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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 7 — Nov. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1165–1177
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Fabrication of high resistivity cold-implanted InGaAsP photoconductors for efficient pulsed terahertz devices

André Fekecs, Maxime Bernier, Denis Morris, Martin Chicoine, François Schiettekatte, Paul Charette, and Richard Arès  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 7, pp. 1165-1177 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.001165


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Abstract

A multiple-energy, high fluence, MeV Fe ion implantation process was applied at 83 K to heavily damage a low band gap (0.79 eV) epitaxial InGaAsP layer. Optimal rapid thermal annealing conditions were found and produced a fast photoconductor with high resistivity (up to 2500 Ωcm) and Hall mobility around 400 cm2V−1s−1. Short photocarrier trapping times (0.3 ps – 3 ps) were observed via transient differential reflectivity measurements. Furthermore, photoconductive terahertz devices with coplanar electrodes were fabricated and validated. Under pulsed excitation with a 1550 nm femtosecond fiber laser source, antennas based on Fe-implanted InGaAsP are able to emit broadband radiation exceeding 2 THz. Given such specifications, this new material qualifies as a worthy candidate for an integration into optical terahertz spectrometer designs.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Rationale and fabrication of Fe-implanted InGaAsP

Band-to-band photocarrier generation with femtosecond Er-doped fiber lasers is efficient when the photoconductor band gap energy Eg is smaller than 0.80 eV (i.e., the photon energy at 1550 nm). The ternary alloy In0.53Ga0.47As meets this criteria (Eg = 0.74 eV) and has been the subject of many developments in recent years. Its fabrication by low-temperature (LT) growth was studied first and led to short carrier lifetimes [19

19. H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, R. Gibis, and G. Urmann, “Material properties of Ga0.47In0.53 As grown on InP by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1347–1349 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. However, it was found to electrically underperform LT grown GaAs. The dominant traps, assigned to point defects, are too shallow for adequate electrical isolation. As a result, extra processing has to be performed in order to increase the material resistivity after annealing. Carrier compensation with berylium doping does not allow for a sufficient increase of the resistivity. Some authors suggest to reduce slightly the gallium content (thus increasing the material band gap) for superior results [13

13. A. Takazato, M. Kamakura, T. Matsui, J. Kitagawa, and Y. Kadoya, “Detection of terahertz waves using low-temperature-grown InGaAs with 1.56 μm pulse excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101119 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Other epitaxy-based approaches were tested recently and photoconductors exhibiting suitable properties for making THz devices have been obtained by i) incorporating ErAs metallic precipitates in Be-doped In0.53Ga0.47As [14

14. D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, “Ultrafast photoresponse at 1.55 μm in InGaAs with embedded semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051908 (2005). [CrossRef]

], ii) incorporating iron impurities that act as mid-gap states in In0.53Ga0.47As [15

15. C. D. Wood, O. Hatem, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, and D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz emission from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown Fe:InGaAs using 830 nm to 1.55 μm excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 194104 (2010). [CrossRef]

], or iii) using an especially designed InGaAs/InAlAs multilayer structure for which absorption and photocarrier trapping occur in different layers of the structure [16

16. H. Kuenzel, J. Boettcher, K. Biermann, H. Hensel, H. Roehle, and B. Sartorius, “Low temperature MBE-grown In(Ga,Al)As/InP structures for 1.55 μm THz photoconductive antenna applications,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2008 (IEEE, New York, 2008), pp. 1–4. [CrossRef]

]. Be-doped plasma-assisted epitaxy has also been used to fabricate ultrafast III–V compounds [20

20. L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, B. J. Robinson, and D. A. Thomson, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetimes in beryllium-doped InGaAsP grown by He-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1513–1515 (1997). [CrossRef]

] but such materials have not yet been exploited for optical THz emission. Despite the high level of material control that can be achieved by all these epitaxial growth techniques, the development of new structures and growth recipes may be particularly time consuming (i.e., requires numerous wafer pieces and growth hours) depending on the number of parameters to be optimized. Standard epitaxial In0.53Ga0.47As layers can also be damaged by ion beam processing, which is a popular post-growth fabrication technique that reduces the carrier lifetime [21

21. F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460–462 (1987). [CrossRef]

]. For instance, ultrafast ternary layers were produced after damaging them with heavy ions (i.e., by irradiation [18

18. N. Chimot, J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005). [CrossRef]

] or implantation [17

17. M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, “Fe-implanted InGaAs terahertz emitters for 1.56 μm wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051104 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ion-implanted In0.53Ga0.47As for ultrafast optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3913–3915 (2003). [CrossRef]

]). It was found that energetic atomic recoils from the collision cascade triggers the formation of a high number of small defect clusters which further evolve into defect complexes after subsequent thermal annealing treatments. These complexes, unlike point defects, are believed to increase the ternary’s electrical resistivity through forming deep carrier traps and efficient carrier recombination centers. When iron is the implanted species, it appears to combine with defect complexes and contribute to raise the resistivity. This is probably due to its capacity for producing extra mid-gap states [22

22. C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ion-implanted In0.53Ga0.47As for ultrafast optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3913–3915 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. However, resistivity levels discussed in the literature in relationship to ultrafast irradiated or Fe-implanted In0.53Ga0.47As are typically lower than those pertaining to materials fabricated by epitaxial growth only [13

13. A. Takazato, M. Kamakura, T. Matsui, J. Kitagawa, and Y. Kadoya, “Detection of terahertz waves using low-temperature-grown InGaAs with 1.56 μm pulse excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101119 (2007). [CrossRef]

16

16. H. Kuenzel, J. Boettcher, K. Biermann, H. Hensel, H. Roehle, and B. Sartorius, “Low temperature MBE-grown In(Ga,Al)As/InP structures for 1.55 μm THz photoconductive antenna applications,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2008 (IEEE, New York, 2008), pp. 1–4. [CrossRef]

]. High resistivity is desirable since Joule heating becomes a problem when operating photoconductive emitters under high DC electric fields. Overall, the resistivity of most ultrafast materials based on In0.53Ga0.47As struggles to exceed 500 Ωcm, sometimes with low Hall mobility of less than 100 cm2V−1s−1, a situation which prompts to look for alternatives.

InGaAsP quaternary alloys offer some extra design flexibility over In0.53Ga0.47As. Lattice-matching with InP is met by adjusting the molar fraction y in (In0.53Ga0.47As)y(InP)1−y. Its bandgap can be tuned from 0.74 eV up to 1.35 eV. It becomes possible to tailor the absorption band edge of the quaternary photoconductor close to any of the aformentioned rare-earth fiber laser wavelengths. This could prove useful for avoiding intervalley carrier scattering [23

23. S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, “Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Inter-valley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5568–5573 (1996). [CrossRef]

], particularly with the use of Yb-doped fiber sources. As a rule of thumb, semiconductors with higher bandgaps show larger intrinsic resistivity. For use with Er-doped fiber lasers, band-to-band absorption at 1550 nm is allowed for molar fractions of about y = 0.9 or greater. Relative to In0.53Ga0.47As, a small increase in the band gap is possible (Eg = 0.79 eV) which corresponds to a factor of about 2 or 3 in higher intrinsic resistivity. Amongst the fabrication techniques listed here, we select the Fe implantation post-growth process, given that the epitaxy of quaternary alloys is based on already rigorous calibrations.

In this context, undoped InGaAsP layers (1.5 μm thick) were grown on semi-insulating InP wafers (75 mm diameter) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The quaternary layer was sandwiched between thin (100 nm) undoped InP buffer and capping layers. Two wafers were selected to assess the end-to-end reproducibility of the material processing. Their room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) peak wavelengths were 1565 nm (wafer 1) and 1575 nm (wafer 2). Offsets of −240 arc sec (wafer 1) and −380 arc sec (wafer 2) in the high resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve were observed for the (004) reflection, revealing a small lattice mismatch. Thus the starting material was In1−xGaxAsyP1−y, with x = 0.39 and y = 0.865 for wafer 1 and with x = 0.38 and y = 0.86 for wafer 2. The level of compressive strain (0.1% and 0.15%) was acceptable and layer coherence was maintained.

The damaged quaternary layers were then processed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in order to modify and optimize their electrical and optical properties. For each wafer, a series of cleaved samples were maintained for 30 s at distinct temperatures between 400 °C to 800 °C in a nitrogen filled thermal processing chamber (Jipelec, Jetfirst). A 100 mm silicon wafer (which served as a susceptor) and a silicon proximity cap protected both top and bottom surfaces from phosphorous desorption. Prior to characterization, the InP capping layer was removed by selective wet chemical etching.

3. Effects of Fe ion implantation and RTA on critical properties for THz emission

3.1. Electrical Hall measurements

The carrier transport in Fe-implanted InGaAsP layers was investigated by Hall measurements (at 300 K, in dark ambient conditions). Resistivity, carrier density and Hall mobility were estimated assuming a uniform layer, a single carrier type and a unity scattering factor. Measurements were made in the van der Pauw geometry on 6 mm × 6 mm samples with indium contacts alloyed at 300 °C for 60 s. Hall coefficients were recorded at 0.36 T. Measurements on Fe-implanted InGaAsP samples reported in Fig. 1 pertain to two wafers. Properties of the as-grown InGaAsP epilayers are also tabulated in the inset of this figure. Hall coefficients values are negative in all cases, the electrons being the majority carrier in the as-grown material.

Fig. 1 Effects of a 30 s RTA (400 °C to 800 °C) on (a) resistivity, (b) free carrier density and (c) Hall mobility of implanted InGaAsP with an Fe fluence of 2.1 × 1015 cm−2 at 83 K. Data for as-implanted samples are indicated at 300 °C, which was the In alloying temperature. Two wafers were used and their as-grown parameters are tabulated here. The solid lines are only guides for the eye.

For both wafers, the Hall transport results show similar influence of the Fe implantation and RTA processes. At the lowest annealing temperature (300 °C), necessary for In alloying, we find that ion implantation at high fluences causes a drastic reduction of the Hall mobility, compared to the as-grown material. By increasing the RTA temperature up to 500 °C, we observe an important decline of the free carrier density (Fig. 1b) along with a progressive recovery of the Hall mobility (Fig. 1c). Then, maximum resistivity values of 2500 Ωcm and 1400 Ωcm and minimal carrier density values of about 1013 cm−3 were achieved at 600 °C and 500 °C for wafer 1 and wafer 2, respectively (Figs. 1a and 1b). The resistivity increases by more than a 104 factor with respect to the as-grown material. The Hall mobility peaks at slightly different RTA temperatures. Still, the highest resistivity sample of both series show a reasonable mobility, of about 400 cm2V−1s−1. By further increasing the RTA temperature beyond 600 °C, our results show a rapid reduction of the material resistivity associated with a strong increase of the carrier density and a gradual decrease of the carrier mobility.

3.2. Optical absorption measurements

The optical transmission spectra of the samples were measured with an arc lamp source (Oriel, model 66881) and a spectrum analyzer (Ando, model AQ6317). The samples were illuminated at normal incidence with a collimated beam (0.7 mm spot size). The power spectral density was kept below −65 dBm/nm. A 1 nm resolution bandwidth gave an adequate dynamic range. At this resolution, the Fabry-Perot interferences, caused by multiple reflections from the facets of the 600 μm thick InP substrate, are partially smoothed out. Signals transmitted through and without the sample were recorded subsequently, at each wavelength position.

Room-temperature transmission loss spectra of the as-grown, implanted and annealed samples are shown in Fig. 2. The inset shows the fraction of the light absorbed by the samples around 1550 nm obtained after subtracting the amount of light reflected by the sample’s facets. For the as-grown quaternary layer, we observe a step-like transmission enhancement at 1575 nm which corresponds to the absorption band edge of this material. For wavelengths longer than the band edge wavelength, the small 2.4 dB transmission loss is caused by 27% facet reflections. After the implantation of Fe at a fluence of 2.1 × 1015 cm−2, the band edge signature is no longer visible and the transmission loss becomes larger by more than 3 dB at 1550 nm. The increased absorption factor at short wavelengths might be caused by strong scattering of light on large defects present in the amorphized layer. The absence of a sharp transmission feature at 1575 nm, on the other hand, can be explained by extra optical transitions involving trap states that are distributed within the band gap of the material. Annealing the sample at 600 °C reduces the transmission loss to the level of the as-grown material and extra absorption is still observed for wavelengths longer than 1550 nm due to the remaining energy-distributed trap states. The total absorption of the laser light at 1550 nm by this 1.5 μm thick InGaAsP photoconductive layer is only 0.5. This corresponds to an optical attenuation coefficient of 4700 cm−1. By contrast, In0.53Ga0.47As has an absorption coefficient of about 7500 cm−1 at 1550 nm [29

29. F. R. Bacher, J. S. Blakemore, J. T. Ebner, and J. R. Arthur, “Optical-absorption coefficient of In1−xGaxAs/InP,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2551–2557 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. A ternary layer of the same thickness would absorb about 0.75 of an incoming light. These relatively small factors need to be taken into account when coupling these photoconductors to Er-doped fiber laser sources.

Fig. 2 White light transmission loss spectra of as-grown, implanted and annealed In-GaAsP/InP samples from wafer 1. The spectrum analyzer resolution bandwidth = 1 nm, the scanning step = 1 nm, and a 10-point Savitsky-Golay smoothing was applied. The y-axis reference level is located at 2.4 dB, it is the average transmission loss from a cavity with facet reflection of 27 %. The figure inset shows the optical absorption factor within the 1.5 μm-thick quaternary layer around 1550 nm.

3.3. Photocarrier trapping time measurements

3.3.1. Experimental setup

A schematic of the transient differential reflectivity setup used to estimate the carrier trapping time of Fe-implanted InGaAsP layers is shown in Fig. 3. An Er-doped fiber laser source developed by the Institut National d’Optique was used for these measurements. This source delivers 250 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 20 MHz, and with an average power of 1 W. The linearly polarized output beam, centered at 1550 nm, is split into cross-polarized pump and probe beams. Their power ratio is set by the rotation of a half-wave plate placed before the polarizing beam splitter. In the context of our study, the pump and probe powers are set to 10 mW and 300 μW, respectively. The pump and probe beams are focused on the sample and the overlapping spots have full widths at half maximum of 20 μm and 10 μm, respectively.

Fig. 3 Schematic of the transient differential reflectivity setup configured for testing semiconductor chips (SC) at 1550 nm.

The pump beam illuminates the sample surface at normal incidence and its intensity is modulated at 1 kHz with a mechanical chopper. The probe beam is reflected by the sample surface and then collected and redirected on two separate photodiodes. The output of photodiode 1 is sent to a lock-in amplifier for a measurement of the pump-induced reflectivity (ΔR) signal. The output of photodiode 2 is low-pass filtered (the cut-off frequency being much lower than the chopper frequency) giving rise to the average reflectivity signal. A pinhole is inserted into the detection path and spatially filters the reflected probe beam such that the detected signal mainly originates from a 1 μm spot size on the sample. The pinhole also reduces significantly the level of pump scattering from the semiconductor surface. A high-pass optical filter and a polarizer are placed in front of photodiode 1 in order to cut photoluminescence at 1565 nm and the remaining pump intensity, respectively. Under these experimental conditions, the noise level is low enough to detect relative changes of reflectivity as small as 0.001%. Finally, a variable delay line is used to record ΔR/R signals at different time delays between the pump and probe pulses hitting the sample surface.

Differential reflectivity measurements were made with wafer 2 sample series, which was annealed at temperatures between 400 °C and 750 °C. We chose this sample series because of better overall surface quality (as compared to wafer 1 series). We found out that small particles tend to appear on the silicon susceptor after many RTA cycles. This influences the quality of the InGaAsP top surface, which is facing the susceptor during the RTA process. The wafer 2 sample series was processed just after replacing the susceptor with a new one.

3.3.2. Results and analysis

Figure 4 shows the differential reflectivity signals (circles in Fig. 4a) which are plotted on a semi-log graph as a function of the pump-probe time delay. The experimental curves exhibit exponential decay behaviours. The reflectivity signal from the sample annealed at 400 °C decays very rapidly with a single exponential. As the annealing temperature increases, the decay time becomes longer and a second exponential decay has to be taken into account, in order to describe the experimental data at longer pump-probe time delays.

Fig. 4 (a) Normalized differential reflectivity measurements (circles) and fitted curves (solid lines) for InGaAsP (wafer 2) implanted with Fe at a fluence of 2.1 × 1015 cm−2 at 83 K, after 30 s RTA at various temperature. (b) Amplitude ratio A1/A2 and (c) decay times τ1 and τ2 are plotted against the RTA temperature, after their extraction from curve fitting.

Those differential reflectivity signals could be modeled by two convolution products involving the laser probe pulse, the pump pulse, and the impulse response of the sample:
ΔRRIprobe(t)*[Ipump(t)*U(t)]Nph(t)
(1)
where Iprobe (t) and Ipump (t) are the temporal intensity profiles of the probe and pump, respectively. U(t) is an impulse response function describing the return to equilibrium of the photoexcited semiconductor. U(t) is given by:
U(t)=H(t)[A1exp(tτ1)+A2exp(tτ2)]
(2)
with H(t) being the unit step function. Parameters A1 and A2 are the amplitudes of the two exponential functions with decay times of τ1 and τ2, respectively. The solid lines plotted in Fig. 4a correspond to the fitted curves calculated using Eqs. (1) and (2), and considering a Gaussian temporal profile for the probe and pump laser pulses (with a full width at half maximum of 250 fs). This model can fit properly the rising edge of the differential reflectivity measurements which is also essential for extracting decay times of comparable or smaller duration than the excitation pulse width.

In summary, optimal electrical properties for making a photoconductive THz antenna device are produced for RTA temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 600 °C (see Fig. 1). In this range, the fast decay time in transient reflectivity measurements is subpicosecond. The presence of implantation-induced defects throughout the InGaAsP layer limits the second decay time to a few ps. With such small decay times (⩽ 3 ps), a THz-TDS system made with Fe-implanted InGaAsP THz photoconductive antennas is expected to show more than 1 THz of usable bandwidth.

4. Antenna fabrication and THz emission with Fe-implanted InGaAsP

THz emitters were developed using dipolar antennas fabricated on InGaAsP samples taken from wafer 1 which were cold-implanted with Fe ions. The samples were annealed for 30 s at 600 °C. Ohmic contacts were formed by e-beam deposition of a 285 nm thick layer of a standard mixture of Ni/AuGe/Au, followed by a 30 s anneal at 410 °C. Coplanar electrodes (10 μm wide, 8 mm long and spaced by a 120 μm gap) were patterned by standard lift-off photolithography. A current-voltage curve was recorded for this device and a dark current value of 8.4 μA was found at 1 V bias. With this particular electrode geometry, it corresponds to a layer sheet resistivity of 7.9 MΩ/sq and a material resistivity of 1200 Ωcm. The THz emitter was mounted on a holder and its electrodes were wire-bonded to a coaxial connector pair. A hemispherical high resistivity silicon lens was placed in contact with the back side of the device for an efficient collection of the THz radiation.

Figure 5 shows the temporal trace of the THz pulses (emitted by the InGaAsP-based antenna) and its corresponding spectrum. The Fourier-transformed THz spectrum peaks at 500 GHz. It exhibits a usable spectral range of 2 THz, and a maximum amplitude signal-to-noise ratio of 25 dB. The spectral bandwidth is likely limited by the detector since a large mismatch exists between the group velocity of the 1550 nm probing pulse and the phase velocity of the THz pulse in ZnTe [15

15. C. D. Wood, O. Hatem, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, and D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz emission from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown Fe:InGaAs using 830 nm to 1.55 μm excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 194104 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 34

34. M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974–3976 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Further measurements using a thin GaP electro-optic crystal are underway to confirm this. It is also known that the antenna’s geometry can have significant effect on the bandwidth. Results shown in the context of this study were obtained on the very first antennas made with already existing lithographic masks. Nevertheless, their overall characteristics are comparable to the best ones made on In0.47Ga0.53As:Fe photoconductive materials [15

15. C. D. Wood, O. Hatem, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, and D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz emission from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown Fe:InGaAs using 830 nm to 1.55 μm excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 194104 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The complete spectral investigation of the InGaAsP emitter against bias voltage and pump power will be the subject of a separate publication.

Fig. 5 (a) Time-domain signal emitted from a photoconductive antenna made of Fe-implanted InGaAsP annealed at 600 °C, excited by 250 fs pulses from an Er-doped fiber laser (Ppump = 80 mW) at Vbias = 50 V (4.2 kV/cm) and detected using a 0.5 mm thick ZnTe electro-optic crystal. (b) Amplitude spectrum obtained by fast Fourier transform of the temporal signal.

5. Discussion

For use with Er-doped femtosecond lasers, thermally annealed Fe-implanted InGaAsP compares favorably to many of the materials proposed up to now (see Table 1). In fact, 20- to 30-fold improvements in resistivity over ultrafast Fe-implanted In0.53Ga0.47As reported by Carmody et al. [22

22. C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ion-implanted In0.53Ga0.47As for ultrafast optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3913–3915 (2003). [CrossRef]

] is quite remarkable. Both were implanted with MeV Fe ions at similar fluence and annealed at similar temperatures.

Table 1. Summary of Results Reported for Ultrafast Photoconductive Layers Grown on Semi-Insulating InP Which Were Used for THz Emission

table-icon
View This Table

The ion beam damage from high fluence MeV Fe implantation takes about a day to complete on a 75 mm wafer quarter, due to nA ion current levels of the Fe+ source. The 1/e absorption length (at 1550 nm) of the Fe-implanted quaternary is 2.1 μm. Therefore, the existing layer thickness could be increased for photoconductive efficiency improvements, but at the cost of lengthened implantation and lower resistance between the electrodes. Strong band tails, resulting from cold implantation with high Fe+ fluence, are helping to absorb the spectral content of femtosecond pulses beyond the primary InGaAsP band edge wavelength. It may indicate that similar physics found in highly disordered and amorphous semiconductors is indeed happening (i.e., multiple conduction involving extended states, tail states and hopping transport) [35

35. A. Madan and M. P. Shaw, The Physics and Applications of Amorphous Semiconductors (Academic Press, 1988).

]. Additional work has to be undertaken in order to better understand the origin of the material tail states and defect states along with their influences on carrier transport, carrier lifetime, and on THz emission.

6. Conclusion

We investigated the use of quaternary InGaAsP alloys in fabricating photoconductive THz emitters. Epitaxial InGaAsP layers (with PL wavelengths at 1565 and 1575 nm) underwent high fluence Fe ion implantation at 83 K. They were then processed by rapid thermal annealing and characterized. Interesting optoelectronic properties occurred at annealing temperatures between 500 °C and 600 °C. We report a high resistivity of about (1200 – 2500) Ωcm, a Hall mobility of 400 cm2V−1s−1, and a photocarrier trapping time of (0.3 – 3) ps. At 1550 nm, the optical absorption coefficient is 4700 cm−1. Fe-implanted InGaAsP dipole antennas were fabricated for a THz-TDS validation. They were excited at 1550 nm with 250 fs pulses. The emitted spectral range exceeded 2 THz and had 25 dB of peak-to-noise ratio. Post-growth processing with cold, high fluence, Fe implantation was key to produce InGaAsP-based THz devices with good emitter characteristics.

Quaternary alloys allow to adjust the offset of their optical absorption edge to the laser emission wavelength. Implantation damage makes femtosecond pulse absorption possible beyond the primary PL wavelength. Besides 1.55 μm, other wavelengths can be exploited for THz technologies. Work is in progress to characterize the MeV Fe implantation process on a quaternary with Eg = 0.95 eV, which could be used as a photoconductive material for Pr-doped fiber lasers sources operating at 1.3 μm or Yb-doped fiber lasers sources operating around 1.0 μm.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a grant from NSERC through the Canadian Institute for Photonic Innovation. Funding from FQRNT through the Regroupement québécois sur les matériaux de pointe should also be acknowledged. A. Fekecs and M. Bernier respectively benefited from a NSERC doctoral scholarship and a FQRNT postdoctoral fellowship. The operation of the Ion Beam Laboratory and the clean room facilities were supported by NanoQuébec. We are grateful to CMC Microsystems for providing wafer foundry access and we acknowledge the contribution of Dr. A. J. SpringThorpe at the NRC Canadian Photonics Fabrication Centre for the epitaxial growth of quaternary layers and useful discussions on the characterization of such material. The authors thank also J.F. Allard for his advice on THz technologies, Y. Taillon from the Institut National d’Optique for providing the fiber laser source, and, lastly, M. Lacerte, G. Laliberté, A. Jaouad and É. Breton for their technical assistance in the laboratory and in the cleanrooms.

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P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S Hoffmann, M. Hofman, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histopathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3875–3884 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

R. Pieciewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholtz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kürner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 49(6), 24–39 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

E. Perret, M. Hamdi, A. Vena, F. Garet, M. Bernier, L. Duvillaret, and S. Tedjini, “RF and THz identification using a new generation of chipless RFID tags,” Radioengineering 20, 380–386 (2011).

12.

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 1–66 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Takazato, M. Kamakura, T. Matsui, J. Kitagawa, and Y. Kadoya, “Detection of terahertz waves using low-temperature-grown InGaAs with 1.56 μm pulse excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101119 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, “Ultrafast photoresponse at 1.55 μm in InGaAs with embedded semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051908 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

C. D. Wood, O. Hatem, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, and D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz emission from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown Fe:InGaAs using 830 nm to 1.55 μm excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 194104 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

H. Kuenzel, J. Boettcher, K. Biermann, H. Hensel, H. Roehle, and B. Sartorius, “Low temperature MBE-grown In(Ga,Al)As/InP structures for 1.55 μm THz photoconductive antenna applications,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2008 (IEEE, New York, 2008), pp. 1–4. [CrossRef]

17.

M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, “Fe-implanted InGaAs terahertz emitters for 1.56 μm wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051104 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

N. Chimot, J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 193510 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, R. Gibis, and G. Urmann, “Material properties of Ga0.47In0.53 As grown on InP by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1347–1349 (1992). [CrossRef]

20.

L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, B. J. Robinson, and D. A. Thomson, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetimes in beryllium-doped InGaAsP grown by He-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1513–1515 (1997). [CrossRef]

21.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460–462 (1987). [CrossRef]

22.

C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ion-implanted In0.53Ga0.47As for ultrafast optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3913–3915 (2003). [CrossRef]

23.

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, “Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Inter-valley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 5568–5573 (1996). [CrossRef]

24.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Series: Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon Press, 1984), Vol. 1.

25.

P. Too, S. Ahmed, R. Jakiela, A. Barcz, A. Kozanecki, B. J. Sealy, and R. Gwilliam, “Implant isolation of both n-type InP and InGaAs by iron irradiation: Effect of post-implant annealing temperature,” in Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Int. Symp. on Elec. Dev. for Micro. and Opto. Appl., (IEEE, New York, 2003), pp. 18–23.

26.

S. Marcinkevicius, A. Gaarder, C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in highly resistive InP and InGaAs produced by ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE 5352, 299–309 (2004). [CrossRef]

27.

S. C. Subramaniam and A. A. Rezazadeh, “The effects of thermal annealing on iron bombarded InP/InGaAs multilayer structures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 248, 59–66 (2006). [CrossRef]

28.

E. Wendler, “Mechanisms of damage formation in semiconductors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267, 2680–2689 (2009). [CrossRef]

29.

F. R. Bacher, J. S. Blakemore, J. T. Ebner, and J. R. Arthur, “Optical-absorption coefficient of In1−xGaxAs/InP,” Phys. Rev. B 37, 2551–2557 (1988). [CrossRef]

30.

T. Korn, A. Franke-Wiekhorst, S. Schnull, and I. Wilke, “Characterization of nanometer As-clusters in low-temperature grown GaAs by transient reflectivity measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 2333–2336 (2002). [CrossRef]

31.

S. S. Prabhu and A. S. Vengurlekar, “Dynamics of the pump-probe reflectivity spectra in GaAs and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7803–7812 (2004). [CrossRef]

32.

V. Ortiz, J. Nagle, J.-F. Lampin, E. Péronne, and A. Alexandrou, “Low-temperature-grown GaAs: Modeling of transient reflectivity experiments,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043515 (2007). [CrossRef]

33.

S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: The role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1972–1975 (1991). [CrossRef]

34.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974–3976 (2004). [CrossRef]

35.

A. Madan and M. P. Shaw, The Physics and Applications of Amorphous Semiconductors (Academic Press, 1988).

OCIS Codes
(160.5140) Materials : Photoconductive materials
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(320.7080) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast devices
(320.7100) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast measurements
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

ToC Category:
Semiconductors

History
Original Manuscript: September 2, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 27, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 29, 2011
Published: October 5, 2011

Citation
André Fekecs, Maxime Bernier, Denis Morris, Martin Chicoine, François Schiettekatte, Paul Charette, and Richard Arès, "Fabrication of high resistivity cold-implanted InGaAsP photoconductors for efficient pulsed terahertz devices," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1165-1177 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-7-1165


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References

  1. K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, “Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral finger-prints,” Opt. Express11, 2549–2554 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. R. Leahy-Hoppa, M. J. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. M. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett.434, 227–230 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. A. H. Saleck, M. Tanimoto, S. P. Belov, T. Klaus, and G. Winnewisser, “Millimetre- and submillimetre-wave rotational spectra of rare hydrogen sulfide isotopomers,” J. Mol. Spectros.171, 481–493 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. J.-F. Allard, A. Cornet, C. Debacq, M. Meurens, D. Houde, and D. Morris, “Improved detection sensitivity of D-mannitol crystalline phase content using differential spectral phase shift terahertz spectroscopy measurements,” Opt. Express19, 4644–4652 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. C. Kemp, P. F. Taday, J.A. Cluff, A. J. Fitzgerald, and W. R. Tribe, “Security applications of terahertz technology,” Proc. SPIE5070, 44–52 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett.20, 1716–1718 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M.A. Smith, and J. M. Chamberlain, “An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol.47, R67–R84 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. M. Woodward, P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, and E. H. Linfield, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys.29, 257–261 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S Hoffmann, M. Hofman, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histopathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol.47, 3875–3884 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Pieciewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholtz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, J. Schoebel, and T. Kürner, “Short-range ultra-broadband terahertz communications: concepts and perspectives,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag.49(6), 24–39 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. E. Perret, M. Hamdi, A. Vena, F. Garet, M. Bernier, L. Duvillaret, and S. Tedjini, “RF and THz identification using a new generation of chipless RFID tags,” Radioengineering20, 380–386 (2011).
  12. D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Terahertz fields and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron.8, 1–66 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Takazato, M. Kamakura, T. Matsui, J. Kitagawa, and Y. Kadoya, “Detection of terahertz waves using low-temperature-grown InGaAs with 1.56 μm pulse excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90, 101119 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, “Ultrafast photoresponse at 1.55 μm in InGaAs with embedded semimetallic ErAs nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 051908 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. C. D. Wood, O. Hatem, J. E. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, and D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz emission from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown Fe:InGaAs using 830 nm to 1.55 μm excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 194104 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kuenzel, J. Boettcher, K. Biermann, H. Hensel, H. Roehle, and B. Sartorius, “Low temperature MBE-grown In(Ga,Al)As/InP structures for 1.55 μm THz photoconductive antenna applications,” in 20th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM 2008 (IEEE, New York, 2008), pp. 1–4. [CrossRef]
  17. M. Suzuki and M. Tonouchi, “Fe-implanted InGaAs terahertz emitters for 1.56 μm wavelength excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86, 051104 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. N. Chimot, J. Mangeney, L. Joulaud, P. Crozat, H. Bernas, K. Blary, and J. F. Lampin, “Terahertz radiation from heavy-ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As photoconductive antenna excited at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 193510 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, R. Gibis, and G. Urmann, “Material properties of Ga0.47In0.53 As grown on InP by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.61, 1347–1349 (1992). [CrossRef]
  20. L. Qian, S. D. Benjamin, P. W. E. Smith, B. J. Robinson, and D. A. Thomson, “Subpicosecond carrier lifetimes in beryllium-doped InGaAsP grown by He-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71, 1513–1515 (1997). [CrossRef]
  21. F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50, 460–462 (1987). [CrossRef]
  22. C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, A. Gaarder, and S. Marcinkevicius, “Ion-implanted In0.53Ga0.47As for ultrafast optoelectronic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82, 3913–3915 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, “Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Inter-valley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B54, 5568–5573 (1996). [CrossRef]
  24. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Series: Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon Press, 1984), Vol. 1.
  25. P. Too, S. Ahmed, R. Jakiela, A. Barcz, A. Kozanecki, B. J. Sealy, and R. Gwilliam, “Implant isolation of both n-type InP and InGaAs by iron irradiation: Effect of post-implant annealing temperature,” in Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Int. Symp. on Elec. Dev. for Micro. and Opto. Appl., (IEEE, New York, 2003), pp. 18–23.
  26. S. Marcinkevicius, A. Gaarder, C. Carmody, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in highly resistive InP and InGaAs produced by ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE5352, 299–309 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. S. C. Subramaniam and A. A. Rezazadeh, “The effects of thermal annealing on iron bombarded InP/InGaAs multilayer structures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B248, 59–66 (2006). [CrossRef]
  28. E. Wendler, “Mechanisms of damage formation in semiconductors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B267, 2680–2689 (2009). [CrossRef]
  29. F. R. Bacher, J. S. Blakemore, J. T. Ebner, and J. R. Arthur, “Optical-absorption coefficient of In1−xGaxAs/InP,” Phys. Rev. B37, 2551–2557 (1988). [CrossRef]
  30. T. Korn, A. Franke-Wiekhorst, S. Schnull, and I. Wilke, “Characterization of nanometer As-clusters in low-temperature grown GaAs by transient reflectivity measurements,” J. Appl. Phys.91, 2333–2336 (2002). [CrossRef]
  31. S. S. Prabhu and A. S. Vengurlekar, “Dynamics of the pump-probe reflectivity spectra in GaAs and GaN,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 7803–7812 (2004). [CrossRef]
  32. V. Ortiz, J. Nagle, J.-F. Lampin, E. Péronne, and A. Alexandrou, “Low-temperature-grown GaAs: Modeling of transient reflectivity experiments,” J. Appl. Phys.102, 043515 (2007). [CrossRef]
  33. S. E. Ralph and D. Grischkowsky, “Trap-enhanced electric fields in semi-insulators: The role of electrical and optical carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56, 1972–1975 (1991). [CrossRef]
  34. M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56 μm fiber laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3974–3976 (2004). [CrossRef]
  35. A. Madan and M. P. Shaw, The Physics and Applications of Amorphous Semiconductors (Academic Press, 1988).

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