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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 7 — Nov. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1202–1209
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Single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowires as a Si-compatible light emission material in communication wavelength

Anlian Pan, Leijun Yin, Zhicheng Liu, Minghua Sun, Ruibin Liu, Patricia L. Nichols, Yanguo Wang, and C. Z. Ning  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 7, pp. 1202-1209 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.001202


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Abstract

We report on the first synthesis and structural characterizations of a new Erbium (Er) compound, the erbium chloride silicate (ECS, Er3Cl(SiO4)2) single crystal in a Si-ECS core-shell nanowire form. The Er-concentration in ECS at 1.6x1022 cm−3 is three orders of magnitude higher than that of the Er-doped materials. Photoluminescence spectra at both low and room temperatures exhibit well separated sharp emission lines in the near infrared region. The new single-crystal erbium-compound nanowires provide a unique Si-compatible material for high-gain light emission in communication wavelength and for many other photonic applications.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Light emission and amplification in wavelengths around 1.53 µm are important since this is the wavelength band with minimum propagation loss in optical fibers and thus used heavily in communication systems. The Er emission lines fall exactly in this wavelength window and can be incorporated into silicon-compatible form to serve as efficient emitters, potentially integrated with electronics. This has been the main driving force for developing all types of Er-based materials such as Er-doped Si, SiO2, and Si-rich SiO2 [1

1. A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(3), 1256–1262 (1995). [CrossRef]

9

9. M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013502 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Besides, Er-containing materials are also of great importance for other applications such as metamaterials [10

10. Q. Thommen and P. Mandel, “Left-handed properties of erbium-doped crystals,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1803–1805 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], quantum information [11

11. B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 080502 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and solid state lasers [12

12. G. Huber, C. Kränkel, and K. Petermann, “Solid-state lasers: status and future,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B93–B105 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. However the Er-concentration in Er doped materials is usually below 1019 cm−3. Such a low Er concentration is not enough to produce enough optical gain [13

13. R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009). [CrossRef]

,14

14. M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(4), 288–292 (1999). [CrossRef]

] for many applications, especially for chip-scale integrated systems. Typically, higher concentration Er doping leads to saturation or sublinear increase of 1.53 µm emission with increase of pumping [15

15. B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+–Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 833–839 (2000). [CrossRef]

18

18. A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(1), 1–39 (1997). [CrossRef]

], preventing such materials from being used for on-chip applications which requires high optical gain. Erbium compounds such as Erbium silicate (ES) are shown to be superior to Er-doped materials in terms of high Er-density [19

19. H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4343–4345 (2004). [CrossRef]

27

27. M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. ES material is typically produced by magnetron sputtering and has to be annealed at high temperature to re-crystallize. Here we report on the synthesis of a new Er-compound, the erbium chloride silicate (ECS, Er3Cl(SiO4)2) single crystal nanowires. Light emission results show that the linewidth of 1.53 µm line is narrower compared to that of most other Er-materials. We believe that the ECS nanostructures provide an important alternative Si-compatible material platform for 1.53 µm emission and many other photonic applications. The nanowire form maybe especially suited for future nanophotonic systems.

2. Experimental

2.1 Nanowire synthesis

The single-crystal ECS nanowires were grown using Au-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition in a tube reactor. In a typical procedure, silicon powder (Alfa Aesar, 99.99%) in a ceramic boat was placed at the center of a 2-inch quartz tube, which was inserted into a horizontal furnace. The silicon substrate pre-sputtered with Au film was positioned downstream at a distance of 17 cm from the center of the furnace for the deposition of sample. Anhydrous ErCl3 micro beads (Alfa Aesar, 99.9%, diameter ~1 mm) in another ceramic boat were loaded upstream and close to the substrate. The tube chamber was evacuated to a pressure below 100 mT and a constant flow of 50 SCCM Ar-H2 5% mixed gas was introduced as a carrier gas through the quartz tube. The pressure inside the quartz tube was adjusted to 400 mT with a valve. The center of the furnace was then heated to 1080 °C, and maintained at this temperature for 180 min. The measured temperature was ~600 °C for the growth substrate and ~650 °C for the ErCl3 micro beads. After the growth, the furnace was naturally cooled to room temperature.

2.2 Characterization methods

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Structure characterization

The SEM image of the as-grown nanowires is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of the as-grown Si-ECS nanowires and the corresponding EDS (inset), (b) XRD pattern of the Si-ECS nanowires and the crystal structure of ECS (inset).
. The wires have diameters from several tens of nanometers up to 400 nm, with their length from several to more than ten micrometer. The wires are composed of elements Si, Er, O and Cl, which can be seen from the corresponding EDS of the sample (inset of Fig. 1(a)). Figure 1(b) shows the XRD spectrum of the nanowire sample. The peaks marked with stars are well indexed with an orthorhombic crystal with lattice parameters of a = 0.682 nm, b = 1.765 nm, and c = 0.616 nm, and matched with data (JCPDS card: No. 00-042-0365) for Er3Cl(SiO4)2. A unit cell of this crystal structure is also illustrated in the inset of Fig. 1(b), showing the atomic planes in [060] direction. The remaining peaks of the XRD spectrum are identified to those of cubic Silicon (JCPDS card: No. 00-026-1481). Thus XRD results show that the nanowires simultaneously contain ECS crystal and silicon.

The microstructure of an individual nanowire was characterized by TEM. Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 Si-ECS core-shell nanowire analysis: (a) TEM image of a representative Si-ECS core-shell nanowire. Insets: EDS collected at the shell and core region, respectively; (b)-(e) Two-dimensional element mapping of O, Cl, Si and Er, respectively; (f) HRTEM image at the core-shell interface of the core-shell wire; (g) The correspongding FFT pattern converted from the interface region as well as from a selected shell region (inset).
shows a typical low-magnification TEM image of a single wire with a uniform diameter of ~80 nm. The large bright-dark contrast variation between the middle and outer sections indicates that the wires consist of materials with different masses. The TEM-EDS spectra collected from the darker outer and lighter interior regions are shown in the inset of Fig. 2(a), respectively. Both spectra show peaks of elements Er, O, Cl, Si and Cu (from the copper grid), but the Si concentration in the interior is much higher than that in outer region. Figures 2(b)2(e) show the respective two-dimensional element mapping of this wire for the detected elements O, Cl, Si and Er, respectively. A higher Si concentration was found in the inner core region than that in the outer stripes, whereas Cl, O, and Er elements show complimentary distributions. The combination of TEM image, EDS spectral mapping, and XRD indicates that the investigated nanowires are Si-ECS core-shell heterostructure, with the lighter Si in the core and the heavier elements of ECS compound in the shell.

This structure is further substantiated by the high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) investigations. Figure 2(f) shows the HRTEM image taken from the interface region between the core and shell with their interface sharp at the atomic scale. The core has a lattice spacing of 0.31 nm, consistent with the interplanar spacing of the Si {111} lattice planes. The measured lattice spacing of the shell is 0.29 nm which is in good agreement with the {060} interplanar distance of orthorhombic structure of ECS, corresponding to the strongest peak in the XRD pattern (see Fig. 1(b)). The fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis in Fig. 2(g) further demonstrates both core and shell are of high-quality single crystalline materials. Furthermore, the relative orientations of the two materials can be determined from this FFT analysis. The inset of Fig. 2(g) is the FFT of the ECS shell which confirms the HRTEM image taken along the zone axis. The determined orientation of Si core is along the [11¯0]zone axis. Based on the FFT pattern, the parallel lattice planes and the lattice directions of the two crystal structures can be determined as follows:[001]Si //[11¯2]ECS,[111]Si //[0.6441.28]ECS, [11¯0]Si //[201¯]ECS. The relationship between the unit cell bases of the Si and the ECS can be deduced from the above orientations as follows:
[00113131312120](xyz)Si=[k1a2k1b22k1c20.64k2a24k2b21.28k2c22k3a20k3c2](XYZ)ECSk1=a0(1a2+1b2+4c2)12, k2=a0(0.41a2+16b2+1.64c2)12, k3=a0(4a2+0b2+1c2)12
(1)
where a, b and c are the lattice parameters of ECS, and a0 is the lattice constant of Si.

3.2 Growth mechanism

After careful examination of TEM images of the as-grown sample, we found that the thickness of the shells differs for some wires with the same diameter. Especially interesting is that some Si wires are completely converted into pure ECS wires without Si core. Figures 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) TEM image and the FFT (inset) of a pure ECS nanowrire, (b) HRTEM image of such a wire.
and 3(b) show TEM images of such a nanowire. HRTEM images reveals the lattice spacing of 0.87 nm, corresponding to the {020} planes of ECS. Notice that this growth direction is the same as the [060] direction observed in the core-shell ECS structure, indicating the consistency of the growth. The existence of wires with different shell sizes and even pure ECS wires reflects the different growth stages of the ECS structures.

Based on these experimental evidences, a two-step growth mechanism is suggested: Si wires are first grown via the Au catalyzed Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, which serve as templates for the subsequent growth of the ECS shells. Subsequently, the active surface of the pre-grown Si wires react with oxygen and the Er3+/Cl- ions from the slow decomposition of the ErCl3 micro beads, to form the ECS compound of the shells. Thus the outer layers of pre-grown Si wires convert into the Si-ECS core/shell heterostructures with the proceeding of the surface reaction.

To verify the proposed growth mechanism, a contrasting experiment was conducted. The experiment setup is shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) growth setup for the contrasting experiment (b) SEM image and the corresponding EDS spectrum (c) of the contrasting sample.
. Comparing with the typical setup which was described in the experimental section, another Au coated quartz substrate was positioned between the Silicon powder and the anhydrous ErCl3 micro beads. SEM image (Fig. 4(b)) shows that this substrate also has NWs growth besides the typical Si-ECS NWs on the second substrate. In situ EDS analysis (Fig. 4(c)) of these NWs confirmed that they are pure Si NWs without ECS shell. This result confirms that Si NW is formed for the given growth condition in the absence of the ErCl3 source.

We would like to emphasize that the proposed growth process is different from the reported Si-based heterostructures [28

28. A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3413–3417 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], where the pre-grown Si wires only serve as a physical template for the subsequent shell deposition, and the Si wires themselves are not chemically involved in the formation of the shells. Here the slow decomposition of the ErCl3 micro beads into the Er3+/Cl- ions is very important for achieving the ECS structure, leading to a step by step formation of ECS at the surface of the pre-grown Si nanowires. Comparative growth experiments with the ErCl3 micro beads at a high temperature position or with very fine ErCl3 powder as the erbium source, can only obtain Er doped Si nanowires but not the ECS compound, as reported by Huang et. al. [5

5. C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. There are reports of many semiconductor nanowires with multiple compositions including many of our own research work [29

29. A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 784–788 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31

31. A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano 4(2), 671–680 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These nanowires are made of alloys of binary compounds. Similar to those wires, the basic growth mechanism is based on VLS processes. Unlike those nanowires, our ECS nanowires and the erbium silicate core-shell structure of [21

21. H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett. 5(12), 2432–2437 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are not semiconductor wires and there have been very few of such wires reported. As we mentioned, the likely scenario of core-shell formation is the two-step process, but details remain to be further studied.

3.3 Photoluminescence

4. Conclusion

In summary, a new Si based Er-containing compound in single crystal ECS nanowire form was realized in both core-shell and in solid wire forms using VLS growth mechanism. Structural characterizations demonstrated the high-quality single crystal nature of the as-grown ECS compound. PL spectra of the ECS nanowires exhibit well separated sharp emission lines at both low temperature and room temperature, with the 1.53 µm linewidth smaller than that of other Er-compounds. Such narrow linewidth is an indication of the high crystallinity of the materials. This new nanomaterial of high crystal quality with high Er-concentration is expected to find many applications in optical communication and nanophotonic devices.

Acknowledgments

This work was initiated during a project supported by Army Research Office Award (W911NF-08-1-0471, Mike Gerhold) and is currently being funded by Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-10-1-0444, Gernot Pomrenke). The Hunan group thanks the support of NSF of China (term no. 90923014 and 10974050). The authors appreciate technical assistance of Dr. Zhenquan Liu at ASU’s John M. Cowley Center for High Resolution Electron Microscopy.

References and links

1.

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(3), 1256–1262 (1995). [CrossRef]

2.

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(1), 93–95 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

Z. Wang and J. L. Coffer, “Erbium surface-enriched silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1303–1305 (2002). [CrossRef]

4.

J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(9), 1888–1892 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093133 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 104304 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

K. Sun, W. J. Xu, B. Zhang, L. P. You, G. Z. Ran, and G. G. Qin, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence through amorphous Si nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(10), 105708 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Yada, M. Mihara, S. Mouri, M. Kuroki, and T. Kijima, “Rare earth (Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) oxide nanotubes templated by dodecylsulfate assemblies,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(4), 309–313 (2002). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Miritello, M. Lo Savio, A. M. Piro, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, “Optical and structural properties of Er2O3 films grown by magnetron sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013502 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

Q. Thommen and P. Mandel, “Left-handed properties of erbium-doped crystals,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1803–1805 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

B. Lauritzen, J. Minár, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(8), 080502 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

G. Huber, C. Kränkel, and K. Petermann, “Solid-state lasers: status and future,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B93–B105 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

R. Dahal, C. Ugolini, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, and J. M. Zavada, “Erbium-doped GaN optical amplifiers operating at 1.54,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(11), 111109 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Kohls, T. Schmidt, H. Katschorek, L. Spanhel, G. Müller, N. Mais, A. Wolf, and A. Forchel, “A Simple colloidal route to planar micropatterned Er@ZnO amplifiers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(4), 288–292 (1999). [CrossRef]

15.

B.-C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+–Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 833–839 (2000). [CrossRef]

16.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Cooperative upconversion as the gain-limiting factor in Er doped miniature Al2O3 optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5008–5012 (2003). [CrossRef]

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M. Carrada, F. Gourbilleau, C. Dufour, M. Levalois, and R. Rizk, “Influence of Er concentration on the emission properties of Er-doped Si-rich silica films obtained by reactive magnetron co-sputtering,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 915–919 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(1), 1–39 (1997). [CrossRef]

19.

H. Isshiki, M. J. A. de Dood, A. Polman, and T. Kimura, “Self-assembled infrared-luminescent Er-Si-O crystallites on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4343–4345 (2004). [CrossRef]

20.

K. Masaki, H. Isshiki, and T. Kimura, “Erbium–silicon–oxide crystalline films prepared by MOMBE,” Opt. Mater. 27(5), 876–879 (2005). [CrossRef]

21.

H. J. Choi, J. H. Shin, K. Suh, H. K. Seong, H. C. Han, and J. C. Lee, “Self-organized growth of Si/Silica/Er2Si2O7 core-shell nanowire heterostructures and their luminescence,” Nano Lett. 5(12), 2432–2437 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

K. Suh, J. H. Shin, S.-J. Seo, and B.-S. Bae, “Large-scale fabrication of single-phase Er2SiO5 nanocrystal aggregates using Si nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223102 (2006). [CrossRef]

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T. Kimura, Y. Tanaka, H. Ueda, and H. Isshiki, “Formation of highly oriented layer-structured Er2SiO5 films by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica E 41(6), 1063–1066 (2009). [CrossRef]

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H. Isshiki and T. Kimura, “Toward small size waveguide amplifiers based on rrbium silicate for silicon photonics,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E91(C), 138–144 (2008). [CrossRef]

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R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021919 (2008). [CrossRef]

26.

X. X. Wang, J. G. Zhang, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Enhancement of 1.53 mm photoluminescence from spin-coated Er–Si–O (Er2SiO5) crystalline films by nitrogen plasma treatment,” J. Cryst. Growth 289(1), 178–182 (2006). [CrossRef]

27.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007). [CrossRef]

28.

A. L. Pan, L. Yao, Y. Qin, Y. Yang, D. S. Kim, R. Yu, B. Zou, P. Werner, M. Zacharias, and U. Gösele, “Si-CdSSe core/shell nanowires with continuously tunable light emission,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3413–3417 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

A. Pan, W. Zhou, E. S. P. Leong, R. Liu, A. H. Chin, B. Zou, and C. Z. Ning, “Continuous alloy-composition spatial grading and superbroad wavelength-tunable nanowire lasers on a single chip,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 784–788 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(27), 9502–9503 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

A. Pan, R. Liu, M. Sun, and C. Z. Ning, “Spatial composition grading of quaternary ZnCdSSe alloy nanowires with tunable light emission between 350 and 710 nm on a single substrate,” ACS Nano 4(2), 671–680 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

N. N. Ha, K. Dohnalová, T. Gregorkiewicz, and J. Valenta, “Optical gain of the 1.54 μm emission in MBE-grown Si:Er nanolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 81(19), 195206 (2010). [CrossRef]

33.

Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, L. Bigot, and B. Jacquier, “Exceptionally narrow homogeneous linewidth in erbium-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3453–3455 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

C. P. Michael, H. B. Yuen, V. A. Sabnis, T. J. Johnson, R. Sewell, R. Smith, A. Jamora, A. Clark, S. Semans, P. B. Atanackovic, and O. Painter, “Growth, processing, and optical properties of epitaxial Er2O3 on silicon,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19649–19666 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Nanomaterials

History
Original Manuscript: August 30, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 4, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 7, 2011
Published: October 11, 2011

Citation
Anlian Pan, Leijun Yin, Zhicheng Liu, Minghua Sun, Ruibin Liu, Patricia L. Nichols, Yanguo Wang, and C. Z. Ning, "Single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowires as a Si-compatible light emission material in communication wavelength," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1202-1209 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-7-1202


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References

  1. A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Pacelli, and A. Lacaita, “Direct evidence of impact excitation and spatial profiling of excited Er in light emitting Si diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(1), 93–95 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. Z. Wang and J. L. Coffer, “Erbium surface-enriched silicon nanowires,” Nano Lett.2(11), 1303–1305 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. J. St. John, J. L. Coffer, Y. Chen, and R. F. Pinizzotto, “Synthesis and characterization of discrete luminescent erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(9), 1888–1892 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. C. T. Huang, C. L. Hsin, K. W. Huang, C. Y. Lee, P. H. Yeh, U. S. Chen, and L. J. Chen, “Er-doped silicon nanowires with 1.54 μm light-emitting and enhanced electrical and field emission properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093133 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. Elliman, A. R. Wilkinson, T. H. Kim, P. K. Sekhar, and S. Bhansali, “Optical emission from erbium-doped silica nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 104304 (2008). [CrossRef]
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