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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 7 — Nov. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1178–1184
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2D infrared self-focusing in bulk photorefractive SBN

Delphine Wolfersberger and Denis Tranca  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 7, pp. 1178-1184 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.001178


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Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the possibility of photorefractive 2D self-focusing in bulk Cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate (SBN:Ce) directly at telecommunications wavelengths (1.06 μm and 1.55 μm). Although the electro-optic coefficient of SBN is smaller at infrared wavelengths, 2D infrared self-trapping is observed and analyzed versus different parameters such as the laser beam intensity, the external applied electric field and time.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The fundamental concept of light guiding light, based on the propagation of self-confined laser beams [1

1. G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity,” Science 286(5444), 1518–1523 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], gives a unique possibility of 3D photoinduced circuits created in nonlinear bulk media without any fabricated optical waveguide. Optical waveguides in cristalline materials are usually realized by physical or physico-chemical methods (ion implantation, proton exchange, ion diffusion), giving rise to static integrated optics structures. Furthermore, these techniques are typically invasive. Photoinscription using photorefractive (PR) self-focusing is a softer technique to induce 3D devices and low loss circular waveguide in a single step process. Such reconfigurable waveguides can find interest for various applications. Different photonic components such as waveguides [2

2. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(11), 3091–3101 (1997). [CrossRef]

], directional couplers [3

3. S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(7), 475–477 (1999). [CrossRef]

], light-induced Y and X-couplers and beam-splitters [4

4. J. Petter and C. Denz, “Guiding and dividing waves with photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Commun. 188, 55–61 (2001). [CrossRef]

], switches [5

5. E. DelRe, M. Tamburini, and A. J. Agranat, “Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 963–965 (2000). [CrossRef]

,6

6. M. Tiemann, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, “Infrared guiding behavior in a 1 X N spatial soliton switch,” Opt. Commun. 281, 175–180 (2008). [CrossRef]

] have been demonstrated using photorefractive solitons formed at visible wavelengths and used for guiding infrared (IR) light. Only few researches deal with the build up of self-confined laser beams in PR materials at telecommunications wavelengths: PR self-focusing was reported both at steady state and transient state, in planar He-implanted Strontium Barium Niobate (SBN) waveguides [7

7. D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, “Observation of bright spatial photorefractive solitons in a planar strontium barium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 23(12), 921–923 (1998). [CrossRef]

9

9. M. Wesner, C. Herden, R. Pankrath, D. Kip, and M. Moretti, “Temporal development of photorefractive solitons up to telecommunication wavelengths in SBN,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 036613 (2001). [CrossRef]

], in bulk semiconductor InP:Fe [10

10. M. Chauvet, S. Hawkins, G. Salamo, M. Segev, D. Bliss, and G. Bryant, “Self-trapping of planar optical beams by use of the photorefractive effect in InP:Fe,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1333–1335 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. M. Alonzo, C. Dan, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “Coherent collisions of infrared self-trapped beams in photorefractive InP:Fe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121111 (2010). [CrossRef]

], CdTe [16

16. T. Schwartz, Y. Ganor, T. Carmon, R. Uzdin, S. Schwartz, M. Segev, and U. El-Hanany, “Photorefractive solitons and light-induced resonance control in semiconductor CdZnTe,” Opt. Lett. 27(14), 1229–1231 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and SPS [17

17. C. Dan, D. Wolfersberger, N. Fressengeas, G. Montemezzani, and A. Grabar, “Near infrared photorefractive self focusing in Sn2P2S6:Te crystals,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12777–12782 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. G. Montemezzani, C. Dan, M. Gorram, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, F. Juvalta, R. Mosimann, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, and A. A. Grabar, “Real-time photoinduced waveguides in Sn2P2S6 bulk crystals with visible or near infrared light,” in Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB3. [PubMed]

]. Semiconductors exhibit several advantages due to their sensitivity to near-infrared wavelengths and to their shorter response time, but they do not allow to fix the waveguide and are more dedicated to reconfigurable components. However, SBN is a very good candidate for fixed photonic components [19

19. M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, “Fixing the photorefractive soliton,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 77–79 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. M. Wesner, C. Herden, and D. Kip, “Electrical fixing of waveguide channels in strontium–barium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 733–736 (2001).

].

In this paper, we make use of bulk photorefractive insulators SBN at IR telecommunications wavelengths and we demonstrate that despite its low sensitivity to infrared wavelengths (the absorption is equal to 0.58 cm−1) and its smaller electro-optic coefficient (r33 = 215pm/V) [8

8. M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, “Photorefractive steady state solitons up to telecommunication wavelengths in planar SBN waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 188, 69–76 (2001). [CrossRef]

], SBN allows 2D infrared self-focusing. We study experimentally the self-focusing behavior for two different wavelengths (1.06 μm and 1.55 μm); the influence of different parameters such as the laser beam intensity, the external applied electric field and time will be discussed.

2. Self-focusing at IR wavelengths

2.1. Experimental set-up

For the experimental observation of the self-focusing in SBN at IR wavelengths, we use a standard set-up: an IR laser beam coming from either a YAG-Nd laser (λ = 1.06 μm; maximum power 200 mW) or a laser diode operating at λ = 1.55 μm (maximum power 10 mW) is focused at the entrance face of a SBN sample with an input waist of 20 μm. The sample is a bulk SBN:61 material doped with cerium (0.02% per weight) with dimensions (5*5*10 mm). The light propagation direction is along the 10 mm axis. The electric field is applied along the crystallographic c axis, parallel to the beam polarization direction. The output face of the crystal is observed through a camera using a 2f-2f imaging system, allowing to analyze the beam behavior versus time, intensity and electric field applied.

2.2. Self-focusing at λ = 1.06 μm wavelength

First we investigate the self-focusing process with the λ = 1.06 μm laser. Measurements of the output beam profile evidencing self-focusing have been performed for intensities in the range 25 W/cm2 to 100 W/cm2. At these light powers in the range of tens of microwatts, it should be noted that steady-state solitons can only be achieved using a background illumination. In this experiment, we do not use a background illumination and we analyze the transient self-focusing state reached using these intensities in a shorter time than the steady-state. A typical self-focusing is presented in Fig. 1 for a maximum intensity equal to 68 W/cm2. Figure 1(a) illustrates the diffracted output beam when no electric field is applied. Figure 1(b) shows a strong self-focusing for an applied electric field equal to 4 kV/cm. Figure 1(c) illustrates the transverse spatial output profile of the laser beam in the direction parallel to the electric field applied. This image confirms the self-focusing of the 1.06 μm laser beam and shows that together with self-focusing, the laser beam is bended as observed previously in bulk crystals at visible wavelengths [21

21. M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, “Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 324–326 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or in planar SBN waveguides [7

7. D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, “Observation of bright spatial photorefractive solitons in a planar strontium barium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 23(12), 921–923 (1998). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 1 Beam profiles at the output face of the crystal for w = 20 μm at λ = 1.06 μm (a) without any applied electric field (b) for E0=+4 kV/cm (c) corresponding transverse intensity profiles; beam intensity=68 W/cm2.

We also observe the temporal dependence of the self-trapping, by collecting a sequence of images after we launch the laser beam in the crystal with a 3 kV/cm external electric field. Figure 2 illustrates the temporal evolution of the self-focusing process versus time for an intensity I = 48 W/cm2. We define the self-focusing ratio as the ratio of the output beam waist with the electric field applied over the output beam waist without field; by this way, the self-focusing ratio allows to quantify the self-focusing process. Note that a self-focusing ratio equal to 1 corresponds to the natural diffraction: in our case, this corresponds to a waist of 80 μm at the output face of the crystal. When the laser is launched, the beam is transiently self-focused, reaching a minimum value corresponding to the saturation process and relaxing to a less focused state. The same behavior was previously observed experimentally and confirmed the predictions of numerical calculations based on the Kukhtarev band transport model [24

24. N. Kukhtarev, V. Markov, S. Odulov, M. Soskin, and V. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979). [CrossRef]

], at visible wavelengths in insulators [22

22. N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, “Build up mechanisms of (1+1)-dimensional photorefractive bright spatial quasi-steady-state and screening solitons,” Opt. Commun. 145, 393–400 (1998). [CrossRef]

,23

23. N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, “Temporal behavior of bidimensional photorefractive bright spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54(6), 6866–6875 (1996). [CrossRef]

] as in planar SBN waveguides at IR wavelengths [9

9. M. Wesner, C. Herden, R. Pankrath, D. Kip, and M. Moretti, “Temporal development of photorefractive solitons up to telecommunication wavelengths in SBN,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 036613 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, for testing the influence of the intensity of the injected laser beam I and of the external applied electric field E, we measured the evolution of the self-focusing ratio for I in the range 25 W/cm2–100 W/cm2 and for E in the range 1 kV/cm–4 kV/cm.

Fig. 2 Temporal evolution of the self-focusing ratio at λ = 1.06 μm: external electric field E0=+3 kV/cm and beam intensity=48 W/cm2.

Figure 3 summarizes the self-focusing behavior versus intensity for different electric field at steady state. We observe that, for an electric field of 4 kV/cm, for intensities I below 20 W/cm2 no change in the beam profile appears. For an intensity of 30 W/cm2, the laser beam begins to be slightly self-focused. Increasing the intensity, the process becomes more intense and reaches a maximum for an intensity equal to 60 W/cm2. For intensities larger than 60 W/cm2, the self-focusing state relaxes to a less focused state.

Fig. 3 Self-focusing ratio as a function of the input beam peak intensity: waist: w= 20μm for I in the range 25 W/cm2–100 W/cm2 and E in the range 1 kV/cm–4 kV/cm.

The above observations concern the steady-state regime. This behavior reproduces qualitatively the previously observed behavior in insulators at visible wavelengths excepted that self-focusing at IR wavelengths in SBN crystals needs a more intense laser beam. For smaller values of the applied electric field (1 kV/cm–3 kV/cm), we measure a weaker self-confinement. In Fig. 4 we illustrate the dependence of the beam width on the externally applied electric field. We observe a linear behavior of the self-focusing ratio versus the electric field as observed at visible wavelengths. Our investigations have demonstrated the possibility for a single 1.06 μm laser beam to be self-focused in bulk photorefractive SBN in the two transverse dimensions. The behavior versus time, intensity and electric field has been studied and shows a similar behavior to visible wavelengths. We propose now to analyze the self-focusing behavior at 1.55 μm.

Fig. 4 Self-focusing ratio as a function of externally applied electric field E in the range 1 kV/cm–4 kV/cm: waist w= 20 μm and I=60 W/cm2.

2.3. Self-focusing at λ = 1.55 μm wavelength

In this section, we will show self-focusing experiments at 1.55 μm without background illumination, as previously explained for the 1.06 μm. To show self-focusing, we have performed measurements of the output beam profile for intensities in the range 8 W/cm2 and 185 W/cm2 for a waist w = 20 μm, corresponding to a diffracted waist equal to approximatly 100 μm at the output face of the crsytal.

Figure 5 illustrates typical beam profiles at the output face of the crystal for an input intensity equal to 185 W/cm2. This value corresponds to the maximal intensity we can reach at the crystal entrance face. Figure 5 shows a typical measurement of self-focusing of a 1.55 μm laser beam in SBN for an electric field equal to 4 kV/cm: Fig. 5(a) illustrates the diffracted output beam when no electric field is applied; Fig. 5(b) shows that the beam is self-focused in both transverse dimensions under a 4 kV/cm electric field. This result is promising for photoinducing directly a waveguide through photorefractive self-focusing at telecommunications wavelengths in SBN.

Fig. 5 Beam profiles at the output face of the crystal for w=20μm at λ = 1550 nm a) no electric field applied b) with an electric field of 4 kV/cm; beam intensity I=185 W/cm2.

In the following, we analyze the role played by intensity on the self-trapping process using the self-focusing ratio as defined at 1.06 μm, choosing the most focused state corresponding to transient state. The diameters are calculated at FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum). Figure 6 shows the self-focusing ratio as a function of the input beam intensity: the self-focusing becomes stronger for higher intensities, reaching a value equal to 0.65 for I = 185 W/cm2.

Fig. 6 Self-focusing ratio as a function of beam intensity at the input face of the crystal.

3. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the support of the Conseil Regional de Lorraine and COST European Action MP0702.

References and links

1.

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity,” Science 286(5444), 1518–1523 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(11), 3091–3101 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24(7), 475–477 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

J. Petter and C. Denz, “Guiding and dividing waves with photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Commun. 188, 55–61 (2001). [CrossRef]

5.

E. DelRe, M. Tamburini, and A. J. Agranat, “Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics,” Opt. Lett. 25(13), 963–965 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Tiemann, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, “Infrared guiding behavior in a 1 X N spatial soliton switch,” Opt. Commun. 281, 175–180 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, “Observation of bright spatial photorefractive solitons in a planar strontium barium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 23(12), 921–923 (1998). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, “Photorefractive steady state solitons up to telecommunication wavelengths in planar SBN waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 188, 69–76 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Wesner, C. Herden, R. Pankrath, D. Kip, and M. Moretti, “Temporal development of photorefractive solitons up to telecommunication wavelengths in SBN,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 036613 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

M. Chauvet, S. Hawkins, G. Salamo, M. Segev, D. Bliss, and G. Bryant, “Self-trapping of planar optical beams by use of the photorefractive effect in InP:Fe,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1333–1335 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. Chauvet, S. Hawkins, G. Salamo, M. Segev, D. Bliss, and G. Bryant, “Self-trapping of two-dimensional optical beams and light-induced waveguiding in photorefractive InP at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(19), 2499–2501 (1997). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Uzdin, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Theory of self-focusing in photorefractive InP,” Opt. Lett. 26(20), 1547–1549 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

N. Fressengeas, N. Khelfaoui, C. Dan, D. Wolfersberger, H. Leblond, and M. Chauvet, “Roles of resonance and dark irradiance for infrared photorefractive self-focusing and solitons in bipolar InP:Fe,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063834 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Wolfersberger, N. Khelfaoui, C. Dan, N. Fressengeas, and H. Leblond, “Fast photorefractive self-focusing in InP:Fe semiconductor at infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021106 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Alonzo, C. Dan, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “Coherent collisions of infrared self-trapped beams in photorefractive InP:Fe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121111 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Schwartz, Y. Ganor, T. Carmon, R. Uzdin, S. Schwartz, M. Segev, and U. El-Hanany, “Photorefractive solitons and light-induced resonance control in semiconductor CdZnTe,” Opt. Lett. 27(14), 1229–1231 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

C. Dan, D. Wolfersberger, N. Fressengeas, G. Montemezzani, and A. Grabar, “Near infrared photorefractive self focusing in Sn2P2S6:Te crystals,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12777–12782 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

G. Montemezzani, C. Dan, M. Gorram, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, F. Juvalta, R. Mosimann, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, and A. A. Grabar, “Real-time photoinduced waveguides in Sn2P2S6 bulk crystals with visible or near infrared light,” in Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB3. [PubMed]

19.

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, “Fixing the photorefractive soliton,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 77–79 (1999). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Wesner, C. Herden, and D. Kip, “Electrical fixing of waveguide channels in strontium–barium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 733–736 (2001).

21.

M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, “Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 324–326 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, “Build up mechanisms of (1+1)-dimensional photorefractive bright spatial quasi-steady-state and screening solitons,” Opt. Commun. 145, 393–400 (1998). [CrossRef]

23.

N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, “Temporal behavior of bidimensional photorefractive bright spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54(6), 6866–6875 (1996). [CrossRef]

24.

N. Kukhtarev, V. Markov, S. Odulov, M. Soskin, and V. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics
(190.5940) Nonlinear optics : Self-action effects
(260.3060) Physical optics : Infrared
(260.5950) Physical optics : Self-focusing

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optical Materials

History
Original Manuscript: September 6, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 29, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 29, 2011
Published: October 5, 2011

Citation
Delphine Wolfersberger and Denis Tranca, "2D infrared self-focusing in bulk photorefractive SBN," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1178-1184 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-7-1178


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References

  1. G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity,” Science286(5444), 1518–1523 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B14(11), 3091–3101 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,” Opt. Lett.24(7), 475–477 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Petter and C. Denz, “Guiding and dividing waves with photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Commun.188, 55–61 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. E. DelRe, M. Tamburini, and A. J. Agranat, “Soliton electro-optic effects in paraelectrics,” Opt. Lett.25(13), 963–965 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Tiemann, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, “Infrared guiding behavior in a 1 X N spatial soliton switch,” Opt. Commun.281, 175–180 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Kip, M. Wesner, V. Shandarov, and P. Moretti, “Observation of bright spatial photorefractive solitons in a planar strontium barium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett.23(12), 921–923 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Wesner, C. Herden, D. Kip, E. Krätzig, and P. Moretti, “Photorefractive steady state solitons up to telecommunication wavelengths in planar SBN waveguides,” Opt. Commun.188, 69–76 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Wesner, C. Herden, R. Pankrath, D. Kip, and M. Moretti, “Temporal development of photorefractive solitons up to telecommunication wavelengths in SBN,” Phys. Rev. E64, 036613 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Chauvet, S. Hawkins, G. Salamo, M. Segev, D. Bliss, and G. Bryant, “Self-trapping of planar optical beams by use of the photorefractive effect in InP:Fe,” Opt. Lett.21(17), 1333–1335 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Chauvet, S. Hawkins, G. Salamo, M. Segev, D. Bliss, and G. Bryant, “Self-trapping of two-dimensional optical beams and light-induced waveguiding in photorefractive InP at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(19), 2499–2501 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Uzdin, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Theory of self-focusing in photorefractive InP,” Opt. Lett.26(20), 1547–1549 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. N. Fressengeas, N. Khelfaoui, C. Dan, D. Wolfersberger, H. Leblond, and M. Chauvet, “Roles of resonance and dark irradiance for infrared photorefractive self-focusing and solitons in bipolar InP:Fe,” Phys. Rev. A75(6), 063834 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Wolfersberger, N. Khelfaoui, C. Dan, N. Fressengeas, and H. Leblond, “Fast photorefractive self-focusing in InP:Fe semiconductor at infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(2), 021106 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Alonzo, C. Dan, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “Coherent collisions of infrared self-trapped beams in photorefractive InP:Fe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121111 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Schwartz, Y. Ganor, T. Carmon, R. Uzdin, S. Schwartz, M. Segev, and U. El-Hanany, “Photorefractive solitons and light-induced resonance control in semiconductor CdZnTe,” Opt. Lett.27(14), 1229–1231 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Dan, D. Wolfersberger, N. Fressengeas, G. Montemezzani, and A. Grabar, “Near infrared photorefractive self focusing in Sn2P2S6:Te crystals,” Opt. Express15(20), 12777–12782 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Montemezzani, C. Dan, M. Gorram, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, F. Juvalta, R. Mosimann, M. Jazbinsek, P. Gunter, and A. A. Grabar, “Real-time photoinduced waveguides in Sn2P2S6 bulk crystals with visible or near infrared light,” in Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB3. [PubMed]
  19. M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, “Fixing the photorefractive soliton,” Opt. Lett.24(2), 77–79 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Wesner, C. Herden, and D. Kip, “Electrical fixing of waveguide channels in strontium–barium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B72, 733–736 (2001).
  21. M. F. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, “Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(5), 324–326 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, “Build up mechanisms of (1+1)-dimensional photorefractive bright spatial quasi-steady-state and screening solitons,” Opt. Commun.145, 393–400 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. N. Fressengeas, J. Maufoy, and G. Kugel, “Temporal behavior of bidimensional photorefractive bright spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. E54(6), 6866–6875 (1996). [CrossRef]
  24. N. Kukhtarev, V. Markov, S. Odulov, M. Soskin, and V. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics22, 949–960 (1979). [CrossRef]

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