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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 7 — Nov. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1192–1201
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Photoinduced phenomena in nano-dimensional glassy As2S3 films

I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 7, pp. 1192-1201 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.001192


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Abstract

Photoinduced anisotropy in nano-dimensional (ND) thin films (<50nm thick) of chalcogenide glasses is observed for the first time. Results of photoinduced dichroism and photodarkening effect in 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm glassy As2S3 films are presented and compared with photoinduced phenomena in thick films (>1µm). ND As2S3 films are shown to function also as efficient photoresists. Preliminary model based on two exponential rate processes involving defects generation and stabilization is proposed explaining the main features of the photoinduced phenomena. These observations widen the range of applications of chalcogenide glassy films such as for higher capacity of optical data storage and for the photoalignment of liquid crystals.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Photoinduced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors, especially photoinduced structural transformations [1

1. M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, T. Wagner, and P. Nêmec, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous and glassy chalcogenides,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 23.

] and photoinduced optical anisotropy [2

2. V. M. Lyubin and M. L. Klebanov, “Photo-induced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 91.

], continue to attract the attention of scientists and engineers [1

1. M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, T. Wagner, and P. Nêmec, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous and glassy chalcogenides,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 23.

9

9. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Photoinduced structural transformations are manifested in reversible effects of photodarkening, which is the change in the optical band gap, film transparency and also in the change of some other film properties such as the change of solubility in different organic and inorganic solvents [10

10. V. Lyubin, “Chalcogenide glassy photoresists: history of development, properties and applications,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1758–1767 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Photoinduced optical anisotropy is the emergence of dichroism and/or birefringence in an initially optically isotropic chalcogenide film under the action of linearly polarized light. This effect is explained by the orientation of interatomic bonds or specific defects of the glass, leading to the appearance of some optical axis with a direction determined by the polarization vector of the exciting light [2

2. V. M. Lyubin and M. L. Klebanov, “Photo-induced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 91.

]. Both effects, photodarkening and photoinduced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy films, are widely studied and applied in electro-optics [1

1. M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, T. Wagner, and P. Nêmec, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous and glassy chalcogenides,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 23.

,2

2. V. M. Lyubin and M. L. Klebanov, “Photo-induced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 91.

,9

9. B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. However most of the investigations have been carried out with films thicker than 0.5 – l µm. Study of photodarkening in the nano-dimensional (ND) glassy chalcogenide films revealed contradictory results. Tanaka et al. have found that the reversible photodarkening disappears in glassy As2S3 films thinner than ~50 nm, when illuminated at room temperature [11

11. K. Tanaka, S. Kyohya, and A. Odajima, “Anomaly of the thickness dependence of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenide films,” Thin Solid Films 111(3), 195–200 (1984). [CrossRef]

]. Hayashi and Mitsuishi [12

12. K. Hayashi and N. Mitsuishi, “Thickness effect of the photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 949–952 (2002). [CrossRef]

] observed the photodarkening disappearance at room temperature when the thickness of the glassy As2Se3 film was less than 50 nm. At the same time, Eguchi et al. observed the photoinduced changes in the transparency of the ND (65 – 200 nm) As2S3 films at ~80 K [13

13. H. Eguchi, Y. Suzuki, and M. Hirai, “Photo-induced absorption change in a-As2Se3 films at 80K,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95–96, 757–764 (1987). [CrossRef]

]. At last, Indutnyi and Shepeljavi have shown that even very thin (0.7–2.5 nm) As2S3 films, which were embedded in transparent SiO layers, had essential photodarkening at 80 K [14

14. I. Z. Indutnyi and P. E. Shepeljavi, “Reversible photodarkening in As2Se3 nanolayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227–230, 700–704 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. K. Tanaka, who analyzed the question of photodarkening of very thin chalcogenide films, concluded that further studies remain to be done [15

15. K. Tanaka, “Nanostructured chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 21–28 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. As to the photoinduced optical anisotropy, this phenomenon in the ND glassy chalcogenide films, was not studied at all to the best of our knowledge. Its existence widens the range of applications of chalcogenide glassy films such as higher capacity of memory storage and photoalignment of liquid crystals.

2. Experimental

Chalcogenide glassy As2S3 films were fabricated by thermal evaporation of commercially available As2S3 glass (Amorphous Materials, Garland, TX) from quartz crucibles onto the clean glass substrates in vacuum ~2-5 10−6 Torr. Deposition occurred with the source to substrate distance of 30 cm at a rate typically of 0.2–0.3 nm/s. Different film thicknesses were investigated: 10, 20, 50, and 100 nm.

The second beam weakened by an attenuator (6), down to 0.4 mW/cm2, functions as a probing beam. This attenuated light beam passes through an electro-optical modulator (7), which modulates the light polarization alternately between two orthogonal states at a frequency of 2 kHz. Then this probing beam passes through the sample (9) and incident on the Si photodiode (10), permitting to measure the photoinduced transmission anisotropy (dichroism) D = 2 (Iy - Ix) / (Iy + Ix), where Iy and Ix are the intensities of the beams with two orthogonal polarization vectors. For the measurement of the difference signal (Iy – Ix) we used the method of synchronous detection. The current of the photodiode is amplified with a lock-in amplifier (11) and fed into a computer (12).

The kinetics of photoinduced dichroism was studied by exposing the studied film to the pump beam either persistently or for intervals of ~500 seconds separated by ~500 seconds periods of rest. Alternating periods of pumping and rest were produced using a shutter. When the photodarkening effect was studied, the polarizer (8) additionally was placed into the weakened laser beam, permitting to irradiate the sample (9) with the pulses of the attenuated light beam and to measure photoinduced transmission changes as a function of time. All experiments were performed at room temperature.

3. Experimental results

In Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transparency changes in As2S3 films with different thicknesses: (1) 20 nm (blue) (2) 100 nm (red), induced by the laser beam with intensity 1.24 W/cm2. Pump and probe beams polarization vectors are parallel along y.
the photodarkening effect is demonstrated for two of the studied ND As2S3 films of different thickness. All these data are obtained using maximum value of pumping beam intensity 1.24 W/cm2. The relative changes in transmittance T/T0 in all studied ND films (12% – 20%) are essentially much smaller (due to their much smaller thickness) than those usually observed in thick films (100%-500%), but the existence of photodarkening in these ND films is determined very reliably. In Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transparency changes in 100 nm thick As2S3 film induced by the laser beam with intensities: (1) 1.24 W/cm2, (blue) (2) 0.24 W/cm2, (red) and (3) 0.07 W/cm2, (green). Pump and probe beams polarization vectors are parallel along y.
we compare for one of these films the photodarkening process under the action of the exciting beam at three different intensities: 1.24 W/cm2, 0.24 W/cm2 and 0.07 W/cm2. We can conclude that in the studied range of light intensity the final value of darkening weakly depends on the light intensity but the time required for reaching the final value increases essentially as the intensity decreases.

Then, we decided to check whether the photodarkening effect in the nano-dimensional glassy As2S3 films is accompanied by the change of solubility in different organic and inorganic solvents, just as it proceeds in thick As2S3 films [10

10. V. Lyubin, “Chalcogenide glassy photoresists: history of development, properties and applications,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1758–1767 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. For this aim, we irradiated the nano-dimensional films by the Ar+ laser beam of intensity 1.24 W/cm2 during 300 sec and measured the time of complete dissolution of irradiated and non-irradiated areas in the solution containing 10% of Morpholine and 90% of Dimethylsulfoxide, which was shown to be efficient selective developer for thick As2S3 films [10

10. V. Lyubin, “Chalcogenide glassy photoresists: history of development, properties and applications,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1758–1767 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Results of this control are shown in the following Table 1

Table 1. Selective Dissolution of As2S3 Films

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, where the contrast of dissolution (ratio of the full dissolution times for irradiated and non-irradiated parts) in the nano-dimensional films is compared with that for the 2 µm As2S3 films, irradiated in the same regime.

It is seen that the effect of photoinduced change of dissolution in the nano-dimensional films is comparable (or even stronger) to that for the 2 µm As2S3 films. These data allow us to conclude that the ND As2S3 films can function as efficient photoresists similar to thick As2S3 and As2Se3 films [10

10. V. Lyubin, “Chalcogenide glassy photoresists: history of development, properties and applications,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1758–1767 (2009). [CrossRef]

,19

19. V. Lyubin, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, M. Manevich, J. Varshal, R. Dror, B. Sfez, A. V. Latyshev, D. A. Nasimov, and N. P. Eisenberg, “Non-linear dissolution of amorphous arsenic sulfide-selenide photoresist films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(1), 109–114 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Kinetics of linear dichroism generation and reorientation in As2S3 films with thicknesses: (1) 100 nm, (blue) (2) 50 nm, (red) (3) 20 nm, (green) and (4) 10 nm, (dark blue) under the action of linearly polarized laser beam with intensity of 1.24 W/cm2 having horizontal (Ix) and vertical (Iy) directions of the polarization vector. The probe beam polarization is modulated between x and y directions at 2 kHz frequency and the anisotropy is calculated every 1sec.
illustrates the photoinduced dichroism in the ND As2S3 films of different thickness. All characteristics are obtained with maximum value of pumping beam intensity 1.24 W/cm2. It is seen that in the films with thickness 20 – 100 nm the value of saturated dichroism feebly depends on the thickness but in the 10 nm film this value is significantly lower. This Fig. 4 represents not only dichroism generation but also dichroism reorientation. Dichroism can be reversed many times practically without fatigue by switching the pump light polarization to the orthogonal one. After stopping the irradiation, the level of the dichroism decreases slowly, similar to the same relaxation process observed in thick chalcogenide films [20

20. V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, “Photoinduced dichroism in films of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 32, 1069–1074 (1990).

], but the relaxation in the ND films proceeds quicker than in the thicker films. In the case of 10 nm film after stopping the irradiation, the dichroism quickly diminishes to zero (approximately within 5 minutes).

We do not see here essential difference in the kinetics of anisotropy growth for initial dichroism generation and its reorientation, which was clearly recorded in the case of thick films [2

2. V. M. Lyubin and M. L. Klebanov, “Photo-induced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 91.

], but such difference appears when we decreased the intensity of the pumping beam. As it is seen from Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Kinetics of linear dichroism generation and reorientation in 100 nm As2S3 film under the action of linearly polarized laser beams with pump intensity 0.07 W/cm2 having horizontal (Ix) and vertical (Iy) directions of the polarization vector. (b) The same when polarized light irradiation starts after long irradiation with non-polarized light. The probe beam polarization is modulated between x and y directions at 2 kHz frequency and the anisotropy is calculated every 1sec.
, obtained for the beam intensity 0.07 W/cm2, the initial dichroism growth in the non-treated film is rather slow (20 – 30 min) while the dichroism reorientation occurs much faster (< 3 min). In the case of long irradiation with the non-polarized light, the following irradiation with linearly-polarized light results in the rapid appearance of dichroism as it is shown in Fig. 5(b). Our experiments showed also that by varying the light intensity the values of saturated dichroism change very weakly, while the time of the dichroism growth strongly depends on the light intensity.

In Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Kinetics of linear dichroism generation and reorientation in 100 nm As2S3 film under the action of linearly polarized laser beams with pump intensity 0.07 W/cm2 and also the dichroism decay under irradiation with circularly-polarized light of the same intensity: I0=Ix=Iy.
we demonstrate that under irradiation with circularly-polarized light (at the moment designated by I0), the photoinduced dichroism in the ND films decreases up to zero, just as it occurs in thick chalcogenide glassy films [2

2. V. M. Lyubin and M. L. Klebanov, “Photo-induced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 91.

]. In addition, this decrease proceeds much quicker than in the thick films case. This effect was observed in all studied ND films of different thickness.

4. Discussion

The data in Table 2 clearly demonstrate that in the ND films (20 nm and 50 nm) only very weak photodarkening (0.98 and 0.96) was observed under Mercury light irradiation and much stronger photodarkening (0.17 and 0.12) had place with the laser light irradiation. At the same time, for the 1000 nm film with both irradiation sources essentially larger values of photodarkening were measured. These results confirm our assumption that the reason of the photodarkening absence in the very thin films, reported in [11

11. K. Tanaka, S. Kyohya, and A. Odajima, “Anomaly of the thickness dependence of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenide films,” Thin Solid Films 111(3), 195–200 (1984). [CrossRef]

,12

12. K. Hayashi and N. Mitsuishi, “Thickness effect of the photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 949–952 (2002). [CrossRef]

], is the application of the measurement method with small sensitivity.

Existence of the photodarkening effect in the nano-structured films correlates well with the other effects of photoinduced structural transformations photoinduced change of dissolution rate, which is also shown in this work. The observation reported here of photoinduced structural transformations in ND As2S3 films closes existing assumptions about special structure of very thin chalcogenide films and about special effects of the substrate on the property of such films [11

11. K. Tanaka, S. Kyohya, and A. Odajima, “Anomaly of the thickness dependence of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenide films,” Thin Solid Films 111(3), 195–200 (1984). [CrossRef]

]. However substrate effects are not excluded as they can have effects on the kinetics of the photoinduced phenomena particularly when the film thickness becomes very small.

The observed phenomena in the ND chalcogenide films allow us to conclude that just as it was assumed for the thick chalcogenide films [2

2. V. M. Lyubin and M. L. Klebanov, “Photo-induced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 91.

], irradiation with both polarized and non-polarized above-band-gap light creates some centers in the non-irradiated film that can be oriented quickly by linearly polarized light. The constant dichroism saturation value at different light intensities strongly suggests that the number of centers that can be created and/or oriented is limited to a certain value. Such centers can be regarded as the valence-alteration pairs that are characteristic defects in chalcogenide glasses [20

20. V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, “Photoinduced dichroism in films of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 32, 1069–1074 (1990).

22

22. H. Fritzsche, “Optical anisotropies in chalcogenide glasses induced by band-gap light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(22), 15854–15861 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Photoinduced structural transformations of chalcogenide films are also known to occur as monitored by Raman scattering [23

23. I. Abdulhalim and R. Beserman, “Raman scattering study of light induced structural transformations in glassy As2Se3,” Solid State Commun. 64(6), 951–955 (1987). [CrossRef]

,24

24. I. Abdulhalim, R. Beserman, and R. Weil, “Photodarkening, structural instabilities, and crystallization of glassy As2Se3 induced by laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(18), 12476–12486 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Many of the observations reported here have some similarity to the kinetics of other photoinduced effects in glasses such as that in germanosilicate fibers, although the type of defects generated is different and therefore a more quantitative model can be established based on the kinetic model developed previously by Abdulhalim [25

25. I. Abdulhalim, “Model for photoinduced defects and photorefractivity in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(24), 3248–3250 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. The model is based on the existence of transient large energy fluctuations which produce transient traps for generated photocarriers and their energy release to enhance defects generation and subsequent photostructural transformation. The anisotropy is manifested by the driven orientation of the defects along the polarization vector of the pumping light. Once a defect is created it can be in a metastable state and needs to be stabilized. Hence according to this model the kinetics is dominated by two time constants, the first which is the generation time constant, τG, relatively fast (on the order of tens of seconds) and a 2nd time constant τS which is very slow (of the order of hours or days) that depends on the stabilization process of the defects. Preliminary results of fitting the temporal behavior are presented in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental (dots) photoinduced dichroism signal versus time and fitting curves using a two exponentials expression (solid curves) for the three samples of thickness 20nm, 50nm and 100nm under the conditions of Fig. 4. The data in the table are the two exponential decay constants and coefficients (AG,AS) for the generation and stabilization processes.
showing that indeed a best fit is obtained using two time constants (correlation better than 97%). The generation time constant decreases with the light intensity as τG1/I for a single photon absorption process and as τG1/I2 for a two photons absorption process. This behavior explains the intensity dependence of the relaxation rate observed in Fig. 3 and the initial fast rise and decay of the photoinduced signals presented in Figs. 4 and 5. The steady state value of the photoinduced dichroism according to the same model [25

25. I. Abdulhalim, “Model for photoinduced defects and photorefractivity in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(24), 3248–3250 (1995). [CrossRef]

] depends on the total number of defects that can be created, which is certainly a function of the film thickness particularly when the film thickness becomes few tens of nm. It also depends on the ratio between the defects generation and stabilization rates which can be influenced by the substrate effects when the films are less than 20nm thick. More quantitative and in depth theoretical investigation of the effects observed here is on going and is planned to be published in a separate paper.

5. Conclusions

Our experiments demonstrate that photoinduced structural transformations, expressed in photodarkening and in the change of the dissolution rate in some selective solvents, are characteristic for the ND glassy As2S3 films just as they exist in thick chalcogenide films. Linearly polarized light was shown to excite also the linear dichroism in the ND glassy As2S3 films. This dichroism can be multiply reoriented when changing the orientation of the polarization vector of the pump beam. Dark relaxation of photoinduced dichroism in the ND films proceeds quicker than in the thicker films. Preliminary model based on two exponential rate processes seems to explain the main results, however further analysis will be performed both experimentally and theoretically to better understand this phenomenon. Low light absorption and possibility of changing the physico-chemical properties when selecting the chalcogenide films for the photoalignment of liquid crystals are certainly very important factors. Having photoinduced anisotropy in nanoscale thick films triggers another important application, and that is for large capacity optical data storage devices based on multilayered structures of ND chalcogenide glass films.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported partially by the Ministry of Science under the Israel-Russia research collaboration program.

References and links

1.

M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, T. Wagner, and P. Nêmec, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous and glassy chalcogenides,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 23.

2.

V. M. Lyubin and M. L. Klebanov, “Photo-induced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 91.

3.

N. Terakado and K. Tanaka, “Does the charged defect exists in nano-structured oxy-chalcogenide glass?” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 081501 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, R. Dror, and B. Sfez, “Transient photorefraction in Ge-Pb-S glassy films,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035320 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Fritzsche, “Critical discussion of models proposed to explain photo-induced anisotropies in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1768–1772 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64 glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 79(5), 054204 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

E. Vateva and D. Arsova, “Transition of reversible photodarkening to photobleaching in chalcogenide films,” Europhys. Lett. 89(6), 64004 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, A. Bruner, N. Shitrit, and B. Sfez, “Transient photodarkening and photobleaching in glassy GeSe2 films,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 949–952 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

V. Lyubin, “Chalcogenide glassy photoresists: history of development, properties and applications,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1758–1767 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

K. Tanaka, S. Kyohya, and A. Odajima, “Anomaly of the thickness dependence of photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenide films,” Thin Solid Films 111(3), 195–200 (1984). [CrossRef]

12.

K. Hayashi and N. Mitsuishi, “Thickness effect of the photodarkening in amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299–302, 949–952 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

H. Eguchi, Y. Suzuki, and M. Hirai, “Photo-induced absorption change in a-As2Se3 films at 80K,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95–96, 757–764 (1987). [CrossRef]

14.

I. Z. Indutnyi and P. E. Shepeljavi, “Reversible photodarkening in As2Se3 nanolayers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 227–230, 700–704 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

K. Tanaka, “Nanostructured chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 21–28 (2003). [CrossRef]

16.

Y. Kurioz, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, N. Eisenberg, M. Manevich, and Y. Reznikov, “Photoalignment of liquid crystals on chalcogenide glassy films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 489(1), 94–104 (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, V. Lyubin, and I. Abdulhalim, “Permanent photoalignment of liquid crystals on nanostructured chalcogenide glassy thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071909 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H. S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (Wiley, 2008).

19.

V. Lyubin, A. Arsh, M. Klebanov, M. Manevich, J. Varshal, R. Dror, B. Sfez, A. V. Latyshev, D. A. Nasimov, and N. P. Eisenberg, “Non-linear dissolution of amorphous arsenic sulfide-selenide photoresist films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 97(1), 109–114 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, “Photoinduced dichroism in films of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 32, 1069–1074 (1990).

21.

V. K. Tikhomirov and S. R. Elliott, “Model for photoinduced anisotropy and its dark relaxation in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(8), 5538–5541 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

H. Fritzsche, “Optical anisotropies in chalcogenide glasses induced by band-gap light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(22), 15854–15861 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

I. Abdulhalim and R. Beserman, “Raman scattering study of light induced structural transformations in glassy As2Se3,” Solid State Commun. 64(6), 951–955 (1987). [CrossRef]

24.

I. Abdulhalim, R. Beserman, and R. Weil, “Photodarkening, structural instabilities, and crystallization of glassy As2Se3 induced by laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(18), 12476–12486 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

I. Abdulhalim, “Model for photoinduced defects and photorefractivity in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(24), 3248–3250 (1995). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.0160) Materials : Materials
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(160.5335) Materials : Photosensitive materials

ToC Category:
Glass and Other Amorphous Materials

History
Original Manuscript: September 15, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 30, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 30, 2011
Published: October 5, 2011

Citation
I. Abdulhalim, M. Gelbaor, M. Klebanov, and V. Lyubin, "Photoinduced phenomena in nano-dimensional glassy As2S3 films," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1192-1201 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-7-1192


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References

  1. M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, T. Wagner, and P. Nêmec, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous and glassy chalcogenides,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 23.
  2. V. M. Lyubin and M. L. Klebanov, “Photo-induced anisotropy in chalcogenide glassy semiconductors,” in Photoinduced Metastability in Amorphous Semiconductors, A. V. Kolobov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2003), p. 91.
  3. N. Terakado and K. Tanaka, “Does the charged defect exists in nano-structured oxy-chalcogenide glass?” Appl. Phys. Express1, 081501 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, R. Dror, and B. Sfez, “Transient photorefraction in Ge-Pb-S glassy films,” Phys. Rev. B77(3), 035320 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Fritzsche, “Critical discussion of models proposed to explain photo-induced anisotropies in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi B246(8), 1768–1772 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Antoine, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. D. Senanayake, and D. A. Drabold, “Chemical origin of polarization-dependent photoinduced changes in an As36Se64 glass film via in situ synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B79(5), 054204 (2009). [CrossRef]
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