21(5), 5931–5940 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Liu, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “Bridging the mid-infrared-to-telecom gap with silicon nanophotonic spectral translation,” Nat. Photonics6(10), 667–671 (2012). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Lamont, R. Lau, A. Griffith, Y. Wen, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. Gaeta, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides,” CLEO, CW3H.1, United States (2013).
  27. B. Kuyken, P. Verheyen, P. Tannouri, J. Van Campenhout, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, Mid-infrared generation by frequency down-conversion across 1.2 octaves in a normally-dispersive silicon wire,” CLEO, CTh1F.2, United States, 2013.
  28. B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, Ph. Emplit, S. Massar, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “On-chip parametric amplification with 26.5 dB gain at telecommunication wavelengths using CMOS-compatible hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 552–554 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, “Reversible conductivity changes in discharge-produced amorphous Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.31(4), 292–295 (1977). [CrossRef]
  30. S. Uvin, U. Dave, B. Kuyken, S. Selvaraja, F. Leo, and G. Roelkens, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band stable supercontinuum generation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon waveguides,” accepted for publication in IEEE Photonics Conference, United States, 2013.
  31. K. Wang, M. Foster, and A. Foster, “Wavelength-agile near-infrared chip-based optical parametric oscillator using a deposited silicon waveguide,” CLEO, CTh5D, United States, 2013.
  32. N. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and SiGe in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 011301 (2011). [CrossRef]
  33. D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express15(7), 3916–3921 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express17(8), 6252–6257 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express18(19), 19957–19965 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. R. Roucka, J. Xie, J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, V. D’Costa, J. Menendez, J. Tolle, and S. Qu, “GeSn photoconductor structures at 1.55 um: from advanced materials to prototype devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol.26(6), 1952–1955 (2008). [CrossRef]
  38. S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express19(7), 6400–6405 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express20(25), 27297–27303 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, ”III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser & Photonics Reviews (2010) [CrossRef]
  41. N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, and G. Roelkens, “Heterogeneous integration of GaInAsSb p-i-n photodiodes on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(23), 1760–1762 (2011). [CrossRef]
  42. A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournié, G. Roelkens, and G. Roelkens, “Study of evanescently-coupled and grating-assisted GaInAsSb photodiodes integrated on a silicon photonic chip,” Opt. Express20(11), 11665–11672 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, and E. Tournie, “GaSb-based laser, monolithically grown on silicon substrate, emitting at 1.55um at room temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(8), 553–555 (2010). [CrossRef]
  44. J. B. Rodriguez, L. Cerutti, P. Grech, and E. Tournié, “Room-temperature operation of a 2.25μm electrically pumped laser fabricated on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 061124 (2009). [CrossRef]
  45. C. Tsay, F. Toor, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Chalcogenide glass waveguides integrated with quantum cascade lasers for on-chip mid-IR photonic circuits,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3324–3326 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. J. Wang, T. Zens, J. Hu, P. Becla, L. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Monolithically integrated, resonant-cavity-enhanced dual-band mid-infrared photodetector on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(21), 211106 (2012). [CrossRef]
  47. T. Zens, P. Becla, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and A. Drehman, “Long wavelength infrared detection using amorphous InSb and InAsSb,” J. Cryst. Growth334, 84–89 (2011).
  48. Y. Zhang, T. Liu, B. Meng, X. Li, G. Liang, X. Hu, and Q. J. Wang, “Broadband high photoresponse from pure monolayer graphene photodetector,” Nat. Communications (2013) [CrossRef]
  49. C. Hu, A. Gassenq, Y. Justo, Z. Hens, and G. Roelkens, Colloidal quantum dot photodetectors on silicon for short-wave infrared applications,” E-MRS 2013 Spring Meeting, France (2013).
  50. I. Moreels, K. Lambert, D. Smeets, D. De Muynck, T. Nollet, J. C. Martins, F. Vanhaecke, A. Vantomme, C. Delerue, G. Allan, and Z. Hens, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum Dots,” ACS Nano3(10), 3023–3030 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. A. Nag, M. V. Kovalenko, J. S. Lee, W. Liu, B. Spokoyny, and D. V. Talapin, “Metal-free inorganic ligands for colloidal nanocrystals: S2-, HS-, Se2-, HSe-, Te2-, HTe-, TeS32-, OH-, and NH2- as surface ligands,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(27), 10612–10620 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. S. Keuleyan, E. Lhuillier, V. Brajuskovic, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Mid-infrared HgTe colloidal quantum dot photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics5(8), 489–493 (2011). [CrossRef]
  53. N. MacSuibhne, Z. Li, B. Baeuerle, J. Zhao, J. Wooler, S. Alam, F. Poletti, M. Petrovich, A. Heidt, I. Giles, D. Giles, B. Palsdottir, J. Gruner-Nielsen, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, D. Murphy, A. Ellis, D. Richardson, and F. Garcia Gunning, “Wavelength division multiplexing at 2μm,” European Conference on Optical Communication, PDP Th3A3 (2012)

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited