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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 7 — Nov. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1376–1382
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Large-aperture, axis-slant quasi-phase matching device using Mg-doped congruent LiNbO3 [Invited]

Hideki Ishizuki and Takunori Taira  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 7, pp. 1376-1382 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.001376


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Abstract

We fabricated large-aperture axis-slant quasi-phase-matching (AS-QPM) device with 8 mm x 11 mm acceptable aperture size in 2-mm-thick Mg-doped LiNbO3 crystal at 65° slant angle with 75-µm surface period. The AS-QPM has a possibility of wafer-scale-aperture device, suitable for handling high power/energy lasers.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Quasi-phase matching (QPM) device by using ferroelectric materials [1

1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]

], such as LiNbO3 (LN), LiTaO3 (LT), and KTiOPO4 (KTP), can be realized by periodic inversion of spontaneous polarization by applying high electric field [2

2. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. The LN crystal presents highest nonlinearlity among ferroelectric materials for QPM device, and efficient nonlinear-optic wavelength conversion, such as second-harmonic generation (SHG) and optical-parametric oscillation (OPO), has been reported [3

3. Y. Hirano, S. Yamamoto, Y. Akino, A. Nakamura, T. Yagi, H. Sugiura, and T. Yanagisawa, “High performance micro green laser for laser tv,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP2009), WE1, Denver, Colorado, USA (Feb. 1–4, 2009).

5

5. R. Das, S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Broadband, high-power, continuous-wave, mid-infrared source using extended phase-matching bandwidth in MgO:PPLN,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3836–3838 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For handling high-power/energy lasers by QPM device, increase of device aperture is simple and practical method to avoid damages of both end faces and device inside. In conventional right-angled QPM (RA-QPM) structure, as shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Various types of QPM structure. (a) Right-angled QPM, (b) Conventional slant structure (slant QPM or tilted QPM), (c) Axis-slant QPM.
, beam propagation axis and crystallographic z-axis cross vertically. In this structure, the device aperture is limited by the crystal thickness, and the thickness is limited by various factors, such as QPM period, quality of periodic poling, and coercive field to invert the crystal polarization. Diffusion-bonded structure by periodically poled LN and single-domain LN was reported to increasing the device aperture [6

6. K. Nakamura, T. Hatanaka, and H. Ito, “High output energy quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillator using diffusion-bonded periodically poled and single domain LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 4A), L337–L339 (2001). [CrossRef]

], because undoped congruent LN has a high coercive field of ~21 kV/mm at room temperature, and thick QPM device by undoped congruent LN was hard to be realized. Mg-doped congruent LN (MgLN), which has a decreased coercive field of ~4.5 kV/mm [7

7. H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4062–4064 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and an improved resistance to photo-refractive damage, is widely used for current QPM applications. The decreased coercive field of MgLN enabled to increase the thickness of QPM device, and we have reported fabrication, demonstration, and application of large-aperture periodically poled MgLN (PPMgLN) device with up to 5 mm x 5 mm aperture [8

8. H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “High-energy quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 device with a 5 mm x 5 mm aperture,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2918–2920 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. J. Saikawa, M. Miyazaki, M. Fujii, H. Ishizuki, and T. Taira, “High-energy, broadly tunable, narrow-bandwidth mid-infrared optical parametric system pumped by quasi-phase-matched devices,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1699–1701 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Large-aperture PPMgLN could be also used for optical-parametric amplification in ultra short pulse generation [11

11. X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-μJ pulses at 2.1-μm carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express 17(1), 62–69 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

To overthrow the limitation of aperture size, innovative change of QPM-structure arrangement as shown in Fig. 1(c) was proposed and demonstrated by using near-stoichiometric LT (SLT) [16

16. D. S. Hum, R. K. Route, G. D. Miller, and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25-rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO2004) CThU2, San Francisco, CA, USA (May 16–21, 2004).

,17

17. D. S. Hum, R. K. Route, and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25°-rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 961–963 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which has a low coercive field, though nonlinear coefficient is low compared to LN. Here, we call this arrangement axis-slant QPM (AS-QPM) structure. In the AS-QPM structure, crystallographic z-axis is slant against input/output plane of the device, and the beam-propagation axis outside of the device does not cross vertically with the z-axis. The AS-QPM structure has a possibility of scalable device aperture up to wafer size, and is suitable for large-aperture QPM device for ultra-short pulse application to handle high power/energy lasers. Also, realization of the AS-QPM structure can increase a freedom of rotation in QPM device, based on the concept of angular QPM [18

18. Y. Petit, B. Boulanger, P. Segonds, and T. Taira, “Angular quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 76(6), 063817 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. In this work, we demonstrate fabrication and evaluation of the AS-QPM device by using MgLN, which shows larger nonlinearity compared to SLT.

2. Axis-slant QPM

Figure 2(a) & (b)
Fig. 2 (a),(b). Schematic views of axis-slant QPM
present schematic views of the AS-QPM structure. In this structure, input and output beams pass through large surface of substrate crystal, which enable to realize an extremely large aperture as a QPM device.

Here we define surface-normal ZS-axis and surface-parallel XS-axis, which slant by slant angle θ0 against crystallographic z-axis and x-axis in x-z plane of the crystal structure. In this arrangement, crystallographic y-axis works as a rotation axis of the axis-slant structure. Surface QPM period Λ1 produces minimum QPM period Λ2 inside the crystal. When pump laser is inputted to the device at angle of θ1 against ZS axis, the laser passes into the device at angle of θ2 against ZS-axis and θ3 against x-axis. Original crystal thickness is denoted by d1, and effective crystal thickness along z-axis for periodic inversion of spontaneous polarization is presented by d2. Effective QPM device length and effective QPM period in the device are also denoted by d3 and Λ3. Refractive index of QPM material is presented by n2. At special case of θ1 = θ0 = θB (Brewster angle), θ3 becomes zero, and Λ3 equals to Λ2. In general, difficulty of periodic poling increase with increasing θ0 and d1, and decreasing Λ1. Also, the value of coercive field affects to maximum value of d1, and finally limit θ0.

3. Axis-slant QPM vs. Right-angled QPM

In case of the RA-QPM with optimum structure, that means perfectly vertical structure from + z to -z face, the efficiency distribution along z-axis should becomes uniform, as shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 Effect of wedged structure in right-angled QPM. (a) Optimum, (b) Wedged, (c) Badly wedged.
. In actual case of the RA-QPM with wedged structure, the efficiency distribution along z-axis becomes non-uniform, and depends on the wedged shape as Fig. 3(b) and (c).

In case of the AS-QPM, the effect of wedged structure is different from the RA-QPM. In optimum structure as Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Effect of wedged structure in axis-slant QPM. (a) Optimum, (b) Wedged.
, the efficiency distribution along XS-axis becomes uniform. In wedged structure as Fig. 4(b), the efficiency distribution along XS-axis becomes also uniform because the beam passes through different point of wedged structure, though peak conversion efficiency is low compared to optimum structure because of the averaging effect of the wedged structure along the beam propagation axis.

Therefore, when we compare the AS-QPM device and the RA-QPM device with the same aperture, the AS-QPM device should have an improved conversion-efficiency distribution compared to the RA-QPM device, although peak conversion efficiency is degraded with depending on the wedged structure. It is needless to say, the AS-QPM device has a fundamental limitation in QPM device length, and the RA-QPM device has a fundamental limitation in device thickness (connects to aperture size).

4. Measurement of inversion field in axis-slant MgLN

We have proposed a REFVR method to characterize coercive field of various ferroelectrics for QPM device [19

19. H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16963–16970 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] at the conventional RA-QPM structure. In the AS-QPM structure, inversion field to invert the polarization of axis-slant crystal increase by factor of 1/cosθ0 compared to the coercive field of the RA-QPM structure. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 Measured inversion field. (a) Dependence on slant angle, (b) Dependence on crystal temperature.
shows a measured inversion field of 1-mm-thick axis-slant crystal with various θ0 by the REFVR method at temperature T = 120°C and slope of ramping electric field S = 10 kV/mm-s. The measured inversion field can be well fitted by theoretical curve. As increasing of θ0, effective crystal thickness along z-axis also increase, which results in increasing of the inversion field, and the inversion field at θ0 = 65° increase more than two times compared to the coercive field.

5. Fabrication of axis-slant QPM device

Figure 6
Fig. 6 Y-face photograph of the obtained axis-slant QPM structure in 65° slant MgLN with thickness d1 = 2 mm. Surface QPM period Λ1 = 75 µm.
presents y-cut face photograph of obtained axis-slant periodic structure. The axis-slant periodic structure could be fabricated in 2-mm-thick MgLN with θ0 = 65°. The wedged shape of periodic structure become serious in thick MgLN, and situation is same as in the axis-slant periodic poling in MgLN, which means that periodic structures near + ZS surface is almost merged with neighboring structures, and that periodic poling near -ZS surface is insufficient. In current poling condition, periodic structures near + ZS surface is almost merged with neighboring around ~200 µm depth from + ZS surface. As noted before, the effect of the wedged structure to the conversion-efficiency distribution could be averaged along propagation direction in the AS-QPM device. Also, the effect of the merged region by the wedged structure around ± ZS surface area could be partially removed, because these region should be polished for realizing input/output faces.

6. Evaluation of axis-slant QPM device by SHG experiment

To evaluate aperture size of the fabricated AS-QPM device, preliminary experiment by picosecond SHG was demonstrated. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser of 1064 nm wavelength with 35 ps duration at 10Hz repetition rate (Quantel, YG901C10) was used for pump source. QPM-SHG for 1st-order phase matching at 1064 nm pumping by d33 of MgLN needs QPM period ~6.9 µm [20

20. D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol.% magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(12), 3319–3322 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The fabricated AS-QPM device with θ0 = 65° and Λ1 ~75 µm produces minimum QPM period Λ2 ~32 µm inside the device, which is close to the QPM-period for 5th-order phase matching of ~34.5 µm at conventional collinear set up with pump and SH waves. Therefore, we can realize 5th-order QPM-SHG by large-aperture axis-slant QPM device at slightly non-collinear set up, as shown in Fig. 7(a)
Fig. 7 (a) Set up of 5th-QPM-SHG, (b) Typical input/output characteristics of 5th-QPM-SHG.
.

Both ± ZS surface of the device with original 2-mm thickness were polished to 1.67 mm thickness for making input/output faces. QPM size of the device along y-axis was 9 mm. Also, QPM electrode size along XS-axis at the field poling was 15 mm, which resulted in full ( + ZS to -ZS) PP-region of ~11 mm, with sandwiched by partial PP-region of ~4 mm and ~4 mm at both side, as shown in Fig. 7(a). Pump beam diameter was set to ~2 mm at intensity FWHM. Maximum input energy was 22 mJ in current set up.

SH wave of 532nm wavelength could be easily obtained because of high intensity pumping of the picosecond laser. At the incident angle θ1 = 65°, walk off angle between pump and SH wave outside of the device was measured to 4°. Figure 7(b) shows typical input/output characteristics of full PP-region at room temperature. Maximum SH energy of 1.2 mJ was obtained at pumping energy of 22 mJ, with conversion efficiency of 5.5%. The low conversion efficiency, which is resulted by the short QPM device length and the high-order QPM, enables a sensitive measurement of periodic structure.

7. Summary

We demonstrated a fabrication of axis-slant QPM structure in 2-mm-thick MgLN crystal at 65° slant angle with 75-µm surface QPM period. Also we presented a preliminary evaluation of acceptable aperture size by picosecond SHG experiment, and confirmed an expanded device aperture of the fabricated axis-slant QPM device, compared to the right-angled QPM and the conventional slant-structure QPM. We can expect that the axis-slant QPM can realize a wafer-scale-aperture device, which can easily handle high-power/energy lasers for giant micro-photonics.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank to Prof. M. M. Fejer of Stanford University, for fruitful discussion about axis-slant QPM. This research was partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 22560046 by JSPS, and Photon-Frontier-Consortium Project by MEXT of Japan.

References and links

1.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Hirano, S. Yamamoto, Y. Akino, A. Nakamura, T. Yagi, H. Sugiura, and T. Yanagisawa, “High performance micro green laser for laser tv,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP2009), WE1, Denver, Colorado, USA (Feb. 1–4, 2009).

4.

S. V. Tovstonog, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051115 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

R. Das, S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Broadband, high-power, continuous-wave, mid-infrared source using extended phase-matching bandwidth in MgO:PPLN,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3836–3838 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

K. Nakamura, T. Hatanaka, and H. Ito, “High output energy quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillator using diffusion-bonded periodically poled and single domain LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 4A), L337–L339 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(23), 4062–4064 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “High-energy quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 device with a 5 mm x 5 mm aperture,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2918–2920 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. Saikawa, M. Fujii, H. Ishizuki, and T. Taira, “High-energy, narrow-bandwidth periodically poled Mg-doped LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 32(20), 2996–2998 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. Saikawa, M. Miyazaki, M. Fujii, H. Ishizuki, and T. Taira, “High-energy, broadly tunable, narrow-bandwidth mid-infrared optical parametric system pumped by quasi-phase-matched devices,” Opt. Lett. 33(15), 1699–1701 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-μJ pulses at 2.1-μm carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express 17(1), 62–69 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

T. Suhara, Y. Avetisyan, and H. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of laterally emitting terahertz-wave generation by difference-frequency generation in channel waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(1), 166–171 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

J. A. L'huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, “Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate - Part 1: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 185–196 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

J. P. Fève, O. Pacaud, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Widely and continuously tunable optical parametric oscillator based on a cylindrical periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1882–1884 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. Ishizuki, J. Saikawa, and T. Taira, “Broadly and continuously tunable, high-energy optical parametric system by angular tuning of tilted QPM structures,” Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO2009), CThZ1, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (May 31 - June 5, 2009).

16.

D. S. Hum, R. K. Route, G. D. Miller, and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25-rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO2004) CThU2, San Francisco, CA, USA (May 16–21, 2004).

17.

D. S. Hum, R. K. Route, and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25°-rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 961–963 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y. Petit, B. Boulanger, P. Segonds, and T. Taira, “Angular quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A 76(6), 063817 (2007). [CrossRef]

19.

H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16963–16970 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol.% magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(12), 3319–3322 (1997). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optical Materials

History
Original Manuscript: September 26, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 27, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 27, 2011
Published: October 28, 2011

Virtual Issues
Nonlinear Optics (2011) Optical Materials Express

Citation
Hideki Ishizuki and Takunori Taira, "Large-aperture, axis-slant quasi-phase matching device using Mg-doped congruent LiNbO3 [Invited]," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1376-1382 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-7-1376


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References

  1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation:tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(11), 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(5), 435–436 (1993). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Hirano, S. Yamamoto, Y. Akino, A. Nakamura, T. Yagi, H. Sugiura, and T. Yanagisawa, “High performance micro green laser for laser tv,” Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP2009), WE1, Denver, Colorado, USA (Feb. 1–4, 2009).
  4. S. V. Tovstonog, S. Kurimura, and K. Kitamura, “High power continuous-wave green light generation by quasiphase matching in Mg stoichiometric lithium tantalate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(5), 051115 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. R. Das, S. C. Kumar, G. K. Samanta, and M. Ebrahim-Zadeh, “Broadband, high-power, continuous-wave, mid-infrared source using extended phase-matching bandwidth in MgO:PPLN,” Opt. Lett.34(24), 3836–3838 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Nakamura, T. Hatanaka, and H. Ito, “High output energy quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillator using diffusion-bonded periodically poled and single domain LiNbO3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 4A), L337–L339 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ishizuki, I. Shoji, and T. Taira, “Periodical poling characteristics of congruent MgO:LiNbO3 crystals at elevated temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4062–4064 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “High-energy quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 device with a 5 mm x 5 mm aperture,” Opt. Lett.30(21), 2918–2920 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Saikawa, M. Fujii, H. Ishizuki, and T. Taira, “High-energy, narrow-bandwidth periodically poled Mg-doped LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett.32(20), 2996–2998 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Saikawa, M. Miyazaki, M. Fujii, H. Ishizuki, and T. Taira, “High-energy, broadly tunable, narrow-bandwidth mid-infrared optical parametric system pumped by quasi-phase-matched devices,” Opt. Lett.33(15), 1699–1701 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Gu, G. Marcus, Y. Deng, T. Metzger, C. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, A. Baltuska, R. Butkus, V. Pervak, H. Ishizuki, T. Taira, T. Kobayashi, R. Kienberger, and F. Krausz, “Generation of carrier-envelope-phase-stable 2-cycle 740-μJ pulses at 2.1-μm carrier wavelength,” Opt. Express17(1), 62–69 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Suhara, Y. Avetisyan, and H. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of laterally emitting terahertz-wave generation by difference-frequency generation in channel waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.39(1), 166–171 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. L'huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, Y. Avetisyan, and R. Beigang, “Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate - Part 1: Theory,” Appl. Phys. B86(2), 185–196 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. J. P. Fève, O. Pacaud, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Hellström, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Widely and continuously tunable optical parametric oscillator based on a cylindrical periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett.26(23), 1882–1884 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Ishizuki, J. Saikawa, and T. Taira, “Broadly and continuously tunable, high-energy optical parametric system by angular tuning of tilted QPM structures,” Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO2009), CThZ1, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (May 31 - June 5, 2009).
  16. D. S. Hum, R. K. Route, G. D. Miller, and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25-rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO2004) CThU2, San Francisco, CA, USA (May 16–21, 2004).
  17. D. S. Hum, R. K. Route, and M. M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25°-rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration,” Opt. Lett.32(8), 961–963 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Petit, B. Boulanger, P. Segonds, and T. Taira, “Angular quasi-phase-matching,” Phys. Rev. A76(6), 063817 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Ishizuki and T. Taira, “Mg-doped congruent LiTaO3 crystal for large-aperture quasi-phase matching device,” Opt. Express16(21), 16963–16970 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol.% magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B14(12), 3319–3322 (1997). [CrossRef]

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