OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2014
  • pp: 321–328

Transparent gold nano-membranes for the enhanced light trapping of the indium tin oxide films

Shouyi Xie, Yi Chen, Zi Ouyang, Baohua Jia, Wenlong Cheng, and Min Gu  »View Author Affiliations

Optical Materials Express, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp. 321-328 (2014)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1737 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A facile and scalable method for enhancing the light trapping effect of indium tin oxide films on photovoltaic devices is demonstrated. The Langmiur Blodgett technique is introduced to fabricate gold nano-membranes on the photovoltaic solar cells. Textured structures on the indium tin oxide films are created with the nano-membrane, producing effective surface roughness for significantly improved light trapping. As a result, the quantum efficiency of the solar cell integrated with the nano-membrane textured indium tin oxide film is enhanced over a broadband wavelength range, which leads to a 13% enhancement on the photocurrent density and an 8% efficiency enhancement.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.5350) Detectors : Photovoltaic
(310.1210) Thin films : Antireflection coatings
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures
(310.7005) Thin films : Transparent conductive coatings

ToC Category:
Transparent Conductive Coatings

Original Manuscript: September 30, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 2, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 13, 2014
Published: January 17, 2014

Shouyi Xie, Yi Chen, Zi Ouyang, Baohua Jia, Wenlong Cheng, and Min Gu, "Transparent gold nano-membranes for the enhanced light trapping of the indium tin oxide films," Opt. Mater. Express 4, 321-328 (2014)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. Maruyama, A. Terakawa, M. Taguchi, Y. Yukihiro, D. Ide, B. Toshiaki, M. Shima, H. Sakata, and M. Tanaka, “Sanyo's challenges to the development of high-efficiency HIT solar cells and the expansion of HIT business,” in Record of IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Waikoloa Village, 2006), pp. 1455–1460. [CrossRef]
  2. C. Koch, M. Ito, and M. Schubert, “Low-temperature deposition of amorphous silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells68(2), 227–236 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. C. W. Tang, “Two-layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.48(2), 183–185 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Nakada, Y. Hirabayashi, T. Tokado, D. Ohmori, and T. Mise, “Novel device structure for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells using transparent conducting oxide back and front contacts,” Sol. Energy77(6), 739–747 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. G. Khrypunov, A. Romeo, F. Kurdesau, D. L. Bätzner, H. Zogg, and A. N. Tiwari, “Recent developments in evaporated CdTe solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells90(6), 664–677 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells enabled by nucleated silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2187–2192 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. M. Kroon, N. J. Bakker, H. J. P. Smit, P. Liska, K. R. Thampi, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, A. Hinsch, S. Hore, U. Würfel, R. Sastrawan, J. R. Durrant, E. Palomares, H. Pettersson, T. Gruszecki, J. Walter, K. Skupien, and G. E. Tulloch, “Nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells having maximum performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.15(1), 1–18 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. W. C. Tien and A. K. Chu, “Double-layer ITO antireflection electrodes fabricated at low temperature,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells100(0), 258–262 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Scherff, “Novel methode for preparation of interdigitated back contacted a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells,” in Proceedings of 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (Hamburg, 2011), pp. 2125 - 2129.
  10. J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy77(6), 917–930 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. J. W. Leem and J. S. Yu, “Indium tin oxide subwavelength nanostructures with surface antireflection and superhydrophilicity for high-efficiency Si-based thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express20( S3), A431–A440 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. C. Luk, K. M. Yeung, K. C. Tam, K. L. Ng, K. C. Kwok, C. Y. Kwong, A. M. C. Ng, and A. B. Djurišić, “Enhanced conversion efficiency of polymeric photovoltaic cell by nanostructured antireflection coating,” Org. Electron.12(4), 557–561 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Zhang, J. Li, T. Wei, J. Liu, X. Yi, G. Wang, and F. Yi, “Enhancement in the light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nanotextured indium tin oxide layer using self-assembled cesium chloride nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.51(2R), 020204 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. R. H. Horng, C. C. Yang, J. Y. Wu, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide texturing window layers using natural lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(22), 221101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. S. H. Kim, T. K. Kim, S. S. Yang, J. K. Son, K. H. Lee, Y. G. Hong, S. J. Bae, K. H. Shim, J. W. Yang, and G. M. Yang, “Al2O3 powder coating and surface texturing for high efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(9), 092101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. S.-M. Pan, T. Ru-Chin, Y.-M. Fan, Y. Ruey-Chyn, and J.-T. Hsu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes with surface-textured indium-tin-oxide transparent ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L.15(5), 649–651 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. X. J. Cao, S. J. Pearton, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, R. J. Shul, L. Zhang, R. Hickman, and J. M. V. Hove, “Electrical effects of plasma damage in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(17), 2569–2571 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. J. H. Kang, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, H. Y. Kim, J. H. Ryu, P. Uthirakumar, N. Han, and C.-H. Hong, “Improvement of light output power in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a nanotextured GaN surface using indium tin oxide nanospheres,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(10), 102104 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Uthirakumar, J. H. Kang, B. D. Ryu, H. G. Kim, H. K. Kim, and C.-H. Hong, “Nanoscale ITO/ZnO layer-texturing for high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv.166(3), 230–234 (2010).
  20. D.-S. Leem, T. Lee, and T.-Y. Seong, “Enhancement of the light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface-patterned ITO electrodes by maskless wet-etching,” Solid-State Electron.51(5), 793–796 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. D.-S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T.-Y. Seong, “Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes,” J. Appl. Phys.98(7), 076107 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. C. Battaglia, J. Escarre, K. Soderstrom, M. Charriere, M. Despeisse, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “Nanomoulding of transparent zinc oxide electrodes for efficient light trapping in solar cells,” Nat. Photonics5(9), 535–538 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Meier, U. W. Paetzold, M. Prömpers, T. Merdzhanova, R. Carius, and A. Gordijn, “UV nanoimprint for the replication of etched ZnO:Al textures applied in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).
  24. Y. Chen, Z. Ouyang, M. Gu, and W. Cheng, “Mechanically strong, optically transparent, giant metal superlattice nanomembranes from ultrathin gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater.25(1), 80–85 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Z. O. Than, M. Nripan, X. Guichuan, W. Bo, X. Bengang, H. W. Lydia, S. Tze Chien, and G. M. Subodh, “Ultrafine gold nanowire networks as plasmonic antennae in organic photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 6453–6458 (2012).
  26. M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. J. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 235–248 (2012).
  27. D. Z. Dimitrov and C.-H. Du, “Crystalline silicon solar cells with micro/nano texture,” Appl. Surf. Sci.266, 1–4 (2013). [CrossRef]
  28. X. Chen, B. Jia, Y. Zhang, and M. Gu, “Exceeding the limit of plasmonic light trapping in textured screen-printed solar cells using Al nanoparticles and wrinkle-like graphene sheets,” Light Sci. Appl.2(8), e92 (2013). [CrossRef]
  29. S. Xie, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Opt. Express21(S3Suppl 3), A355–A362 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Zhang, Z. Ouyang, N. Stokes, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Low cost and high performance Al nanoparticles for broadband light trapping in Si wafer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 151101 (2012). [CrossRef]
  31. B. Jia, X. Chen, J. K. Saha, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Concept to devices: from plasmonic light trapping to upscaled plasmonic solar modules,” Photon. Res.1(1), 22–27 (2013). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited