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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 1 — May. 1, 2011
  • pp: 67–77
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Poling of visible chromophores in millimeter-thick PMMA host

Robert C. Hoffman, Andrew G. Mott, Michael J. Ferry, Timothy M. Pritchett, William Shensky, III, Joshua A. Orlicki, George R. Martin, Joseph Dougherty, Julia L. Leadore, Adam M. Rawlett, and Dong Hun Park  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 67-77 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.000067


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Abstract

We report the direct high-voltage poling of the chromophores 4-methoxy-4’-nitrostilbene (MNS) and 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) in a 1.2 mm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) host. The DC fields used to pole the guest-host system varied in strength from 58 to 67 Vμm−1, and the presence of chromophore orientation in the poled samples was subsequently analyzed via Maker fringe analysis. We observed values of the SHG coefficient d33 of 0.7 to 1.75pm/V at 532nm.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Poled polymers have been proposed for use in a number of electro-optics applications, such as telecommunications switching devices and devices that both emit and detect terahertz (THz) radiation. During the poling process, the chromophores in a guest-host polymer system spontaneously align in a strong applied electric field. The poling process is usually carried out near the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer host, i.e., the point at which the polymer host softens, allowing chromophore rotation and alignment to occur. However, when cooled below Tg of the polymer host the aligned chromophores become locked in their new orientation within the polymer host. When poled in this way, guest-host polymers can exhibit many useful electro-optic properties. One application where a longer path length of poled guest-host polymer clearly results in enhanced performance of the electro-optic device is in THz signal generation and detection. Many researchers have demonstrated that a longer optical path length, which is available in bulk poled polymers, allows improved THz power, sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio in both THz generators and detectors [1

1. A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films,” Opt. Lett. 27(1), 55–57 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Large-area Pockels cells constructed from electro-optic guest-host polymers will find new uses in high-speed modulators and shutters. In addition, with greatly improved materials, bulk-poled guest-host polymers may ultimately replace inorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals in certain applications, such as second-harmonic generation (SHG), optical parametric amplification/generation (OPA/OPG) applications and frequency mixing. To this end, we report on the thickest known section of guest-host polymer poled by any technique. At 1.2 mm, this thickness is nearly an order of magnitude greater than the thickest samples poled for THz generation and detection.

An alternative approach to the high-voltage direct-poling technique described in this paper is optical poling [6

6. A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995). [CrossRef]

10

10. K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. This method has also been shown to accomplish spontaneous chromophore alignment in thick sections of a guest-host polymer. Rather than relying on a DC electric field as described in this work, optical poling relies on the large average electric field available in some CW lasers and in femtosecond pulses. Unfortunately, optical poling has only been demonstrated in chromophores that undergo an optically-induced cis-transisomerization such as Disperse Red 1 (DR1) and cannot be used for chromophores such as those described in this paper, or those used in poled guest-host polymers for THz generation and detection.

Faced with the limitations of optical poling and the difficulties of processing and stacking large numbers of extremely thin corona-poled films for bulk applications, we chose the more direct approach of high-voltage DC contact poling [11

11. R. C. Hoffman, T. M. Pritchett, J. A. Orlicki, J. M. Dougherty, R. H. Lambeth, A. M. Rawlett, W. N. Herman, and D. H. Park, “High-voltage poling of bulk guest-host polymers, chapter 7 in organic thin films for photonics applications,” (ACS Symposium Series, Washington DC 2010).

]. This method may, in principle, be employed to pole any polar chromophore in a guest-host system. Indeed, the current work demonstrates poling of chromophores in samples nearly twice as thick as those described in [11

11. R. C. Hoffman, T. M. Pritchett, J. A. Orlicki, J. M. Dougherty, R. H. Lambeth, A. M. Rawlett, W. N. Herman, and D. H. Park, “High-voltage poling of bulk guest-host polymers, chapter 7 in organic thin films for photonics applications,” (ACS Symposium Series, Washington DC 2010).

]. To be sure, the larger electrode separation distance in slabs exceeding 1 mm thickness necessitates the use of much higher poling voltages than in thin films. These high voltages are potentially lethal and require extreme caution together with the use of a high-voltage power supply with current overlimit protection.

We chose the chromophores used in this work both for their ready availability in quantity, either from commercial sources or via easy synthesis, as well as for their relative transparency in the visible region of the spectrum. The latter criterion reflects our interest in all-polymer electro-optic devices with visible-spectrum applications. In general, chromophores with a transmission window in the visible possess lower μβ values than those with a transmission window in the infrared, on poling yield polymers with lower bulk EO coefficients, and have been the subject of considerably less study.

2. Experimental

2.1 Chromophore and guest-host polymer sample preparation

The chromophores used in this study were 4-methoxy-4ˊ-nitrostilbene (MNS) and 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA), shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Chromophores used in poled guest-host system.
. The MNA was obtained from Sigma Aldrich and recrystallized from methanol prior to compounding. Pelletized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was produced by CYRO Industries (Acrylite H15) and distributed by AMCO Plastics. All other chemicals were obtained from Sigma Aldrich or Alfa Aesar and were used as received without further purification. MNS was synthesized according to procedures in references [12

12. C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995). [CrossRef]

,13

13. V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The production of guest-host polymer samples above 1 mm in thickness is greatly facilitated by a compounder and an injection molding machine; conventional thin-film polymer techniques such as spin casting or solution casting are not optimal. Spin casting can deposit homogeneous films but builds thickness relatively slowly; conventional casting techniques frequently resulted in films with aggregated chromophore as the solvent evaporated. To facilitate production of these samples, an approximately 1:1 mixture of PMMA and chromophore (wt/wt) was dissolved in a common solvent (acetone) and cast into an aluminum tray (45 mm diameter). As the solvent evaporated, tack-free films formed over a period of about 1 day at room temperature in a fume hood and were further dried in an oven at 60° C to drive off residual solvent. The films were broken into small pieces and fed into the compounder to achieve the desired chromophore content as described below.

The polymer samples were processed on a DSM Xplore 15 cc Micro-Compounder, consisting of a clamshell barrel with two conical screws and a 15 mL recirculation pathway to allow for extended processing intervals. The Xplore system is equipped with a pressure transducer which measures the downforce exerted by the polymer melt, roughly correlating with the viscosity of the melt. Sample plaques were prepared using a DSM Xplore 12 mL Injection Molding Machine, equipped with a mold yielding 2.5 cm squares, approximately 1.3 mm thick.

A representative procedure for the preparation of a compounded guest/host system isdescribed below. Beginning with a pre-heated (235° C) clean barrel and screws, a known quantity of virgin PMMA was used to purge the compounder and the recirculation pathway, removing any residual particulates or polymer from the cleaning process. The extrudate was recovered and weighed, yielding a measure of remaining polymer in the compounder (5.260g). The pre-mixed chromophore/polymer blend and virgin PMMA were charged into the compounder (1.554 g chromophore, 1.604 g PMMA from pre-mixed blend, and 6.623 g virgin PMMA) to provide approximately 15 g (15.041 g, 10.3% wt/wt chromophore) total material for processing, and screw rotation was maintained at 100 rpm. After the final addition of the chromophore and PMMA, the feed-port was closed and the polymer melt was compounded for 15 min and maintained under a gentle N2 purge at about 5 L/min. During this time, the barrel temperature was reduced from 235° C to 200° C because of plasticization of the PMMA by the chromophore. The viscosity of the melt dropped significantly after chromophore addition, and a drop in temperature was required to permit sufficient shearing of the melt to ensure homogenization of the blend. After processing for 15 min, the extrudate was collected in the heated transfer line/plunger assembly used by the DSM Xplore 12 mL injection molding system. The transfer line had been pre-heated to 230° C, and the extrudate was fed into the transfer line until the pressure transducer measured less than 600 N. The transfer line was then placed into the cradle for the injection molder and the polymer was injected into a room temperature mold using an 8 bar/10 bar injection pressure (8 bar initial impulse with 10 bar following to ensure full mold fill). Total injection cycle time for each sample was about 10 sec. The parts were removed from the mold immediately by applying pressure to the runner of the injected part, and no mold release was required. Individual plaques were removed from the injection tab and were then wrapped in aluminum foil to prevent damage to the surface of the plaque. A small sample was broken off from the injection runner to permit analysis by DSC for Tg determination. The Tg values were measured using a Perkin Elmer Q1000 DSC, with a 0° C - 150° C heat-cool-heat cycle, heating at 10° C/min heat and cooling at 20° C/min. The transition temperature is reported as the inflection point of the transition taken from the second heat cycle. Measured values of Tg were 75.3° C, 83.0° C, and 76.9° C for the 10% MNA, 10% MNS, and 15% MNS, respectively.

2.2 Poling of bulk guest-host polymer samples

Chromophore alignment was accomplished by the use of a poling fixture of our own invention (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Poling clamp open (top), showing MNA plaque (left) and MNS plaque (right); poling clamp closed (bottom).
), which consists of two nylon blocks fabricated into a clamp-like device, secured by two nylon screws. Polished copper electrodes, each 2 cm in diameter, were inserted into the fixture through holes drilled into the clamp. The copper electrodes have rounded edges to prevent undesired electric field concentrations. The copper electrodes were carefully polished as flat as possible; during the poling process the smooth surfaces were impressed upon the polymer plaques, compressing the 1.3 mm thick plaque down to about 1.2 mm, eliminating the need for any post-poling polishing steps. The two Nylon screws allow one to adjust the tension against the polymer plaque and to ensure that the copper electrodes are seated parallel to the faces of the plaque. High-voltage connections were made by securing the high-voltage leads from the high-voltage power supply to the poling fixture by copper alligator clamps. This was done so that the poling fixture can easily be removed from the silicone oil bath to access the sample. The copper electrodes are smaller (2 cm) than the polymer plaques (2.5 cm) to allow the extra polymer material to increase the hold-off voltage of the polymer in the clamp.

2.3 Maker fringe measurement and analysis

A LabVIEW program was used to automate the Newport ESP 300 motion controller and rotation stage. The sample was rotated from −80 to + 80 degrees in 0.2 degree steps, with 10 pulses averaged per step. Each sample was scanned at least twice, the second scan involvinganother measurement with the sample rotated a quarter turn about the z-axis in an effort to find areas of minimal scattering.

The data were analyzed using a numerical model incorporating the results for birefringent materials reported by Herman and Hayden [15

15. W. N. Herman and L. M. Hayden, “Maker fringes revisited; second harmonic generation from birefringent or absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(3), 416–427 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. Values of the refractive indices n e and no of the polymer samples were measured using a Metricon 2010/M prism coupler. We observed Δn values of 0.001 to 0.003. As a result of the presence of sample wedging and of tiny irregularities in the sample surface, the thickness of the sample at the point of incidence of the beam frequently differed slightly from the measured value of the thickness of the sample as a whole, which was obtained by a Logitech NCG-2 non-contact thickness gauge. For this reason, the value of the sample thickness used in the model was first varied about the measured value over a range of ± 10 μm to optimally align the fringe pattern predicted by theory with that of the data; the value of d 33 was then determined by fitting the theoretical Maker fringe pattern obtained using the “adjusted” sample thickness to the data.

3. Results and discussion

The resulting Maker fringe plots and fits are shown in Figs. 4
Fig. 4 Maker fringes for 10% MNS (blue: experimental; black: theory).
through 7
Fig. 7 Maker fringes for 10% MNA, 1217μm fit; inset 1222μm fit (blue: experimental; black: theory).
. A representative Maker fringe plot for the x-cut quartz standard is shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Maker fringes for x-cut quartz (red: experimental; black: theory).
, indicating a good fit between the data and the theory. This indicates that our Maker fringe experiment is performing properly when a compositionally homogeneous sample with parallel surfaces is examined. In particular, Fig. 4 shows a 1.26 mm thick sample of 10% MNS/PMMA, for which we measured a d 33 of approximately 1.75 pm/V. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Maker fringes for 15% MNS (blue: experimental; black: theory).
shows a 1.10 mm thick sample of 15% MNS/PMMA for which we measured a d 33 of approximately 1.50 pm/V. This sample exhibited some signs of aggregation due to the higher chromophore loading, resulting in more scattering of the SHG radiation. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Maker fringes for 10% MNA (blue: experimental; black: theory).
shows a 1.22 mm sample of 10% MNA/PMMA, for which we measured a d 33 of approximately 0.7 pm/V. Figure 7 shows a Maker fringe scan of another area of the same 1.22 mm thick sample of 10% MNA/PMMA, for which we measured a d 33 of approximately 0.85 pm/V. While these samples exhibit neither extraordinarily large values of d 33 nor levels of ordering comparable to those observed in DR1 [11

11. R. C. Hoffman, T. M. Pritchett, J. A. Orlicki, J. M. Dougherty, R. H. Lambeth, A. M. Rawlett, W. N. Herman, and D. H. Park, “High-voltage poling of bulk guest-host polymers, chapter 7 in organic thin films for photonics applications,” (ACS Symposium Series, Washington DC 2010).

], they do show significant ordering of the chromophores within the polymer host.

Due to a number of sources of error in the measurements, including non-uniformities in chromophore loading, uncertainty in the experimentally measured thickness, poling induced loss [16

16. H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and the possible presence of a wedge angle in the samples, we expect the d 33 values to have uncertainties in range of ± 20%. There are a number of anomalies in the data aside from the presence of aggregates, including the decrease in fringe amplitude in many samples above 60 degrees, and the presence of some SHG signal at zero degrees and at the minima of the fringes. In no case did the quartz standard exhibit this behavior (Fig. 8), so it is reasonable to conclude that it is a property of the poled guest-host samples and not a systematic measurement error in the Maker fringe experiment.

The presence of the 532 nm SHG signal at zero degrees was due to the effects of scattering of both the 1064 nm fundamental and 532 nm harmonic. Our 633 nm scattering measurements performed on each sample before the Maker fringe measurement showed significant scattering from both surface and volume defects. The surface scattering arises from scratches and non-uniformities from electrode impression during poling. The volume effects arise from concentration variations of the chromophore, and they result in concentration banding of the chromophore during the injection molding process. Aggregates consisting of chromophore particulates will also exacerbate scattering, although in cases of low loading (10%) the effects were minimal. Some residual strain-induced birefringence from the injection molding process was also observed in the samples when placed between crossed polarizers. This will also act to disrupt beam propagation, particularly at the point on the sample where the polymer entered the mold and at the edges of the sample where rapid cooling occurred during the molding process.

Thus the 1064 nm fundamental, illuminating a finite portion of the sample surface, encounters these surface and volume irregularities, and a small portion of the 1064 nm fundamental is diffracted or refracted into other angles that allow the SHG phase-matching condition to be satisfied. This causes a small amount of 532 nm harmonic to be generated regardless of the angular orientation of the sample. Therefore this small amount of harmonic gives the appearance of an SHG signal at zero degrees and at the minima of the fringes. Again, this is supported by the lack of any such scattering-generated features in the Maker fringe data for the x-cut quartz standard (Fig. 8).

We feel that the lack of SHG signal above sixty degrees has a similar origin. During the Maker fringe data acquisition, the 1064 and 532 nm beams sweep out many cubic millimeters of illuminated volume, particularly at high angles and on the exit side. This increases dramatically the chances that the beams will encounter concentration banding and the attendant inhomogeneities in refractive index, disrupting the phase matching condition that produces the 532 nm harmonic fringes. Indeed, in our 633 nm scattering measurements we observed that at zero-degree incidence the beam profile is largely intact and exhibits scattering dominated by surface defects. However, at large angles approaching sixty degrees, volume scattering effects are added to the surface scattering and the transmitted 633 nm beam profile begins to break up; the 633 nm beam profile becomes non-distinct at several times the original spot-size. These effects cause the SHG signal to diminish rapidly above sixty degrees.

In addition, the spacing of the fringes is sometimes non-uniform, resulting in some walk-off of the observed fringes from the calculated fringes. We feel this arises from the samples possessing a slight wedge or bow as a by-product of the poling process. In spite of these anomalies, we were able to obtain reasonable fits to most of the data. However, to illustrate the point we show in Fig. 7 calculated Maker fringe patterns for sample thicknesses of 1217 and 1222 μm, a difference of 5 μm, which is half of the ± 10 μm range about the nominal measured value over which we sought the best fit to the fringes. Both have d 33 = 0.85 pm/V. A thickness of 1217 μm provides a good fit for low angles of incidence, but shows misalignment at higher angles; a thickness of 1222 μm (Fig. 7, inset) looks good for angles of incidence in the range 45-60 degrees, but clearly doesn't fit the observed pattern near normal incidence. This clearly demonstrates the presence of non-parallelism in the sample surfaces either in the form of a lenticular distortion or a wedge and that a mere 5 μm variation in thickness over a few square millimeters of sample area can cause misalignment of the observed SHG fringes from the theoretical fit.

To circumvent these problems with surface and volume defects, we are working to improve the concentration uniformity of the chromophore through the use of copolymers and improved polymer processing and molding techniques. We are also working to improve the surface finish and sample surface parallelism through improved electrode and electrode fixture design.

4. Summary

In this paper we described the fabrication and poling of bulk pieces of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) 1.2 mm thick doped with various concentrations of 4-methoxy-4ˊ-nitrostilbene (MNS) and 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA). This accomplishment is a first for samples of this thickness containing chromophores having a transmission window in the visible region of the spectrum. Maker fringe analysis demonstrated that under the poling fields applied, 58 to 67 Vμm−1, substantial ordering of the MNS and MNA chromophores occurred, resulting in birefringence on the order of Δn = 0.001- 0.003 and significant d 33 values. We measured d 33 values in the MNS/PMMA guest-host system of 1.5 to 1.75 pm/V, and 0.7 to 0.85 pm/V in the MNA/PMMA system.

Larger thicknesses of poled electro-optic polymers will result in enhanced performance of electro-optic devices in practical applications, such as those currently being investigated for THz generation. The longer path length available in bulk poled polymers will enable improved THz power, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio in both THz generators and detectors. Large-area Pockels cells constructed from electro-optic guest-host polymers will find new uses in high-speed modulators and shutters, and any application requiring appreciable values of d 33 or r 33 will potentially benefit from bulk-poled guest-host polymers and copolymers. Fabrication and poling of very thick guest-host polymers with greatly improved chromophores and host materials also opens the possibility that bulk-poled guest-host polymer systems may begin to replace bulk inorganic nonlinear crystals in some applications such as second-harmonic generation (SHG) and in optical parametric amplification/generation (OPA/OPG).

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dr. Warren Herman of the Laboratory for Physical Sciences for his most helpful discussions regarding Maker fringe measurement and analysis. We also gratefully acknowledge Kimberly Olver of the U. S. Army Research laboratory for her thickness measurements of the poled polymer samples.

References and links

1.

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films,” Opt. Lett. 27(1), 55–57 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Efficient electrooptic polymers for THz applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8515–8522 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995). [CrossRef]

7.

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

8.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999). [CrossRef]

10.

K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999). [CrossRef]

11.

R. C. Hoffman, T. M. Pritchett, J. A. Orlicki, J. M. Dougherty, R. H. Lambeth, A. M. Rawlett, W. N. Herman, and D. H. Park, “High-voltage poling of bulk guest-host polymers, chapter 7 in organic thin films for photonics applications,” (ACS Symposium Series, Washington DC 2010).

12.

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995). [CrossRef]

13.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8(1), 21–22 (1962). [CrossRef]

15.

W. N. Herman and L. M. Hayden, “Maker fringes revisited; second harmonic generation from birefringent or absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(3), 416–427 (1995). [CrossRef]

16.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials

ToC Category:
Organics and Polymers

History
Original Manuscript: February 23, 2011
Revised Manuscript: March 25, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: March 30, 2011
Published: April 22, 2011

Citation
Robert C. Hoffman, Andrew G. Mott, Michael J. Ferry, Timothy M. Pritchett, William Shensky, Joshua A. Orlicki, George R. Martin, Joseph Dougherty, Julia L. Leadore, Adam M. Rawlett, and Dong Hun Park, "Poling of visible chromophores in millimeter-thick PMMA host," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 67-77 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-1-67


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References

  1. A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films,” Opt. Lett. 27(1), 55–57 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Efficient electrooptic polymers for THz applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8515–8522 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).
  8. A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999). [CrossRef]
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