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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 5 — Sep. 1, 2011
  • pp: 803–815
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Manipulation of optical anisotropy in silica glass [Invited]

Yasuhiko Shimotsuma, Masaaki Sakakura, and Kiyotaka Miura  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 5, pp. 803-815 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.000803


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Abstract

We observed origin and evolution of optical anisotropy produced by self-organized nanogratings in silica glass. Its polarization dependence was also demonstrated.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

In this paper, we present two types of investigations: (1) the time-resolved observation of the structural modification of type-I by the detection of a laser induced pressure wave using a transient lens (TrL) method, and (2) evolution of form birefringence (type-II) produced by self-organized nanogratings as a function of inter pulse intervals (τ int) and number of pulses (N pulse). The polarization-dependent photosensitivity in type-II regions was also discussed.

2. Experimental

2.1 Time-resolved observation of the structural modification of type-I by TrL method

Detailed experimental setup for the TrL observation has been described in elsewhere [21

21. M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. A mode-locked, regeneratively amplified femtosecond laser pulse (Coherent Inc.; Mira9000-Legend), operating at 800 nm with 70 fs pulse and 250 kHz repetition rate was focused inside a commercially available synthetic fused silica (Shin-Etsu Quartz; VIOSIL-SQ), containing approximately 500 ppm OH, via a microscope objective (Nikon; LU Plan Fluor, 20 × , 0.45 N.A.). The photoexcited region was located at a depth of about 300 μm below the surface of glass sample. The optically delayed probe pulse (λ probe = 400 nm, 120 fs), which was frequency doubled replica of the pump pulse by a β-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal, passed through the photoexcited region coaxially with the pump beam (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of experimental setup for the TrL method.
). After the probe beam transmitted through the photoexcited region, the intensity distribution at ~30 mm apart from the photoexcited region was imaged on an ICCD camera (Hamamatsu Photonics; C10054-03). Before the detection, the pump beam was attenuated by a blue filter and completely eliminated from the probe beam by a prism. The TrL signal was obtained by plotting the intensities at the center of the probe beam as a function of the delay times of the probe pulses. The pulse energy was controlled by an optical neutral density filter. The glass sample was translated at about 10 mm/s during the data acquisition to avoid multi-excitation at the same area. The focal mismatch between the pump and probe beams was controlled by changing the divergence of the probe beam with a telescope (L1 and L2).

2.2 Evolution of form birefringence (type-II) as a function of τint and Npulse

In the experiments, the femtosecond laser beam was focused via a microscope objective (Nikon; LU Plan Fluor, 100 × 0.90 N.A.) at a depth of about 100 μm below the surface of silica glass sample. The pulse energy was about 1.0 μJ and the beam power measured after microscope objective was independent on the orientation of light polarization. Repetition rate of the laser was set to 250 kHz corresponding to the interpulse interval τ int of 4 μs. The interpulse time τ int and the number of pulses N pulse were controlled by field programmable gate array (National Inst.; FPGA module 7811R) produced the trigger pulses. A series of dots were written in silica with different τ int and N pulse. After writing, the modified structures were inspected using optical and polarization (CRi Inc.; Polscope) microscopes. Previously we have observed the periodic nanostructure was induced in the orthogonal direction to the laser light polarization [15

15. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).

]. Such nanograting structures, consisting of periodic oxygen defect regions, are responsible for form birefringence [18

18. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The direction of slow axis of birefringence (a slow), which is always perpendicular to the writing light polarization (E), can be controlled by rotating polarization (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characteristic micrographs of localized birefringence, induced by focused femtosecond laser with various polarization direction (E), taken with optical (upper row) and polarization (lower row) microscope (pseudo color indicates direction of the slow axis, a slow, see polar legend).
) [20

20. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Erasure of nanostructure requires sufficiently high temperatures as the induced oxygen defects are maintained up to the glass transition temperature T g of ~1200 °C [22

22. E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

To discuss the energy transfer from the laser radiation to the light-matter interaction during femtosecond laser irradiation, we performed pulse-by-pulse analysis of plasma emission during femtosecond laser irradiation. In this measurement, the trigger signal from FPGA is sent to a multichannel spectrometer (Hamamatsu Photonics; PMA-11) via a delay pulse generator (Stanford Research; DG-535). The emission spectra are taken by the detector at time that trigger signal rise with an acquisition gate width of 1 μs (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Pulse diagrams of pulse-by-pulse analysis of plasma emission. P trig, τ int and τ w indicate a trigger pulse, a laser interpulse time and an acquisition gate width, respectively.
). We have also observed transmission spectroscopy during laser beam irradiation using a multichannel spectrometer. In the characterization, a confocal Raman spectrometer (Tokyo Instruments; Nanofinder 30) was used for structural identification of the irradiated regions.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1 Excitation pulse energy dependence of TrL signals

The TrL signals at various pump pulse energies (I pump) are shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) TrL signals excited by various excitation energy. The signals are offset for clarity and the baselines of the signals are drawn by broken lines. (b) Plot of the oscillation amplitude against the excitation energy (filled circles). The inset shows the definition of the oscillation amplitude, which is defined by the difference between the signal intensity at the first positive peak and that at the second negative peak.
. In all the TrL signals, spike shaped signals at the delay time of 0 ps were observed as the decrease of the probe light intensity. This spike signal should be attributed to an optical Kerr effect and plasma formation, which has been reported by other researchers [21

21. M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005). [CrossRef]

,23

23. M. Terazima, “Ultrafast transient Kerr lens in solution detected by the dual-beam thermal-lens method,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 25–27 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. After this signal, the TrL signals were clearly oscillated at the high excitation pulse energy. The amplitude of the TrL oscillation became larger with increasing the pulse energy. Previously, we showed that this oscillation represents the pressure wave generated by the pump pulse [25

25. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5674–5686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This oscillation disappeared at I pump < 90 nJ, indicating that the amplitude of a pressure wave is negligibly small at I pump < 90 nJ. To obtain the energy threshold of the generation of a pressure wave, the oscillation amplitudes were plotted against I pump in Fig. 4(b). From this plot, we determined the energy threshold of the pressure wave generation to be 90 nJ.

3.2 Characterization of Type-I modification with Raman spectroscopy

After writing the modified region by translating the glass sample with scanning speed of 100 μm/s, the Raman spectra were measured with a confocal laser scanning microscope (Tokyo Inst.; Nanofinder 30). The excitation laser beam from a laser diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 532 nm was focused in the modified region with a 40 × objective and the spectra of the Raman scattering were analyzed with a spectrometer. The sequence of Raman spectra of the modified region, taken as a function of femtosecond laser pulse energies are shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Raman spectra of the modified regions written with various pulse energies. (b) The peak intensities of the D2 bands plotted against the pulse energies. The intensities were normalized by that from the non-irradiated area.
. To improve the data quality, each Raman spectra has been subtracted a luminescence background corresponding to a non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) at 650 nm [26

26. L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51–69 (1994). [CrossRef]

], and corrected for temperature and frequency dependence of Raman scattering [27

27. I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. All the Raman bands in Fig. 5(a) have been assigned [28

28. P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984). [CrossRef]

,29

29. M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. For example, the dominant broadband around 450 cm−1 has been attributed to symmetric oxygen vibration of the bent Si−O−Si linkages. The sharp bands at ~490 cm−1 (D1) and ~600 cm−1 (D2) have been attributed to the oxygen breathing modes in four- and three-membered rings of SiO4 tetrahedra, respectively. These bands are important for obtaining the structural information in the structural modification inside a silica glass, because these bands come from the compaction of silica networks [28

28. P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984). [CrossRef]

]. Here, we focused the intensity change in the D2 band, because this band can be separated more easily from the other bands. The intensity of the D2 band increased with increasing laser pulse energy (Fig. 5(b)). The peak intensity of this band started to increase at about 90 nJ. Compared to the pulse energy dependences of the TrL oscillation (Fig. 4(b)), the threshold of a pressure wave generation is nearly equal to the threshold of an increase in three-membered rings of SiO4 tetrahedra (Fig. 5(b)), suggesting that the three-membered ring structure in silica networks, i.e., structural densification, should be induced by a pressure wave generation. Although the laser energy dependence of the D1 band was much smaller, the details were discussed elsewhere [6

6. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

According to the simulation of elastic deformation, the pressure wave is generated as the result of the stress relaxation in the photoexcited region [21

21. M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. After the photoexcitation, the temperature is elevated due to the energy transfer from the electrons to the lattice in a glass, and the temperature elevation induces thermoelastic stress. Because the temperature elevation by femtosecond laser irradiation occurs much faster than the elastic deformation of the material [24

24. P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997). [CrossRef]

], the thermoelastic stress reaches the maximum just after the photoexcitation. The subsequent stress relaxation induces the generation of a pressure wave. Finally the structural densification could be generated by the shock due to the instantly generated thermoelastic stress in the photoexcitation. Indeed, it has been reported that the shock pressure induces the apparent increase of D2 band [29

29. M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999). [CrossRef]

].

3.3 Structural characterization of Type-II modification

Figure 6
Fig. 6 Top-view (upper row) and cross-sectional (lower row) optical micrograph of femtosecond laser induced structure in silica glass with different number of pulses.
indicates optical micrograph of femtosecond laser induced structure in silica glass with different number of pulses at a repetition rate of 250 kHz (τ int = 4 μs). The pulse energy was 1.0 μJ. The length of the modified region was saturated to about 20 μm at 100 pulses irradiation. We have also observed that the size changes of the modified region with increasing number of pulses were independent of the interpulse interval. Even though it is expected to be stronger heat accumulation produced by higher repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation, the size of the modified region was smaller than that of other multicomponent glass [30

30. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. This phenomenon could be caused by a low thermal expansion coefficient of silica glass (~5 × 10−7 K−1) [31

31. M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

In order to estimate the structural change in silica glass with different OH concentration induced by femtosecond irradiation, we compared the microscopic fluorescence spectra of femtosecond laser modified regions in a synthetic fused silica (Shin-Etsu Quartz; VIOSIL-SX), containing below 100 ppm OH. In the experiments, microscopic photoluminescence spectra were measured using a CW DPSS laser (532 nm) as an excitation source at room temperature. The broad photoluminescence peaks located around 1.9 eV were observed from the laser processed region in the both glass samples (Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Microscopic fluorescence spectra of femtosecond laser modified regions in a synthetic fused silica with different OH concentration. The 250 kHz femtosecond laser pulses with pulse energy of 1 μJ were focused inside the silica glass samples. Raman signal was also detected on the edge of the fluorescence peak (double-headed arrow).
). This peak matches the characteristics of non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) defects [32

32. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Despite of the fact that no apparent difference in the size of the modified region was observed between the different OH concentrations, this broad PL intensity becomes remarkably higher with decreasing OH concentration. This phenomenon could be interpreted in terms of the dependence of fictive temperature on OH concentration in silica glass. When femtosecond laser pulses are focused inside the silica glass, most of the pulse energy is deposited into the silica glass sample at the focal volume either through nonlinear absorption or subsequent linear absorption by the plasma, resulting in rapid increase in temperature at the focus. Then many kinds of defects including NBOHC are produced. After irradiation, as the accumulated heat caused by successive pulses diffuses away, the temperature is quickly decreased during several micro seconds [33

33. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is known that since the silica glass with a higher OH concentration exhibits a lower fictive temperature, the silica glass containing a lower OH concentration requires longer structural relaxation time [34

34. Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In our case, the degree of the structural relaxation of the defects generated in VIOSIL-SX is less compared to that of VIOSIL-SQ. In the case of VIOSIL-SX, the glass structure, including the unrelaxed NBOHC defects, at the higher temperature could be frozen at the cooling process.To understand the effect of the thermal accumulation on the generation of NBOHC defects in VIOSIL-SX glass sample, we have observed the evolution of photoluminescence intensity of NBOHC defects varying the interpulse time τ int and the number of pulse N pulse at the pulse energy of 1.0 μJ (Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Evolution of photoluminescence intensity attributed to NBOHC defects for two orthogonal polarizations (E = 0° and 90°) versus number of pulses with different τ int (4 μs, 40 μs, 100 μs, 1 ms).
). The PL intensity attributed to NBOHC defects initially increases strongly with increasing exposures below 100 pulses and begins to be saturated. Induced NBOHC defects showed tendency to saturate after several hundreds of pulses that could be explained by the competition between creation and annihilation of such defects. In spite of the same pulse energy, the evolution of PL intensity is obviously different depending on the polarization direction, especially for the shorter interpulse time corresponding to the higher thermal accumulation effect. For interpulse time τ int of 4 μs and number of pulse above 100 pulses the saturated PL intensity produced by the vertical polarization (E = 90°) was 10 times lower compared with the horizontal polarization (E = 0°), suggesting that horizontal and vertical polarization produces different heating. Let us assume that horizontal polarization produces less heating than vertical. The thermal accumulation effect for horizontal polarization is also less than vertical. In this case the generated NBOHC defects by vertically polarized pulses could be partially annihilated by the recombination of NBOHC and E’ centers. Deeper investigation of this phenomenon will be required. The oxygen mobility in glass matrix is generally very slow compared with the optical phenomena. Assuming the temperature of the focal spot reaches T = 3000°C, the oxygen diffusion length was calculated by Fick’s law LD=2Dnt, Dn=D0exp(Q/RT), where D0 ( = 2.6 × 10−4 m2/s) is maximum diffusion coefficient (at infinite temperature), Q is the activation energy ( = 454 kJ/mol) and R is gas constant. Since the width of the oxygen defect regions in nanograting structure was ~20 nm, the diffusion time was estimated to be at least 40 μs [35

35. J. D. Kalen, R. S. Boyce, and J. D. Cawley, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(1), 203–209 (1991). [CrossRef]

].

3.4 Growth mechanism of the optical anisotropy

In order to reveal the growth mechanism of the anisotropic nanostructure (type-II modification), we have investigated the evolution of birefringence varying repetition rate (or the interpulse time τ int) and exposition (or the number of pulse N pulse) at the pulse energy of 1.0 μJ. The evolution of retardance δ and intensity of the D2 Raman peak with exposition time was then measured at different interpulse intervals τ int (4, 40, 400, and 4000 μs) (Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Evolution of retardance (a) and intensity of D2 Raman peak (b) for two orthogonal polarizations (E = 0° and 90°) versus number of pulses with different τint (4 μs, 40 μs, 400 μs, 4 ms).
). Micrographs taken with polarization microscope indicating the orientation of slow axis (a slow) and the retardance value (δ) induced by various numbers of pulses at τ int of 40 μs also shown in Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Micrographs taken with polarization microscope indicating the orientation of slow axis (a slow) and the retardance value (δ) induced by various numbers of pulses at τ int = 40 μs.
. In these experiments, we used VIOSIL-SQ glass sample. Only stress birefringence caused by local heating was observed for exposures below 100 pulses. While form birefringence induced by sub-wavelength periodic structures was detectable only after more than 100 pulses. Induced form birefringence showed tendency to saturate after several hundreds of pulses that could be explained by total depletion of oxygen inside nanograting corrugations. The optimal interpulse time τ int to achieve highest retardance value was of 40 μs, which also corresponds to oxygen diffusion time mentioned above. Alternatively, lower retardance value for τ int < 40 μs, could be explained by thermal accumulation [36

36. S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] which deteriorates quality of the self-assembled nanostructure. These results obviously indicate that the evolution of retardance can be controlled as a function of interpulse time. Such dependence between the retardance, the interpulse time, and the number of pulse can also be seen in the intensity of the D2 Raman peak. Similar changes of the increase in D2 Raman intensity with increasing irradiated pulse energy have been observed, suggesting that an increase in the relative number of the smaller membered silica ring in the glass network leads to an increase in the refractive index [4

4. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

We propose the following explanation of the dynamics of anisotropic nanostructure self-organization. Once a high free electron density is produced by multiphoton and avalanche ionizations, periodic modulation of electron concentration appears within the pulse width, resulting from the plasma waves interference. Most electrons are then trapped into deep levels and form the well-known E’ centers within a time scale of ~15 ps [38

38. S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The electron density modulation is then frozen into permanent material modification. Multiple pulses gradually improve this modulation until total reduction of the oxygen due to diffusion is reached.

3.5 Polarization dependent absorption and plasma emission

We performed transmission spectroscopy during laser beam irradiation to characterize the polarization dependent energy transfer in laser produced plasma. By making such absorption measurements as a function of the laser polarization direction, while all other conditions are the same, it would likely be possible to build up a set of data that can be used to constrain and inform a quantitative model of the polarization-dependent local heating process. From the observed transmitted spectra, we calculated the peak intensity profiles of the broad plasma emission ranging from 360 to 720 nm and the laser energy attenuation (Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Peak intensity profiles of the broad plasma emission ranging from 360 to 720 nm and the laser energy attenuation. Dotted curves are sine function fits to the data. Inset shows the observed transmitted spectra at E = 0° or 90°.
). This result clearly indicates that the energy transfer from laser pulse to plasma emission depends on the polarization. Furthermore, these experimental results confirmed our suggestion that the consumed laser energy may not depend significantly on the polarization direction compared to the polarization-dependent plasma emission. The absorption of light could be the same for different polarization plane orientations, but the same amount of absorbed energy can produce two different types of excitations depending on the laser polarization direction: one is associated with isotropic heating of glass matrix by electrons accelerated via inverse bremsstrahlung involving vertically polarized light in our experiment and another one is associated with the anisotropic glass heating, cavitation and strong coloration produced by the electron plasma waves excited by the light with polarization direction parallel to the pulse front tilt.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we found the threshold of the femtosecond laser induced type-I modification inside fused silica based on the observation of refractive index dynamics by the TrL method. The type-I modification was accompanied with the generation of a pressure wave after the photoexcitation. We consider that the pressure wave is the main origin of the structural change in the glass. Furthermore, we have experimentally observed evolution of form birefringence (type-II modification). Self-organization of defect structures gradually evolves during multiple pulses irradiation. We anticipate that these results will motivate development of a rewritable 5D optical storage.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Professor Qiu from Zhejiang University, Professor Kazansky from University of Southampton, and Professor Hirao from Kyoto University for good suggestion and discussions. This work is partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B).

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C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006). [CrossRef]

23.

M. Terazima, “Ultrafast transient Kerr lens in solution detected by the dual-beam thermal-lens method,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 25–27 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5674–5686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51–69 (1994). [CrossRef]

27.

I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995). [CrossRef]

28.

P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984). [CrossRef]

29.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999). [CrossRef]

30.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006). [CrossRef]

31.

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008). [CrossRef]

32.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003). [CrossRef]

33.

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004). [CrossRef]

35.

J. D. Kalen, R. S. Boyce, and J. D. Cawley, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(1), 203–209 (1991). [CrossRef]

36.

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008). [CrossRef]

38.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
(070.7145) Fourier optics and signal processing : Ultrafast processing

ToC Category:
Artificially Engineered Structures

History
Original Manuscript: July 19, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: July 27, 2011
Published: August 3, 2011

Virtual Issues
Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing and Structuring of Materials (2011) Optical Materials Express

Citation
Yasuhiko Shimotsuma, Masaaki Sakakura, and Kiyotaka Miura, "Manipulation of optical anisotropy in silica glass [Invited]," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 803-815 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-5-803


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References

  1. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. W. J. Reichman, J. W. Chan, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. M. Krol, “Spectroscopic characterization of different femtosecond laser modification regimes in fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(7), 1627–1632 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 325–327 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).
  16. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. M. Terazima, “Ultrafast transient Kerr lens in solution detected by the dual-beam thermal-lens method,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 25–27 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5674–5686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51–69 (1994). [CrossRef]
  27. I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995). [CrossRef]
  28. P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999). [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006). [CrossRef]
  31. M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008). [CrossRef]
  32. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003). [CrossRef]
  33. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004). [CrossRef]
  35. J. D. Kalen, R. S. Boyce, and J. D. Cawley, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(1), 203–209 (1991). [CrossRef]
  36. S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008). [CrossRef]
  38. S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002). [CrossRef]

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