OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2014
  • pp: 179–189

Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Zirconium-doped congruent lithium–niobate crystals

Mustapha Abarkan, Michel Aillerie, Ninel Kokanyan, Clément Teyssandier, and Edvard Kokanyan  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 179-189 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1233 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Measurements of electro-optic and dielectric properties in Zirconium (Zr)- doped lithium niobate (LN:Zr) crystals are performed as functions of the dopant concentration in the range 0.0-2.5 mol%. The clamped and unclamped electro-optic coefficients r222 of Zr-doped LN and the corresponding dielectric permittivity as well, have been experimentally determined and compared with the results obtained in undoped congruent LN crystals. We show that the electro-optic and dielectric properties present a kink around 2 mol% of zirconium which seems to be the “threshold” concentration required to strongly reduce the photorefractive effect. All reported results confirm that the LN:Zr is a very promising candidate for several non linear devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(120.5060) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase modulation
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate

ToC Category:
Electro-optical Materials

Original Manuscript: November 5, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 9, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 10, 2013
Published: January 2, 2014

Mustapha Abarkan, Michel Aillerie, Ninel Kokanyan, Clément Teyssandier, and Edvard Kokanyan, "Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Zirconium-doped congruent lithium–niobate crystals," Opt. Mater. Express 4, 179-189 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. F. McCannt, J. Pezytg, and P. Wilsen, “A versatile electronic light shutter composed of a high speed switching circuit coupled with a lithium niobate Pockels cell,” J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum.15(3), 322–324 (1982). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Zhang, Q. Wang, X. Xu, C. Dong, X. Zhang, and P. Li, “Diode-laser pumped passively Q-switched green laser by intracavity frequency-doubling with periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Laser Technol.35(3), 233–235 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. E. Krätzig and O. F. Schirmer, “Photorefractive centers in electro-optic crystals,” in Photorefractive Materials and their Applications I, P. Günter and J. P. Huignard, eds. (Springer, 1988), pp. 131-167.
  4. G. P. Banfi, P. K. Datta, V. Degiorgio, and D. Fortusini, “Wavelength shifting and amplification of optical pulses through cascaded second-order processes in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(2), 136–138 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, in Lithium Niobate: Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching (Springer-Verlag, 2008).
  6. D. Eimerl, S. Velsko, L. Davis, and F. Wang, “Progress in nonlinear optical materials for high power lasers,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater.20(1–2), 59–113 (1990). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Polgár, L. Kovács, I. Földvári, and I. Cravero, “Spectroscopic and electrical conductivity investigation of Mg doped LiNbO3 single crystals,” Solid State Commun.59(6), 375–379 (1986). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Zhong, J. Jin, and Z. Wu, in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference IQEC ’80 (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.
  9. T. R. Volk, N. M. Rubinina, and M. Woehlecke, “Optical-damage-resistant impurities in lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B11(9), 1681–1687 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, K. Kitamura, Y. Yajima, and M. Minakata, “Optical damage resistance and crystal quality of LiNbO3 single crystals with various [Li]/[Nb] ratios,” J. Appl. Phys.72(8), 3250 (1992). [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Bryan, R. Gerson, and H. E. Tomaschke, “Increased optical damage resistance in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.44(9), 847–849 (1984). [CrossRef]
  12. T. R. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical-damage-resistant LiNbO(3):Zn crystal,” Opt. Lett.15(18), 996–998 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, “Reduced photorefraction in hafnium-doped single-domain and periodically poled lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(11), 1880–1882 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photrefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(13), 131914 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter18(13), 3527–3534 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B92(4), 603–608 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.101(11), 116105 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Express15(21), 14171–14176 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. P. Kokanyan, “‘Hafnium-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystals: Growth and photorefractive propertie,” Ferroelectrics341(1), 119–124 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. A. M. Petrosyan, R. K. Hovsepyan, E. P. Kokanyan, and R. S. Feigelson, “Growth and evaluation of lithium niobate crystals containing nonphotorefractive dopants,” Proc. SPIE4060, 106–113 (2000).
  21. Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081908 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Liu, Q. Liang, M. Zhu, W. Li, S. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “An excellent crystal for high resistance against optical damage in visible-UV range: near-stoichiometric zirconium-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Express19(3), 1743–1748 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093508 (2010). [CrossRef]
  24. L. Kovács, G. Ruschhaupt, K. Polgar, G. Corradi, and M. Wohlecke, “Composition dependence of the ultraviolet absorption edge in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(21), 2801–2803 (1997). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Aillerie, N. Theofanous, and M. D. Fontana, “Measurement of the electro-optic coefficients: description and comparison of the experimental techniques,” Appl. Phys. B70(3), 317–334 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Abarkan, J. P. Salvestrini, M. Aillerie, and M. D. Fontana, “Frequency and wavelength dependences of electro-optic coefficients in inorganic crystals,” Appl. Opt.42, 2346–2353 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Nava, P. Minzioni, W. Yan, J. Parravicini, D. Grando, E. Musso, I. Cristiani, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, A. Zaltron, C. Sada, and V. Degiorgio, “Zirconium-doped lithium niobate: photorefractive and electro-optical properties as a function of dopant concentration,” Opt. Mater. Express1(2), 270–277 (2011). [CrossRef]
  28. F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinia, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B68(5), 795–799 (1999). [CrossRef]
  29. B. C. Grabmaier and F. Otto, “Growth and investigation in MgO-doped LiNbO3,” J. Cryst. Growth79(1-3), 682–688 (1986). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, B. Wyncke, and F. Brehat, “Comparative measurements of the frequency dependence of the electrooptical and dielectric coefficient in inorganic crystals,” Nonlinear Optics17, 271 (1997).
  31. I. P. Kaminow, An Introduction to Electro-Optic Devices (Academic Press, 1974).
  32. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford Univ. Press, 1957).
  33. M. Jazbinšek and M. Zgonik, “Material tensor parameters of LiNbO3 relevant for electro- and elasto-optics,” Appl. Phys. B74(4-5), 407–414 (2002). [CrossRef]
  34. A. W. Warner, M. Onoe, and G. A. Coquin, “Determination of elastic and piezoelectric constants for crystals in class (3m),” J. Acoust. Soc. Am.46(6), 1223–1231 (1966).
  35. R. W. Dixon and M. G. Cohen, “A new technique for measuring magnitudes of photoelastic tensors and its application to lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.8(8), 205–207 (1966). [CrossRef]
  36. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, (John Wiley, 1984).
  37. J. P. Salvestrini, M. Abarkan, and M. D. Fontana, “Comparative study of nonlinear optical crystals for electro-optic Q-switching of laser resonators,” Opt. Mater.26(4), 449–458 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited