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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 4 — Aug. 1, 2011
  • pp: 724–731
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Different refractive index change behavior in borosilicate glasses induced by 1 kHz and 250 kHz femtosecond lasers

Geng Lin, Fangfang Luo, Fei He, Qingxi Chen, Danping Chen, Ya Cheng, Long Zhang, Jianrong Qiu, and Quanzhong Zhao  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 4, pp. 724-731 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.000724


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Abstract

We report on different refractive index change (RIC) behavior in borosilicate glasses induced by focused 1 kHz and 250 kHz femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation. The influence of fs laser irradiation condition and annealing temperature on RIC was examined. Absorption, electron spin resonance and Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscope were used to clarify the mechanisms of the RIC. Smaller RIC (up to 10−4) was observed after 1 kHz fs laser irradiation, while larger RIC (up to 10−1) was detected after 250 kHz fs laser irradiation, which were ascribed to the formation of color centers and precipitation of nanocrystals, respectively. The result highlights that the mechanisms of RIC induced by fs laser can be very different depending on the irradiation conditions.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently femtosecond (fs) laser materials micromachining has attracted considerable interest due to a wide range of applications including fabrication of optical waveguide [1

1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], integrated optical component [2

2. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003). [CrossRef]

], optical data storage [3

3. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and holographic grating etc [4

4. Y. Li, Y. Dou, R. An, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Permanent computer-generated holograms embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2433–2438 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. G. Lin, F. Luo, F. He, Y. Teng, W. Tan, J. Si, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Space-selective precipitation of Ge crystalline patterns in glasses by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 262–264 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It provides a unique and various possibilities to fabricate a myriad of three dimensional (3D) photonic components and devices. In addition, multi-functional devices [6

6. Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, J. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser integration in glasses,” Rev. Laser Eng. 36(APLS), 1206–1209 (2008). [CrossRef]

] such as microelectronic components, microplasmonic elements, and electro-optics integration devices etc. can be fabricated in a single transparent matrix by fs laser micromachining, making it possible to manufacture hybrid devices composed of multi-functional elements for lab-on-a-chip applications. Among these unique advantages of fs laser micromachining, one of important applications is 3D refractive index modification (positive or negative index change with isotropic or anisotropic properties) depending on the laser parameters [7

7. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(1), 19–21 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. T. Hashimoto and S. Tanaka, “Large negative refractive index modification induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser inside optical glasses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5429–5433 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. It was capable and suitable for formation of waveguides, gratings, splitters, couplers, and optical amplifiers etc [1

1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2491–2493 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. T. T. Fernandez, S. M. Eaton, G. Della Valle, R. M. Vazquez, M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond laser written optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20289–20297 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] by using refractive index change inside glasses. However, the physical origin of the fs laser induced refractive index change (RIC) inside glass still has some controversies. Mechanisms of structural change, local densification and formation of defects e.g. color center have been suggested [1

1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(10), 2496–2504 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. A recent study by Little et al. [13

13. D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010). [CrossRef]

] revealed that the mechanism of RIC induced by fs laser is depended on the irradiation conditions. There have been many investigations which focused on low repetition-rate regime fs laser (generally 1 kHz) induced RIC [1

1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2491–2493 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. However, the RIC induced by low repetition rate fs laser is small (generally about 10−3 or 10−4), optical elements e.g. diffraction grating have to be fabricated with a certain large volume for practical application. A good news is large RIC (up to 10−1) can be achieved using high repetition-rate (>100 kHz) fs laser [8

8. T. Hashimoto and S. Tanaka, “Large negative refractive index modification induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser inside optical glasses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5429–5433 (2011). [CrossRef]

,14

14. N. Takeshima, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of a periodic structure with a high refractive-index difference by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4019–4024 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The corresponding mechanisms were ascribed to elements redistribution or phase change [14

14. N. Takeshima, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of a periodic structure with a high refractive-index difference by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4019–4024 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this study we describe the fabrication of diffraction gratings with different RICs by 1 kHz and 250 kHz fs laser micromachining borosilicate glasses. The influence of fs laser irradiation condition and annealing temperature on RIC was investigated. The mechanisms of the observed phenomena were also discussed.

2. Experiment details

Glasses with compositions (in mol %) of 10Na2O–35B2O3–40SiO2–10GeO2–5Al and 10Na2O–35B2O3–40SiO2–10SnO2–5Al were obtained by conventional melt-quenching technique using reagent grade Na2CO3, H3BO3, SiO2, GeO2, SnO2, and Al as raw materials. Glasses were melted in alumina crucibles with alumina caps in electric furnaces at 1450 °C for 1 h, cast into patties about 3 mm thick, and annealed at 400 °C for 2h. We denoted them as Ge and Sn glass for convenience. The obtained glasses were colorless and transparent. The refractive indices of the two glasses were 1.491 and 1.490, respectively. Two commercial 800 nm regenerative amplified Ti: sapphire fs (Spectra-Physics Ltd. and RegA 900, Coherent Inc.) were used to generate 120 fs, 1kHz or 120 fs, 250 kHz mode-locked pulses. The laser beam was focused via a microscope objective into the optically polished glass sample that was fixed on a computer controlled 3D XYZ stage. Grating structures were obtained by using direct laser writing technique. After irradiation, induced structure in the glass samples was observed with an optical microscope. The diffraction efficiencies of the grating structures were analyzed using a He-Ne laser beam. The images of the diffraction patterns were received on a white screen and were captured by a digital camera. Optical absorption spectra were recorded with a JASCO V-570 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were obtained using a Bruker A30 ESR spectrometer (9.855 GHz, X-band). Structural changes of the modified glass regions were identified by a Micro-Raman spectrometer (Renishaw inVia) with a 514 nm laser excitation. Images of the crystalline microstructures were obtained with a JEOL 2010 transmission electron microscopy (TEM) instrument. All the measurements were carried out at room temperature.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Optical microscopic images of the fabricated gratings recorded under optical transmission mode, (a) 1 kHz and (b) 250 kHz fs laser irradiated Sn glass; (c) 1 kHz and (d) 250 kHz fs laser irradiated Ge glass.
shows the front view of microscopic images of the fabricated gratings in the transmitted mode. The writing parameters for Figs. 1(a) and 1(c) are as follows, repetition rate: 1 kHz, laser power: 40 mW, objective: 10 × (NA = 0.30), focused depth: 1 mm below the glass surface, writing speed: 500 µm/s. Clear induced structures were observed in the transmitted images. The induced grating structures have a period of 30 µm and a thickness of approximately 1 mm for Sn glass and a period of 20 µm and a thickness of 1 mm for Ge glass. Gratings were classified based on the grating thickness parameter Q [16

16. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

], defined as Q = 2πλd/(nΛ2), where n is the refractive index, Λ is the grating period and d is the thickness of grating, respectively. The calculated parameters Q are 2.9 and 6.6 for grating in Sn and Ge glasses, respectively, and made them reasonable to investigate the characteristics of the gratings by using diffraction theory of thin grating. One also can observe that the laser unmodified area was colorless, while the laser modified region was chocolate for Sn glass and dark-orange for Ge glass, respectively. For comparison, grating structures were also written in both glasses by a high repetition rate laser (250 kHz). The fabrication conditions were as follows, laser power: 600-800 mW, objective: 50 × (NA = 0.80), focused depth: 200 µm below the glass surface, writing speed: 60 µm/s. Apparent grating structures were also obtained. The calculated parameters Q are 0.004 and 0.005 for grating in Sn and Ge glasses, respectively, based on the grating parameters (period 80µm, thickness 10 and 12µm). The color of the modified regions was changed to black, which could be due to the formation of Ge and Sn crystals since the crystals have broad absorption in the visible range.

We further examined the grating structures by using the reflected mode of the optical microscope. The glass was polished away to expose the femtosecond laser induced crystalline line array written within the glass for index analysis. We cannot observe the clear grating structures fabricated by 1 kHz fs laser, while high bright gratings are observed in the 250 kHz fs laser machined glasses. In this mode, a bright area indicated a high reflectivity region. The interface is possible to use the one between air and glass. Although there is much deviation, the Fresnel formula is applicable for an approximate calculation [17

17. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic Press, 1969).

]. According to the relation between reflectivity and refractive index of the material under normal incidence, the expressions were as follows:
Runmod=(nunmod1)2(nunmod+1)2, Rmod=(nmod1)2(nmod+1)2, I=ImodIunmod=Rmod+(1Rmod)RmodRunmod+(1Runmod)Runmod,
where R is reflectivity, n is the refractive index, the refractive indices of different regions could be calculated approximately through measuring their respective reflectivity I (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical microscope images of the crystalline line fabricated by 250 kHz laser recorded under optical reflection mode and corresponding calculated refractive index profile, (a), (b) Ge glass, (c), (d) Sn glass.
). The subscripts mod and unmod express laser unmodified and modified region. The maximum RICs were estimated to be about 12% and 11% for Ge and Sn gratings fabricated by 250 kHz fs laser, respectively. Since no clear bright regions can be observed in the 1 kHz fabricated gratings, it can imply that the RIC was very small.

According to the diffraction theory for a thin grating [16

16. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

], we can calculate the RIC by measuring the diffraction efficiency. The images and profiles of the diffraction patterns are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Images of diffraction pattern and corresponding profiles, (a) 1 kHz, and (b) 250 kHz fs laser irradiated Sn glass, (c) 1 kHz, and (d) 250 kHz fs laser irradiated Ge glass.
. Only low order diffraction spots were founded from the 1 kHz fs laser fabricated gratings, while high orders diffraction spots could also be observed from 250 kHz fs laser fabricated gratings. In addition, the maximum diffraction efficiencies were measured to be about 4.2%, 40%, 4.6%, and 51% for gratings fabricated in Sn and Ge glasses by 1 kHz and 250 kHz fs laser, respectively. Then the corresponding RICs were calculated to be about 4.1 × 10−4, 0.12, 4.3 × 10−4, and 0.12, respectively. The refractive index changes obtained from the diffraction pattern was close to the results obtained from the reflectivity measurements.

To investigate the formation of color centers due to fs laser irradiation, we performed ESR spectrum measurements for the laser unmodified and modified Sn glasses, which is shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 ESR spectra of fs laser unmodified, 1 kHz, and 250 kHz laser modified Sn glasses.
. No ESR signal was observed before laser exposure, while, after laser irradiation, ESR signals with g factors of 1.996, and 2.003 appeared, which can be assigned to SiE´ centers [19

19. N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, “In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3495–3497 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Similar ESR signals were also observed in Ge glass after the fs laser irradiation. Such SiE´ centers are produced by the formation of a so-called oxygen-deficiency center by capturing electrons [19

19. N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, “In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3495–3497 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. It is also noticed that the concentration of SiE´ centers produced by 250 kHz fs laser was much lower than that generated by 1 kHz fs laser, which might be due to the annealing effect based on heat accumulation in the case of 250 kHz laser.

TEM measurement also confirms the precipitation of crystals after 250 kHz fs laser irradiation. Figure 7
Fig. 7 TEM images of Sn glasses before and after 250 kHz laser irradiation.
shows the TEM images of the Sn glasses before and after 250 kHz fs laser irradiation. No crystal was found before laser irradiation, while after the fs laser irradiation, Sn nanocrystals with the average size about 4 nm were mono-dispersed in the glass matrix. Based on the volume fraction of crystals from TEM image (5.64%, and 4.12% for Sn and Ge crystals, respectively), the refractive index is calculated to be about 1.60 and 1.62 for Sn and Ge glass, respectively, which was close to the results estimated based on the refraction analysis.

Furthermore, the influence of fs laser irradiation and annealing temperature on diffraction efficiency (i.e. RIC) was examined. Both dependences of ESR signal intensity on 1 kHz laser power and annealing temperature are in good agreement with those of the measured diffraction efficiency as shown in Figs. 8(a)
Fig. 8 (a) Dependences of the ESR signal intensity and diffraction efficiency on 1 kHz laser power, and (b) those on annealing temperature. (c) Dependences of the Raman peak intensity of Sn crystal and diffraction efficiency on 250 kHz laser power and (d) those on annealing temperature.
and 8(b), respectively. It appears an increasing tendency for ESR signal intensity and diffraction efficiency with increasing the laser power, while a decrease tendency for ESR signal intensity and diffraction efficiency with increasing annealing temperature. When the color centers disappear after annealing, the diffraction efficiency decreases to zero. It indicates that the RIC induced by 1 kHz fs laser irradiation is primarily due to the formation of color centers. Figures 8(c) and 8(d) show both the Raman peak intensity of Sn crystals and diffraction efficiency as function of 250 kHz laser power and annealing temperature. It reveals an increasing tendency for Raman peak intensity and diffraction efficiency with increasing the laser power, while nearly unchanged with increasing annealing temperature. We can conclude that precipitation of metal nanoparticles induced by 250 kHz fs laser is responsible for the large RIC.

4. Conclusion

The fabrication of diffraction gratings in borosilicate glasses by focused 1 kHz and 250 kHz fs laser was demonstrated. The influence of fs laser irradiation and annealing temperature on RIC was examined. Smaller RIC (10−4) was observed after 1 kHz laser irradiation, which was primarily due to the formation of color centers. Larger RIC (10−1) was obtained after 250 kHz fs laser irradiation, which was ascribed to the precipitation of nanocrystals. The result highlights that the mechanisms of RIC induced by fs laser can be very different depending on the laser irradiation conditions. These observations may be useful for fabrication of three-dimensional optical components in glasses by using direct fs laser writing technique..

Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.51072054, 50872123 and 50802083) and partially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (2011CB808103 and 2010CB923203).

References and links

1.

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

Y. Li, Y. Dou, R. An, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Permanent computer-generated holograms embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2433–2438 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

G. Lin, F. Luo, F. He, Y. Teng, W. Tan, J. Si, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Space-selective precipitation of Ge crystalline patterns in glasses by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 262–264 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, J. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser integration in glasses,” Rev. Laser Eng. 36(APLS), 1206–1209 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(1), 19–21 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

T. Hashimoto and S. Tanaka, “Large negative refractive index modification induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser inside optical glasses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5429–5433 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2491–2493 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. T. Fernandez, S. M. Eaton, G. Della Valle, R. M. Vazquez, M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond laser written optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20289–20297 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(10), 2496–2504 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

N. Takeshima, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of a periodic structure with a high refractive-index difference by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4019–4024 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

17.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic Press, 1969).

18.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 408–410 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

N. Fukata, Y. Yamamoto, K. Murakami, M. Hase, and M. Kitajima, “In situ spectroscopic measurement of transmitted light related to defect formation in SiO2 during femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3495–3497 (2003). [CrossRef]

20.

C. J. Buchenauer, M. Cardona, and F. H. Pollak, “Raman scattering in gray tin,” Phys. Rev. B 3(4), 1243–1244 (1971). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(350.3390) Other areas of optics : Laser materials processing

ToC Category:
Laser Materials Processing

History
Original Manuscript: May 24, 2011
Revised Manuscript: July 12, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 17, 2011
Published: July 27, 2011

Virtual Issues
Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing and Structuring of Materials (2011) Optical Materials Express

Citation
Geng Lin, Fangfang Luo, Fei He, Qingxi Chen, Danping Chen, Ya Cheng, Long Zhang, Jianrong Qiu, and Quanzhong Zhao, "Different refractive index change behavior in borosilicate glasses induced by 1 kHz and 250 kHz femtosecond lasers," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 724-731 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-4-724


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References

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Li, Y. Dou, R. An, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Permanent computer-generated holograms embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2433–2438 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Lin, F. Luo, F. He, Y. Teng, W. Tan, J. Si, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Space-selective precipitation of Ge crystalline patterns in glasses by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 262–264 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, J. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser integration in glasses,” Rev. Laser Eng. 36(APLS), 1206–1209 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(1), 19–21 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Hashimoto and S. Tanaka, “Large negative refractive index modification induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser inside optical glasses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(12), 5429–5433 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2491–2493 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. T. Fernandez, S. M. Eaton, G. Della Valle, R. M. Vazquez, M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond laser written optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20289–20297 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, “Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(10), 2496–2504 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. N. Takeshima, Y. Kuroiwa, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of a periodic structure with a high refractive-index difference by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4019–4024 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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