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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 1 — May. 1, 2011
  • pp: 121–127
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Non-monotonous refractive index changes recorded in a phosphate glass optical fibre using 248nm, 500fs laser radiation

Michele Sozzi, Aashia Rahman, and Stavros Pissadakis  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 121-127 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.000121


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Abstract

Results are presented on the photosensitivity behavior of a phosphate glass optical fibre using 248nm, 500fs laser radiation. Bragg grating exposures performed using a double phase mask interferometer and peak intensities of 0.37TW/cm2, revealed that grating growth becomes non-monotonic in terms of average and modulated refractive index changes, resembling the Type IIA photosensitivity behavior. Average refractive index changes greater than 10−3 were measured after accumulated energy density doses of 6.5KJ/cm2. The Bragg gratings inscribed maintained significant part of their strength up to 377°C. Exposed and side-polished fibre samples were subjected to Knoop micro-hardness measurements for revealing that the irradiated glass undergoes significant volume dilation.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

In the past, transient and low strength gratings have been recorded in phosphosilicate glass fibres using nanosecond 193nm and 240nm laser radiation [8

8. J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, H. G. Inglis, and P. Hill, “Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibers produced by the flash condensation technique,” Opt. Lett. 20(21), 2189–2191 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However recently, strong Bragg gratings were inscribed in a rare-earth doped all-phosphate glass optical fibre, using standard phase mask approach and 193nm excimer laser radiation, by Albert, et al [9

9. J. Albert, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in phosphate glass single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The Type I refractive index changes presented in [9

9. J. Albert, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in phosphate glass single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]

] are of the order of 4x10−4, while the inscribed gratings exhibited interesting thermal regeneration characteristics at relatively low annealing temperatures. Grobnic, et al, have inscribed refractive index changes greater than 1.5x10−3 in a similar phosphate glass fibre [10

10. D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, C. Lafond, and A. Croteau, “Bragg gratings made with a femtosecond laser in heavily doped Er–Yb phosphate glass fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 943–945 (2007). [CrossRef]

]; while Bernier, et al, have recorded negative refractive index changes in ZBLAN glass fibres [11

11. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 454–456 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], both of them using 800nm femtosecond radiation.

Herein, we present results on the photosensitivity and Bragg grating recording behavior of an all-phosphate glass rare earth doped optical fibre, utilizing 248nm, 500fs laser radiation. In the grating inscription results presented, non-monotonic refractive index changes are observed versus accumulated energy density dose. This specific behavior resembles that of the Type IIA (belonging to the greater family of Type In grating types [12

12. J. Canning, “Fibre gratings and devices for sensors and lasers,” Lasers Photonics Rev. 4(2), 275–289 (2008). [CrossRef]

]) photosensitivity mechanism that usually occurs during grating recording in high-Ge doped silicate glass optical fibres using deep ultraviolet laser sources; however, it has never been observed before in grating recording in soft glasses [11

11. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 454–456 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], including phosphate glass fibres. The results presented refer to average and modulated refractive index changes, accompanied by a specific thermal study of the inscribed gratings. Moreover, the origin of the non-monotonic refractive index changes inscribed is further investigated utilizing Knoop hardness (HK) micro-indentation measurements, performed in irradiated fibre samples.

2. Experimental

The Bragg grating inscription was performed using a 248nm KrF excimer-dye laser system, Lambda Physik EMG 150MSC, with 500-fs pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The experimental set-up used for grating recording was a double phase mask interferometer, described in detail elsewhere [13

13. M. Livitziis and S. Pissadakis, “Bragg grating recording in low-defect optical fibers using ultraviolet femtosecond radiation and a double-phase mask interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1449–1451 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The first phase mask used had a period of 1084 nm, while the second had a period of 535 nm, and they are both made from fused silica and being optimized for 248nm wavelength operation. The resulting grating period recorded in the fibres exposed was 528.1nm. Before the two phase gratings interferometer, a 0.4cm long x 1cm wide rectangular, metallic aperture was used for selecting the most uniform part of the beam, while a 6cm focal length CaF2 cylindrical lens that was placed after, was used for focusing this beam along the longitudinal axis of the fiber. The distance between the second phase mask and the fiber was 2.5cm [13

13. M. Livitziis and S. Pissadakis, “Bragg grating recording in low-defect optical fibers using ultraviolet femtosecond radiation and a double-phase mask interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1449–1451 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The grating transmission was monitored online using a broadband superluminescent source and an optical spectrum analyzer.

A phosphate glass single clad, Er/Yb codoped phosphate glass optical fiber, manufactured by INO, was used for the grating inscription. The concentration of the rare earth dopants in the fiber are 0.90wt% for Er, and 7.0wt% for Yb. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements of the fibre glass showed that both core and cladding areas exhibit a similar stoichiometric composition, as well as, revealed the existence of Al and Ba ion modifiers in those. These two ion modifiers were traced at higher concentrations in the fiber core area. A short length of ~10cm of the Er/Yb codoped phosphate fibre was spliced at both ends to SMF28 telecom fiber, using a standard arc fusion splicer. The splicing process resulted in an additional transmission loss of 15dB per splice, as that was measured at the wavelength of 1580nm, and the generation of a smooth and long range Fabry-Perot spectral ripple of 4dB extinction ratio.

For performing Knoop hardness measurements, the phosphate glass optical fibres were exposed using an un-modulated beam, embedded in a hard resin, and then they were side polished to optical quality until the centre of the fibre core was revealed. Knoop hardness measurements were performed using a Matsuzawa, MXT70, digital indentation microscope, and by applying a 100gf load for 20s indentation time. Under these micro-indentation conditions the HK of the pristine glass was measured to be ≈292, for ten imprinting samples.

3. Results and discussion

An annealing study was performed six months after the inscription, while the 93mJ/cm2 grating was kept at room temperature and low humidity conditions. Comparative spectral measurements show that the grating remained spectrally stable after this prolonged storage period. Then, the grating inscribed was placed into a copper capsule resting onto a hot plate and was isothermally annealed up to 377°C, at increasing steps of 30min duration. Grating decay results are presented in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Isochronal annealing results for Bragg gratings recorded in the phosphate glass fibre, using 248-nm, 500fs laser radiation. Red circles: 93mJ/cm2 energy density, 6.5kJ/cm2 accumulated energy dose. Blue triangles: 78mJ/cm2 energy density, 3.6kJ/cm2 accumulated energy dose.
. The annealing process was interrupted at 310°C, letting the grating cool down to room temperature and measuring its relaxed spectral characteristics. Accordingly, the grating was then re-annealed to 377°C for a 30 min slot and then left to cool down at room temperature. The data of Fig. 3 show that the grating retains the 75% of its strength at the end of the annealing cycle at 377°C, thus, a significant part of the refractive index changes inscribed (see Table 1

Table 1. Summary of the Bragg Wavelength Shift and Erased Average Refractive Index for Different Annealing and Cooling Cycles of the Phosphate Glass Fibre Bragg Reflector for 93mJ/cm2 Energy Density Exposure

table-icon
View This Table
). The annealing data presented for the 93mJ/cm2 exposure, are rather similar to those obtained for Type IIA grating recordings, exhibiting a slow demarcation trend versus increased temperature, with a minor regeneration point at 100°C. For comparison, gratings recorded using ~25% lower energy densities, were erased faster at lower temperatures; however, they exhibited prominent regeneration effects at the aforementioned annealing vicinity of 100°C (see Fig. 3), similarly to the results presented by Albert, et al [15

15. R. Matei Rogojan, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photo-thermal gratings in Er3+/Yb3+-doped core phosphate glass single mode fibers,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper BTuC3.

]. This specific behavior may be associated with slow structural relaxation process of defects that are not transformed/exhausted during the Type I photosensitivity regime. Since in a saturated Type IIA grating these defect states are rather transformed/exhausted, such regeneration effects are expected to be of lower magnitude [15

15. R. Matei Rogojan, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photo-thermal gratings in Er3+/Yb3+-doped core phosphate glass single mode fibers,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper BTuC3.

].The non-monotonous index engineering data presented here come to augment studies previously presented on the photosensitivity of phosphate glasses [2

2. S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Ianoul, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photosensitivity and volume gratings in phosphate glasses for rare-earth-doped ion-exchanged optical waveguide lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2470–2478 (2006). [CrossRef]

,3

3. C. Pappas and S. Pissadakis, “Periodic nanostructuring of Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 phosphate glass by using ultraviolet laser-assisted selective chemical etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 114308 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. We have shown that an alumino-phosphate glass matrix undergoes substantial, non-monotonic Knoop hardness changes upon irradiation using 248nm [16

16. S. Pissadakis and I. Michelakaki, “Photosensitivity of the Er/Yb-codoped Schott IOG1 phosphate glass using 248nm, femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation,” Laser Chem. 2008, 868767 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and 193nm excimer lasers [7

7. I. Michelakaki and S. Pissadakis, “Atypical behaviour of the surface hardness and the elastic modulus of a phosphate glass matrix under 193 nm laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 453–456 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Similarly in this work, a pristine fibre sample was exposed to 186mJ/cm2 energy density 248nm, 500fs radiation, resembling the energy flux conditions occurring in the bright fringe of interference. We repeated such Knoop micro-hardness measurements here, however performed onto the exposed and side-polished, optical fibre core (see Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Knoop micro-hardness indentation measurements performed in the core of the exposed phosphate glass fibres, for different number of irradiation pulses, and 186mJ/cm2 energy density per pulse.
). The accumulated energy density figures employed in those fiber exposures for performing Knoop hardness indentations were determined after considering the modulated refractive index change data of Fig. 1. The targeted accumulated energy densities/number of pulses points refer to the initial stage of the exposure (where refractive index changes progress rapidly), the saturation plateau of the “Type I” regime, the turning point in grating strength, and finally, the saturation point of the “Type IIA” regime (see cross-points in Fig. 1).

As the data of Fig. 4 show, the Knoop hardness of the glass increases during the early stages of exposure, while after follows a clear declining trend towards lower values. The actual decrease of the Knoop hardness due to the irradiation processing is greater than 10%. That significant change of the Knoop hardness is associated with volume densification/or dilation effects [2

2. S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Ianoul, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photosensitivity and volume gratings in phosphate glasses for rare-earth-doped ion-exchanged optical waveguide lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2470–2478 (2006). [CrossRef]

,7

7. I. Michelakaki and S. Pissadakis, “Atypical behaviour of the surface hardness and the elastic modulus of a phosphate glass matrix under 193 nm laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 453–456 (2009). [CrossRef]

,16

16. S. Pissadakis and I. Michelakaki, “Photosensitivity of the Er/Yb-codoped Schott IOG1 phosphate glass using 248nm, femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation,” Laser Chem. 2008, 868767 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and corresponding changes to Young’s modulus of the material that are dependent upon irradiation conditions [7

7. I. Michelakaki and S. Pissadakis, “Atypical behaviour of the surface hardness and the elastic modulus of a phosphate glass matrix under 193 nm laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 453–456 (2009). [CrossRef]

,17

17. D. B. Marshall, T. Noma, and A. G. Evans, “A simple method for determining elastic-modulus-to-hardness ratios using knoop indentation technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 65(10), c175–c176 (1982). [CrossRef]

].The initial increase of the hardness (which is associated with positive refractive index changes) may be attributed to the dissociation of the O-P-O bond and its transformation to either a double P = O bond or an Al-O-P of higher energy and size. Also, P-O hole centers are expected to contribute to the positive refractive index changes saturated at the early stages of the irradiation [18

18. D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoridephosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264(1-2), 240–250 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Accordingly prolonged exposures using high intensity ultraviolet radiation, induce extended de-polymerisation of the phosphate glass matrix irrespectively of defect type while increasing glass randomness; facts which have been also verified using micro-Raman spectroscopy [2

2. S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Ianoul, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photosensitivity and volume gratings in phosphate glasses for rare-earth-doped ion-exchanged optical waveguide lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2470–2478 (2006). [CrossRef]

,7

7. I. Michelakaki and S. Pissadakis, “Atypical behaviour of the surface hardness and the elastic modulus of a phosphate glass matrix under 193 nm laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 453–456 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Volume dilation will progress faster at the later phase of the exposure after the P-O defect transformations have been saturated. This assertion appears taking place during grating inscription (see Fig. 1), where the modulated refractive index changes turning point occurs at an energy density close to that of the saturation of the grating.

After considering the refractive index change and Knoop hardness data presented above, a hypothesis can be made for the anomalous photosensitivity behavior of the phosphate glass fiber, under 248nm, 500fs irradiation. The density decrease of the exposed phosphate glass that was revealed using Knoop hardness measurements, takes place at the bright fringes of interference, while contributing a negative refractive index change component in the grating recording process. That glass softening effect occurs in an analogous extend along the whole transversal section of the phosphate glass fibre, since both the core and cladding are of quite similar stoichiometric composition, while being subjected to energy density doses of almost the same magnitude. Subsequently, the localized density decrease and volume dilation, can lead to compressive axial stress generation in the dark fringes of the exposure [19

19. N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “UV-irradiation induced stress and index changes during the growth of type-I and type-IIA fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 313–318 (2003). [CrossRef]

,20

20. R. Aashia, K. V. Madhav, U. Ramamurty, and S. Asokan, “Nanoindentation study on germania-doped silica glass preforms: evidence for the compaction-densification model of photosensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2414–2416 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. That compressive stress generation leads to positive refractive index changes. Together with the other positive refractive index change mechanism that of the glass hardening (see Fig. 4) and P-O hole centers, saturated at the initial phases of the ultraviolet radiation exposure, they can form an overall positive refractive index changes background. This non-saturated positive refractive index background can be associated with the non-zero turning point of the Δnmod refractive index change data [14

14. N. Groothoff and J. Canning, “Enhanced type IIA gratings for high-temperature operation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2360–2362 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as well as, with the overall positive, average refractive index changes, presented in Fig. 1. The positive refractive index change mechanisms are initiated and progress at different instances of the exposure; and in parallel with the underlying volume dilation, which dominates the later phase of the exposure and drives the non-monotonous refractive index engineering. The above photosensitivity hypothesis may be interpreted as the mirror counterpart of the Type IIA of the highly doped germanosilicate fibres, where the exposed regions undergo compaction and the induced stress effects are tensile [19

19. N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “UV-irradiation induced stress and index changes during the growth of type-I and type-IIA fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 313–318 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

4. Summary

Summarising, we report the observation of non-monotonic photosensitivity and refractive index engineering of a phosphate glass fibre during Bragg grating recording using a double phase mask interferometer and 248nm, 500fs laser radiation. The results obtained show a photosensitivity behavior with similar growth characteristics to the Type IIA observed for exposures in high-Ge doped silicate glass fibres. The results presented are discussed according to the volume dilation model that has been proposed before for phosphate glasses.

Acknowledgments

SP would like to thank C. Lafond and A. Croteau, from INO, for kindly providing the phosphate glass fibre, N. Chaniotakis (Department of Chemistry, Univ. of Crete) and M. Konstantaki and P. Childs (FORTH) for fruitful discussions. This work was partially supported by the European Union (EU) Project SP4-Capacities “IASIS” contr. numb. 232479. Experiments were carried out at the Ultraviolet Laser Facility, supported through the Research Infrastructures activity of FP6 (Laserlab-Europe; Contract No: RII3-CT-2003-506350).

References and links

1.

S. Pissadakis, A. Ikiades, P. Hua, A. Sheridan, and J. Wilkinson, “Photosensitivity of ion-exchanged Er-doped phosphate glass using 248nm excimer laser radiation,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3131–3136 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-14-3131. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Ianoul, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photosensitivity and volume gratings in phosphate glasses for rare-earth-doped ion-exchanged optical waveguide lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2470–2478 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

C. Pappas and S. Pissadakis, “Periodic nanostructuring of Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 phosphate glass by using ultraviolet laser-assisted selective chemical etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 114308 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35(12), 1007–1009 (1999). [CrossRef]

6.

J. E. Shelby, Introduction to Glass Science and Technology (RSC, 2004).

7.

I. Michelakaki and S. Pissadakis, “Atypical behaviour of the surface hardness and the elastic modulus of a phosphate glass matrix under 193 nm laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 453–456 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, H. G. Inglis, and P. Hill, “Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibers produced by the flash condensation technique,” Opt. Lett. 20(21), 2189–2191 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. Albert, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in phosphate glass single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, C. Lafond, and A. Croteau, “Bragg gratings made with a femtosecond laser in heavily doped Er–Yb phosphate glass fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 943–945 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 454–456 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. Canning, “Fibre gratings and devices for sensors and lasers,” Lasers Photonics Rev. 4(2), 275–289 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Livitziis and S. Pissadakis, “Bragg grating recording in low-defect optical fibers using ultraviolet femtosecond radiation and a double-phase mask interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1449–1451 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

N. Groothoff and J. Canning, “Enhanced type IIA gratings for high-temperature operation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2360–2362 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

R. Matei Rogojan, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photo-thermal gratings in Er3+/Yb3+-doped core phosphate glass single mode fibers,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper BTuC3.

16.

S. Pissadakis and I. Michelakaki, “Photosensitivity of the Er/Yb-codoped Schott IOG1 phosphate glass using 248nm, femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation,” Laser Chem. 2008, 868767 (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

D. B. Marshall, T. Noma, and A. G. Evans, “A simple method for determining elastic-modulus-to-hardness ratios using knoop indentation technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 65(10), c175–c176 (1982). [CrossRef]

18.

D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoridephosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264(1-2), 240–250 (2000). [CrossRef]

19.

N. H. Ky, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, F. Cochet, and L. Dong, “UV-irradiation induced stress and index changes during the growth of type-I and type-IIA fiber gratings,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 313–318 (2003). [CrossRef]

20.

R. Aashia, K. V. Madhav, U. Ramamurty, and S. Asokan, “Nanoindentation study on germania-doped silica glass preforms: evidence for the compaction-densification model of photosensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2414–2416 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2290) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber materials
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(060.3738) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber Bragg gratings, photosensitivity

ToC Category:
Materials for Fiber Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 3, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 23, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 29, 2011
Published: April 22, 2011

Citation
Michele Sozzi, Aashia Rahman, and Stavros Pissadakis, "Non-monotonous refractive index changes recorded in a phosphate glass optical fibre using 248nm, 500fs laser radiation," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 121-127 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-1-121


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References

  1. S. Pissadakis, A. Ikiades, P. Hua, A. Sheridan, and J. Wilkinson, “Photosensitivity of ion-exchanged Er-doped phosphate glass using 248nm excimer laser radiation,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3131–3136 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-14-3131 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Yliniemi, S. Honkanen, A. Ianoul, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photosensitivity and volume gratings in phosphate glasses for rare-earth-doped ion-exchanged optical waveguide lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2470–2478 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. C. Pappas and S. Pissadakis, “Periodic nanostructuring of Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 phosphate glass by using ultraviolet laser-assisted selective chemical etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 114308 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fibre amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35(12), 1007–1009 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. J. E. Shelby, Introduction to Glass Science and Technology (RSC, 2004).
  7. I. Michelakaki and S. Pissadakis, “Atypical behaviour of the surface hardness and the elastic modulus of a phosphate glass matrix under 193 nm laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 453–456 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, H. G. Inglis, and P. Hill, “Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibers produced by the flash condensation technique,” Opt. Lett. 20(21), 2189–2191 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Albert, A. Schülzgen, V. L. Temyanko, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Strong Bragg gratings in phosphate glass single mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101127 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, C. W. Smelser, C. Lafond, and A. Croteau, “Bragg gratings made with a femtosecond laser in heavily doped Er–Yb phosphate glass fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 943–945 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Bernier, D. Faucher, R. Vallée, A. Saliminia, G. Androz, Y. Sheng, and S. L. Chin, “Bragg gratings photoinduced in ZBLAN fibers by femtosecond pulses at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 454–456 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Canning, “Fibre gratings and devices for sensors and lasers,” Lasers Photonics Rev. 4(2), 275–289 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Livitziis and S. Pissadakis, “Bragg grating recording in low-defect optical fibers using ultraviolet femtosecond radiation and a double-phase mask interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1449–1451 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Groothoff and J. Canning, “Enhanced type IIA gratings for high-temperature operation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2360–2362 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Matei Rogojan, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Photo-thermal gratings in Er3+/Yb3+-doped core phosphate glass single mode fibers,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper BTuC3.
  16. S. Pissadakis and I. Michelakaki, “Photosensitivity of the Er/Yb-codoped Schott IOG1 phosphate glass using 248nm, femtosecond and picosecond laser radiation,” Laser Chem. 2008, 868767 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. D. B. Marshall, T. Noma, and A. G. Evans, “A simple method for determining elastic-modulus-to-hardness ratios using knoop indentation technique,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 65(10), c175–c176 (1982). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Ehrt, P. Ebeling, and U. Natura, “UV transmission and radiation-induced defects in phosphate and fluoridephosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264(1-2), 240–250 (2000). [CrossRef]
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