OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 2 — Jun. 1, 2011
  • pp: 192–200
« Show journal navigation

Manipulating and controlling the evanescent field within optical waveguides using high index nanolayers [Invited]

John Canning, Whayne Padden, Danijel Boskovic, Masood Naqshbandi, Hank de Bruyn, and Maxwell J. Crossley  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 192-200 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.000192


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1189 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Controlling the evanescent field within platform waveguide technologies underpins waveguide nanophotonics and is critical to optimising the interaction with integrated specialised materials or devices under test. Unfortunately, this interaction is often small since the evanescent field is a fraction of the total optical field. Here we propose and demonstrate, through simulation and experiment, how the waveguide evanescent field can be enhanced substantially by using high index interface layers, which draw out the optical field in the probe vicinity taking advantage of field localisation. This can be further enhanced by extended resonant and gallery modes within the channels of a structured cylindrical waveguide. Several orders of magnitude increased sensitivity with minimal added insertion loss is obtained using self-assembled layers of TiO2 (B) nanoparticles and porphyrin within a silica structured optical fibre. The combination of novel photonics with specialty material integration highlights the potential scope for physics, chemistry, sensing and materials research.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Driven by telecommunications, silicon and silica are the two key material platforms for waveguide device research. Novel functionality using more suitable materials often demands integration into or onto these platforms. Given limits in refractive index, for these platforms to play a key role in sensing and biodiagnostics, control, manipulation and enhancement of the evanescent field is essential. For example, evanescent field spectroscopy (EFS) using optical waveguides, both conventional [1

1. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and structured [2

2. C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, “Evanescent-field spectroscopy using structured optical fibers: detection of charge-transfer at the porphyrin-silica interface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(8), 2925–2933 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] promises to become a central tool in chemical sensing, biodiagnostics and nano-thin film research. The combination with waveguides offers selective excitation or detection of targeted species at an interface. An example is conventional fluorescence imaging of proteins, DNA and other species used in biosensor assays and larger volumes, has to contend with substantial background signal from their complex environment [3

3. P. C. Goodwin, “GFP biofluorescence: imaging gene expression and protein dynamics in living cells: design considerations for a fluorescence imaging laboratory,” Ch. 20 in Methods in Cell Biology58, 343–367 (1998).

]. Interface detection using the evanescent regime offers an alternative that can provide selectivity whilst permitting complicated spectral and temporal interrogation techniques; it also reduces overall absorption within a sample, preventing thermally induced damage, a problem limiting sample preservation as well as live cell-imaging [4

4. R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. J. Gadella Jr, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Lab-on-a-chip [5

5. P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, “Lab-on-a-chip: microfluidics in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(3), 210–218 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and lab-in-a-fibre [6

6. J. Canning, “New trends in structured optical fibres for telecommunications and sensing”, Proc. Joint 5th Int. Conf. on Optical Communications and Networks & 2nd Int. Symp. on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), (Invited paper) Chengdu, China, (2006).

] technology benefit from this potential selectivity enabling multiple functionality and devices in confined areas. There are, however, key challenges restricting this approach.

Given the configuration scope possible, to narrow this discussion we focus on structured optical fibres that have micro or nano channels where the core traveling modes have an evanescent field directly within surrounding channels. This avoids secondary processes in conventional fibres such as cladding mode evanescent field excitation through long period gratings [1

1. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. By having long interaction lengths, the poor optical penetration within the channel (few % typically in silica) is overcome. Unprecedented sensitivity is possible - a previously postulated near IR band associated with charge transfer between the porphyrin dichloro[5,10,15,20-tetra(heptyl)porphyrinato]tin(IV) and the silica surface of the channels was observed within a fibre over 90 cm long [2

2. C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, “Evanescent-field spectroscopy using structured optical fibers: detection of charge-transfer at the porphyrin-silica interface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(8), 2925–2933 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Unfortunately, for many applications that rely on overlap with the evanescent field (chemical sensing, biosensing, optoelectronic devices) these lengths become impractical. Solutions include enhancing the evanescent interaction using resonating modes within planar ring waveguides [7

7. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7, 28–35 (2007).

] and the use of direct mode-channel overlap within bandgap waveguides [9

9. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, “Theory of Bragg fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68(9), 1196–1201 (1978). [CrossRef]

13

13. B. Gauvreau, A. Hassani, M. Fassi Fehri, A. Kabashin, and M. A. Skorobogatiy, “Photonic bandgap fiber-based Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11413–11426 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The latter, however, are extremely sensitive to perturbations from microbending, temperature and strain, which shift dispersion, and therefore the bands, affecting interactions. Insertion losses are high, reducing cavity quality and limiting remote or distributed sensing. On the other hand, the presence of bandgap dispersion within solid core structured waveguides [14

14. D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martincek, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “The role of diffraction in determining the short wavelength losses edge of photonic crystal fibres”, Proc. Joint Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2005)/Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Tech. (ACOFT 2005), Sydney, Australia, (2005)

] has been exploited in integrated form: e.g. polarisation dispersion-matched ultra-narrow resonances in silicon photonic crystal circuits [15

15. J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Skivesen, C. Martelli, A. Tetu, and L. H. Frandsen, “Spectrally narrow polarisation conversion in a slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” J. European Opt. Soc. 4, 09019 (2009). [CrossRef]

] are promising for biosensing and single molecule detection [16

16. N. Skivesen, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, C. Martelli, A. Tetu, and L. H. Frandsen, “Photonic crystal waveguide biosensors”, (Invited) Con. On Optical Fiber communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2008. (OFC/NFOEC 2008), San Diego, USA, paper OTuK2, 1–3, (2008).

,17

17. N. Skivesen, A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3169–3176 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, for many applications the field at the interface (e.g. selective surfaces in biodiagnostics), where the sample collects or is processed, is important. The evanescent regime is also important for exciting plasmon resonances in integrated metal layers and particles, which in turn have highly localised and intensified evanescent fields of their own, reducing the input field threshold for applications such as catalysis [18

18. M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and fluorescence sensitivity [19

19. T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 171(1-3), 115–130 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

2. Enhancing the Evanescent Field

3. The Concept and Simulation

As a demonstration, we consider one of the most promising waveguide configurations used in optical sensing research – the so-called structured optical fibre, such as a “photonic crystal” silica fibre, where propagation is determined largely by effective step-index total internal reflection [12

12. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2003).

], though dispersive effects from the periodic structure are always present [14

14. D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martincek, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “The role of diffraction in determining the short wavelength losses edge of photonic crystal fibres”, Proc. Joint Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2005)/Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Tech. (ACOFT 2005), Sydney, Australia, (2005)

]. A schematic of a simple two ring structure is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulation of field confinement within (a) a simple 2-ring structured optical fibre; (b) the same fibre with a 155 nm layer of refractive index n = 2.6; and (c) cross-section of simulations showing enhanced optical localisation of light particularly near the high index surfaces (orange dashed).
– for practical purposes the bulk of the optical field is confined by the first ring of holes. Propagation and the waveguide mode field distribution, including the evanescent field within the holes, are evaluated numerically using a full vectorial algorithm for 2-D structures, successfully used to design various structured and diffractive fibres [http://code.google.com/p/polymode/]. The algorithm solves Maxwell’s equations based on the adjustable boundary condition – Fourier decomposition method (ABC_FDM) [26

26. N. A. Issa and L. Poladian, “Vector wave expansion method for leaky modes of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(4), 1005–1012 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Finite differences are used in the radial direction while the Fourier decomposition method used in the angular direction helps speed up computational time, permitting faster turnaround on a high precision desktop computer.

Figure 1(a) shows the numerical simulation of the fibre guided mode – the optical field intensity is plotted on log scale to exaggerate the distribution. The bulk of the optical field lies within the core defined by the first ring of holes whilst the second ring prevents any further leakage loss. Importantly, only ~3% of the light is in the exponentially decaying evanescent field inside the first ring of holes. Because of the low refractive index contrast between silica and air (Δn ~0.45) no edge localisation of the optical field is observed. Of that evanescent light, ~50% is within the first (100-130) nm of the hole, signifying ~1.5% overlap with a sample thickness d ~(100-150) nm. Despite long fibre interaction lengths, this represents an inefficient design for most sensors – multiplexed sensors, for example, would benefit from higher interaction efficiencies.

4. Synthesis and deposition of TiO2 layers and porphyrin within a structured fiber

4.1. Structured optical fiber

For the actual experimental work, the structured optical fibre shown in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM image of the core cross-section of a structured optical fibre with 3 rings of holes. Optical guidance is dominated by the two inner rings.
was used. This fibre was assembled from Heraeus F300 silica capillaries and tubes, fused together on a glass lathe under combined pressure (capillaries) and vacuum (in-between capillaries), before being draw down to a diameter of ~125 μm using two draws on an optical fibre draw tower at ~1800 °C. Custom pressure control kept the holes open both on the lathe and on the tower. Introducing a slight aperiodicity in the structure by having the holes increase in size outwards, is thought to account for the low measured propagation loss <6 dB/km despite having only 3 rings [36

36. C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Lengths of 20 cm were used for the samples under test.

4.2. TiO2 synthesis

A novel approach to the incorporation of TiO2 layers was carried out after fibre fabrication. It involves the self-assembly of TiO2 nanoparticles into low scattering films through van der Waals forces and crystal sheet formation – for this uniform size nanoparticles were required. Those obtained commercially were found to vary substantially so these were fabricated directly by hydrolysis of small quantities of titanium isopropoxide, Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4, suspended in isopropanol and added to ethanol [37

37. S. Y. Chae, M. K. Park, S. K. Lee, T. Y. Kim, S. K. Kim, and W. I. Lee, “Preparation of size-controlled TiO2 nanoparticles and derivation of optically transparent photocatalytic films,” Chem. Mater. 15(17), 3326–3331 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. By avoiding an additional hydrothermal reaction, larger particles, chosen to ensure that there was a sufficiently thick layer to generate optical localisation of the evanescent field within the holes as calculated by simulation, could be obtained. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) images confirmed that uniform TiO2 nanoparticles on the order of (155 ± 20) nm were obtained. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 TEM images of (a) crystal of TiO2 showing evidence of a monoclinic unit cell and (b) similar crystal coated with TCPP.
shows a monoclinic crystal configuration consistent with a partially hydrolysed form akin to so-called TiO2 (B) [38

38. R. Marchand, L. Brohan, and M. Tournoux, “A new form of titanium dioxide and the potassium octatitanate K2Ti8O17,” Mater. Res. Bull. 15(8), 1129–1133 (1980). [CrossRef]

]. TiO2 (B) forms thin nano-sheet layers at low temperatures but the use of a stronger hydrothermal process (NaOH) and temperatures above 100-150 °C leads to these sheets rolling up to produce solid nanowires [39

39. R. Yoshida, Y. Suzuki, and S. Yoshikawa, “Syntheses of TiO2 nanowires and TiO2 anatase nanowires by hydrothermal and post-heat treatments,” J. Solid State Chem. 178(7), 2179–2185 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. With even higher temperatures, these wires convert to the anastase structural polymorph of TiO2 and eventually rutile. By using low temperature preparation, sheets of metastable TiO2 (B) also have enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties [32

32. J. Papachryssanthou, E. Bordes, A. Vejux, P. Courtine, R. Marchand, and M. Tournoux, “TiO2(B), a new support for V2O5 in the oxidation of O-xylene,” Catal. Today 1(1-2), 219–227 (1987). [CrossRef]

,33

33. G. Betz, H. Tributsch, and R. Marchand, “Hydrogen insertion (intercalation) and light induced proton exchange at TiO2(B) –electrodes,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 14(3), 315–322 (1984). [CrossRef]

] relative to the other polymorphs. Therefore, despite a slightly lower effective refractive index (n ~2.5), the solution containing these monoclinic crystals was selected for insertion into the structured optical fibres to form a layer approximately 155 nm thick through flushing and evaporative self-assembly on the surface channels at room temperature, itself a novel procedure.

4.3. Porphyrin spectroscopic probe

The spectroscopic probe chosen for these experiments was 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP), where the carboxylic groups should attach well to the TiO2 and SiO2, although it is probably likely to be better with TiO2 (B). For all preparation conditions, the solvent employed was ethanol (EtOH) and the porphyrin concentration in EtOH was [TCPP] = 1.5 x 10−3 M. This was reduced to [TCPP] ~7.5 x 10−4 M after dilution and mixing with the TiO2/EtOH solution (TCPP: TiO2 = 1:1). After stirring, particles were filtered and examined under TEM – Fig. 3(b) shows evidence of attached porphyrin on a single crystal. Interestingly, as well as precipitating on the crystals, the titania generally catalysed precipitation of excess porphyrins out of solution, observed both as brown aggregates which upon precipitation led to increased solution transparency. To verify attachment, a corresponding red-shift, Δλ ~(3-10) nm, is observed for both Soret B and Q bands in the spectra for various concentrations, shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 UV-VIS spectra of TCPP porphyrin and TCPP porphyrin coated TiO2 particles in ethanol.
. The shift to longer wavelengths is consistent with J aggregation (side by side alignment) [40

40. A. Kathiravan and R. Renganathan, “Effect of anchoring group on the photosensitisation of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles with porphyrins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 331(2), 401–407 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] rather than H aggregation (face to face) which is observed on much smaller sized nanoparticles <40 nm [41

41. C. F. Lo, L. Luo, E. W. J. Diau, I. J. Chang, and C. Y. Lin, “Evidence for the assembly of carboxyphenylethynyl zinc porphyrins on nanocrystalline TiO2 surfaces,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (13), 1430–1432 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The general broadening of the bands reflects the size distribution of the particles.

5. Proposed Experiments

The method chosen to make a high index layer within the air channels of a structured optical fibre is one based on TiO2 (B) forming sheets [37

37. S. Y. Chae, M. K. Park, S. K. Lee, T. Y. Kim, S. K. Kim, and W. I. Lee, “Preparation of size-controlled TiO2 nanoparticles and derivation of optically transparent photocatalytic films,” Chem. Mater. 15(17), 3326–3331 (2003). [CrossRef]

], through a novel low temperature flushing and evaporative self-assembly of the relatively large (155nm) monoclinic crystals onto the inner surface of our structured optical fibre channels. A reasonable expectation is that if the quality of film formation or coverage is poor, then given that these particles are commensurate in dimension with typical probe wavelengths (10-40% of visible and near IR wavelengths), substantial Mie scattering should occur, translating to readily detected propagation losses. Good film formation, on the other hand, should show little increase in loss, other than coupling losses with input and output fibres whilst showing improved sensitivity through an enhanced evanescent field. Therefore, there are three key experiments to verify simultaneously good film formation and the proposed model of enhancement in our structured optical fibre. The structured fibre with the higher index layer coated with porphyrin should show much greater signal sensitivity and detection than the fibre sample with no layer but with channels coated similarly with porphyrin. Potentially, failed film formation will lead to large scattering that will undermine such a result. Therefore, a second sample with porphyrins mixed onto the TiO2 prior to insertion should act as a reference from which the absolute amount of scatter may be determined, since the attached porphyrin will prevent extended TiO2 layers from forming. Thus the experiments involve the separate optical interrogation of the following:

  • (1) 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP) only filled fibre;
  • (2) TCPP coated TiO2 particles obtained after mixing prior to insertion into fibre. In this case, the porphyrins binding to the surface will prevent film formation leading to large scattering losses; and
  • (3) TCPP and TiO2 particles inserted into fibre without mixing (no coating). Film formation becomes possible leading to lower scattering losses.

6. Experiments and Results

In practice, the samples are inserted under air pressure (3 atm) and room temperature into the structured optical fibre until solution is detected upon exit. Each sample is passed through leaving behind a deposited layer. To separate attached material from loss aggregates additional flushing with ethanol, and drying with N2, is carried out. A schematic of the optical interrogation configuration used is shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the optical interrogation setup. The spectrum within the sample fibre under test is collected using a broadband Hg-Xe white light source and optical spectrum analyser (OSA).
. A broadband white light source (Oriel Hg-Xe lamp) is coupled into standard telecommunications fibre before being coupled into the optical fibre under test. The output is collected with another telecommunications fibre which then couples into an optical spectrum analyser (OSA – Ando AQ6315A).

7. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by several projects: Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Projects (DP0770692, DP0879465), and Department of Industry, Innovation, Science and Research (DIISR) International Science Linkage (CG130013). W. Padden acknowledges funding from an ARC Linkage Project (LP 0990871). The authors thank Lorenzo Costanzo and Tze Sum for technical assistance.

References and links

1.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, “Evanescent-field spectroscopy using structured optical fibers: detection of charge-transfer at the porphyrin-silica interface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(8), 2925–2933 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

P. C. Goodwin, “GFP biofluorescence: imaging gene expression and protein dynamics in living cells: design considerations for a fluorescence imaging laboratory,” Ch. 20 in Methods in Cell Biology58, 343–367 (1998).

4.

R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. J. Gadella Jr, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, “Lab-on-a-chip: microfluidics in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(3), 210–218 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Canning, “New trends in structured optical fibres for telecommunications and sensing”, Proc. Joint 5th Int. Conf. on Optical Communications and Networks & 2nd Int. Symp. on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), (Invited paper) Chengdu, China, (2006).

7.

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7, 28–35 (2007).

9.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, “Theory of Bragg fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68(9), 1196–1201 (1978). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Canning, “Diffraction-free mode generation and propagation in optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 35–39 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Canning, “Fresnel optics inside optical fibres”, in Photonics Research Developments, Ch. 5 (Nova Science Publishers, United States, 2008).

12.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2003).

13.

B. Gauvreau, A. Hassani, M. Fassi Fehri, A. Kabashin, and M. A. Skorobogatiy, “Photonic bandgap fiber-based Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11413–11426 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martincek, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “The role of diffraction in determining the short wavelength losses edge of photonic crystal fibres”, Proc. Joint Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2005)/Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Tech. (ACOFT 2005), Sydney, Australia, (2005)

15.

J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Skivesen, C. Martelli, A. Tetu, and L. H. Frandsen, “Spectrally narrow polarisation conversion in a slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” J. European Opt. Soc. 4, 09019 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

N. Skivesen, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, C. Martelli, A. Tetu, and L. H. Frandsen, “Photonic crystal waveguide biosensors”, (Invited) Con. On Optical Fiber communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2008. (OFC/NFOEC 2008), San Diego, USA, paper OTuK2, 1–3, (2008).

17.

N. Skivesen, A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3169–3176 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 171(1-3), 115–130 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

Q. F. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1626–1628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

C. Martelli and J. Canning, “Fresnel fibers for sensing”, Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS 2006), Cancun, Mexico (2006). OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2006), post-deadline paper ThF5.

23.

G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007). [CrossRef]

24.

Y. Ruan, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, “Light confinement within nanoholes in nanostructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26018–26026 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, and K. Lyytikainen, “Propagation in air by field superposition of scattered light within a Fresnel fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 230–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

N. A. Issa and L. Poladian, “Vector wave expansion method for leaky modes of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(4), 1005–1012 (2003). [CrossRef]

27.

C. Martelli, “COMSOL verification of ABCD Method for light localisation within nanometer holes”, Unpublished, (2010).

28.

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, and J. Canning, “Fractal fibre for enhanced throughput SNOM probes”, in Trends in Photonics Ch. 12 (Ed. J. Canning, Research Signpost, http://www.ressign.com/, 2010).

29.

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Characterization of nanoscale features in tapered fractal and photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1860–1865 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

P. Abgrall and N.-T. Nguyen, NanoFluidics (Artech House, United States, 2009).

31.

M. Jokinen, M. Pätsi, H. Rahiala, T. Peltola, M. Ritala, and J. B. Rosenholm, “Influence of sol and surface properties on in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel-derived TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 films deposited by dip-coating method,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 42(2), 295–302 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

J. Papachryssanthou, E. Bordes, A. Vejux, P. Courtine, R. Marchand, and M. Tournoux, “TiO2(B), a new support for V2O5 in the oxidation of O-xylene,” Catal. Today 1(1-2), 219–227 (1987). [CrossRef]

33.

G. Betz, H. Tributsch, and R. Marchand, “Hydrogen insertion (intercalation) and light induced proton exchange at TiO2(B) –electrodes,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 14(3), 315–322 (1984). [CrossRef]

34.

A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006). [CrossRef]

35.

S. Blair and Y. Chen, “Resonant-enhanced evanescent-wave fluorescence biosensing with cylindrical optical cavities,” Appl. Opt. 40(4), 570–582 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

S. Y. Chae, M. K. Park, S. K. Lee, T. Y. Kim, S. K. Kim, and W. I. Lee, “Preparation of size-controlled TiO2 nanoparticles and derivation of optically transparent photocatalytic films,” Chem. Mater. 15(17), 3326–3331 (2003). [CrossRef]

38.

R. Marchand, L. Brohan, and M. Tournoux, “A new form of titanium dioxide and the potassium octatitanate K2Ti8O17,” Mater. Res. Bull. 15(8), 1129–1133 (1980). [CrossRef]

39.

R. Yoshida, Y. Suzuki, and S. Yoshikawa, “Syntheses of TiO2 nanowires and TiO2 anatase nanowires by hydrothermal and post-heat treatments,” J. Solid State Chem. 178(7), 2179–2185 (2005). [CrossRef]

40.

A. Kathiravan and R. Renganathan, “Effect of anchoring group on the photosensitisation of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles with porphyrins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 331(2), 401–407 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

C. F. Lo, L. Luo, E. W. J. Diau, I. J. Chang, and C. Y. Lin, “Evidence for the assembly of carboxyphenylethynyl zinc porphyrins on nanocrystalline TiO2 surfaces,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (13), 1430–1432 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(280.1415) Remote sensing and sensors : Biological sensing and sensors
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Materials for Fiber Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 28, 2011
Revised Manuscript: April 19, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: April 25, 2011
Published: May 3, 2011

Virtual Issues
Advances in Optical Materials (2011) Optical Materials Express

Citation
John Canning, Whayne Padden, Danijel Boskovic, Masood Naqshbandi, Hank de Bruyn, and Maxwell J. Crossley, "Manipulating and controlling the evanescent field within optical waveguides using high index nanolayers," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 192-200 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-2-192


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, “Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1776–1786 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. C. Martelli, J. Canning, J. R. Reimers, M. Sintic, D. Stocks, T. Khoury, and M. J. Crossley, “Evanescent-field spectroscopy using structured optical fibers: detection of charge-transfer at the porphyrin-silica interface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(8), 2925–2933 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. C. Goodwin, “GFP biofluorescence: imaging gene expression and protein dynamics in living cells: design considerations for a fluorescence imaging laboratory,” Ch. 20 in Methods in Cell Biology58, 343–367 (1998).
  4. R. A. Hoebe, C. H. Van Oven, T. W. J. Gadella, P. B. Dhonukshe, C. J. Van Noorden, and E. M. Manders, “Controlled light-exposure microscopy reduces photobleaching and phototoxicity in fluorescence live-cell imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 25(2), 249–253 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. S. Dittrich and A. Manz, “Lab-on-a-chip: microfluidics in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 5(3), 210–218 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Canning, “New trends in structured optical fibres for telecommunications and sensing”, Proc. Joint 5th Int. Conf. on Optical Communications and Networks & 2nd Int. Symp. on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), (Invited paper) Chengdu, China, (2006).
  7. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. M. White, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, N. M. Hanumegowda, H. Oveys, M. Zourob, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors for lab-on-a-chip based on optical ring resonators,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 7, 28–35 (2007).
  9. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, “Theory of Bragg fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68(9), 1196–1201 (1978). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Canning, “Diffraction-free mode generation and propagation in optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 35–39 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Canning, “Fresnel optics inside optical fibres”, in Photonics Research Developments, Ch. 5 (Nova Science Publishers, United States, 2008).
  12. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2003).
  13. B. Gauvreau, A. Hassani, M. Fassi Fehri, A. Kabashin, and M. A. Skorobogatiy, “Photonic bandgap fiber-based Surface Plasmon Resonance sensors,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11413–11426 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martincek, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “The role of diffraction in determining the short wavelength losses edge of photonic crystal fibres”, Proc. Joint Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2005)/Australian Conf. on Optical Fibre Tech. (ACOFT 2005), Sydney, Australia, (2005)
  15. J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Skivesen, C. Martelli, A. Tetu, and L. H. Frandsen, “Spectrally narrow polarisation conversion in a slow-light photonic crystal waveguide,” J. European Opt. Soc. 4, 09019 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. N. Skivesen, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, C. Martelli, A. Tetu, and L. H. Frandsen, “Photonic crystal waveguide biosensors”, (Invited) Con. On Optical Fiber communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2008. (OFC/NFOEC 2008), San Diego, USA, paper OTuK2, 1–3, (2008).
  17. N. Skivesen, A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3169–3176 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 171(1-3), 115–130 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Q. F. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1626–1628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Martelli and J. Canning, “Fresnel fibers for sensing”, Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS 2006), Cancun, Mexico (2006). OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2006), post-deadline paper ThF5.
  23. G. S. Wiederhecker, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Couny, F. Benabid, S. A. Maier, J. C. Knight, C. H. B. Cruz, and H. L. Fragnito, “Field enhancement within an optical fibre with a subwavelength air core,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 115–118 (2007). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Ruan, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. Afshar, and T. M. Monro, “Light confinement within nanoholes in nanostructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26018–26026 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Canning, E. Buckley, and K. Lyytikainen, “Propagation in air by field superposition of scattered light within a Fresnel fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 230–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. N. A. Issa and L. Poladian, “Vector wave expansion method for leaky modes of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(4), 1005–1012 (2003). [CrossRef]
  27. C. Martelli, “COMSOL verification of ABCD Method for light localisation within nanometer holes”, Unpublished, (2010).
  28. C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, and J. Canning, “Fractal fibre for enhanced throughput SNOM probes”, in Trends in Photonics Ch. 12 (Ed. J. Canning, Research Signpost, http://www.ressign.com/ , 2010).
  29. C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Characterization of nanoscale features in tapered fractal and photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1860–1865 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. P. Abgrall and N.-T. Nguyen, NanoFluidics (Artech House, United States, 2009).
  31. M. Jokinen, M. Pätsi, H. Rahiala, T. Peltola, M. Ritala, and J. B. Rosenholm, “Influence of sol and surface properties on in vitro bioactivity of sol-gel-derived TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 films deposited by dip-coating method,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 42(2), 295–302 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Papachryssanthou, E. Bordes, A. Vejux, P. Courtine, R. Marchand, and M. Tournoux, “TiO2(B), a new support for V2O5 in the oxidation of O-xylene,” Catal. Today 1(1-2), 219–227 (1987). [CrossRef]
  33. G. Betz, H. Tributsch, and R. Marchand, “Hydrogen insertion (intercalation) and light induced proton exchange at TiO2(B) –electrodes,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 14(3), 315–322 (1984). [CrossRef]
  34. A. B. Matsko and V. S. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006). [CrossRef]
  35. S. Blair and Y. Chen, “Resonant-enhanced evanescent-wave fluorescence biosensing with cylindrical optical cavities,” Appl. Opt. 40(4), 570–582 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, and S. T. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17639–17644 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. Y. Chae, M. K. Park, S. K. Lee, T. Y. Kim, S. K. Kim, and W. I. Lee, “Preparation of size-controlled TiO2 nanoparticles and derivation of optically transparent photocatalytic films,” Chem. Mater. 15(17), 3326–3331 (2003). [CrossRef]
  38. R. Marchand, L. Brohan, and M. Tournoux, “A new form of titanium dioxide and the potassium octatitanate K2Ti8O17,” Mater. Res. Bull. 15(8), 1129–1133 (1980). [CrossRef]
  39. R. Yoshida, Y. Suzuki, and S. Yoshikawa, “Syntheses of TiO2 nanowires and TiO2 anatase nanowires by hydrothermal and post-heat treatments,” J. Solid State Chem. 178(7), 2179–2185 (2005). [CrossRef]
  40. A. Kathiravan and R. Renganathan, “Effect of anchoring group on the photosensitisation of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles with porphyrins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 331(2), 401–407 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. C. F. Lo, L. Luo, E. W. J. Diau, I. J. Chang, and C. Y. Lin, “Evidence for the assembly of carboxyphenylethynyl zinc porphyrins on nanocrystalline TiO2 surfaces,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (13), 1430–1432 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited