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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 8 — Dec. 1, 2011
  • pp: 1433–1438
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In situ observation of light-assisted domain reversal in lithium niobate crystals

Hongde Liu, Meiling Zhu, Qirui Liang, Wei Li, Shiguo Liu, Ling Zhang, Shaolin Chen, Yongfa Kong, and Jingjun Xu  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 1, Issue 8, pp. 1433-1438 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.1.001433


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Abstract

A digital holography interferometry was applied for in situ observation of the light-assisted domain reversal in the lithium niobate doped with MgO. The evolution of the light-assisted domain nucleation and growth was reconstructed, and we found a flat-top reversed domain state during the two stages: I. the reversed domain tip propagates in depth and progressively flattens its edge profile; II. the polarization reversal front abruptly changes shape with the formation of two fast-propagating lateral tips. According to experiments and analysis, we find a Gaussian-shaped space charge field and present a model based on a redistribution of the photo-excited carriers to explain the process of light-assisted domain reversal.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Ferroelectric domain engineering in lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) crystals is an active field of research, since various applications can be realized with tailored ferroelectric domain patterns. The most prominent example is frequency conversion using quasi-phase matching in periodically poled crystals [1

1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. All optical switches [2

2. Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, “Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3719–3721 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and photonic crystals [3

3. N. G. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are enabled by domain structures. For the high coercive field of lithium niobate crystals, the domain reversal is very difficult and the domain pattern is difficult to control. Recently, structured illumination in combination with the application of a suitable external electrical field allows them to transfer the light pattern to a domain pattern, providing a method for domain engineering with lower electric field [4

4. M. Fujimura, T. Sohmura, and T. Suhara, “Fabrication of domain-inverted gratings in MgO:LiNbO3 by applying voltage under ultraviolet irradiation through photomask at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(9), 719–721 (2003). [CrossRef]

6

6. H. Steigerwald, F. Luedtke, and K. Buse, “Ultraviolet light assisted periodic poling of near-stoichiometric, magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 032906 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

From visible to ultraviolet range, some scientists have studied the domain reversal with light illumination, including the reduction of switching field, threshold intensities for domain nucleation, self-organized domain patterns with the ultraviolet illumination, etc [7

7. Y. Zhi, D. Liu, W. Qu, Z. Luan, and L. Liu, “Wavelength dependence of light-induced domain nucleation in MgO-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 042904 (2007). [CrossRef]

12

12. H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. However, the origin of the manifold light-assisted/ light-induced domain reversal has been not well understood by now. The digital holography (DH) based technique for in situ interferometric analysis of domain reversal process in lithium niobate provides quantitative spatially resolved phase shift data, with non-contact, non destructive and high resolution advantages [13

13. S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, M. Paturzo, D. Alfieri, P. De Natale, M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “In-situ visualization, monitoring and analysis of electric field domain reversal process in ferroelectric crystals by digital holography,” Opt. Express 12(9), 1832–1842 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. M. Paturzo, F. Merola, and P. Ferraro, “Multi-imaging capabilities of a 2D diffraction grating in combination with digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1010–1012 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The phase shift distribution is generated simultaneously by linear electro-optic and piezoelectric effect along the crystallographic c-axis. Such phase shift distribution is numerically reconstructed by the DH method and it is denoted here as the phase-map of the domain structure. With the evolution of the phase-map, we can monitor the domain reversal process, which help us understand the underlying process of the light-assisted/ light-induced domain reversal further.

In this paper, we observe the evolving process of light assisted domain reversal in the magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals by the digital holographic interferometry method, and find the flat domain boundary at the middle position in the crystal, and propose a light-assisted domain reversal model to explain the domain reversal mechanism with light illumination.

2. Experiments

We use a standard liquid-electrode setup that allows for illumination of the crystal during poling with light of a compact Diode-pumped Solid State Nd:YVO4 Laser at the wavelength 532 nm. The sample holder with a 3 × 3 cm2 size window is filled with saturated LiCl solution. Finally, the evolution of domain reversals is imaged by in situ visualization with the digital holographic interferometry [14

14. M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, D. Alfieri, P. De Natale, M. de Angelis, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, G. Pierattini, F. Caccavale, D. Callejo, and A. Morbiato, “On the origin of internal field in lithium niobate crystals directly observed by digital holography,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5416–5423 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This enables us to obtain the phase shifts during the domain reversal and measure the coercive field (EC) for different intensities. The experiment is conducted with congruent lithium niobate crystal doped with 5 mol% MgO. The wafer is 1 mm in thickness and c-cut with optical quality polishing. The coercive field of crystal without illumination is 5.5 kV/mm. The focal length of the lens used in experiments is 150 mm, and the diameter of focused spot is about 50 micrometers. And the Rayleigh range for the focused beam (~3 mm) was much larger than the crystal thickness, which ensured a relatively uniform spatial distribution over the entire crystal thickness. The image is obtained by a CMOS camera with a resolution of 2048 × 1536 and 5 fps frequency.

The digital holographic interferometry is performed to measure the phase difference. The CMOS camera continuously records the variation in interference patterns. The digital holographic interferometry can be applied to all the recorded interferograms. The variations in the domain distributions are obtained in the crystals during the electric poling. The phase mapping of individual domain nucleation and growth is obtained by the digital holographic interferometry in the crystals. The distinct variations in phase distribution are observed during the individual domain nucleation and growth in the crystals. According to the electro-optic effect in lithium niobate crystal (the converse piezoelectric effect should be neglected for it is smaller to electro-optic effect), the change in refractive index between the reversed domain and un-reversed domain produces a phase shifts, and the depth of the reversed domain can be calculated with the change in refractive index. So we can acquire the mapping evolutions of the reversed domain in the domain reversal process. The electro-optic effect in the LN crystal produces the refractive index change in response to the applied electric field. The steady-state electric field applied to the LN crystal, with the ramping rate of 30 V/mm-s from the beginning of the illumination, is 4500 V/mm in this work.

3. Results and discussions

3.1 The phase mapping of the light-assisted reversed domain

Figure 1
Fig. 1 The selected sequence of reconstructed three-dimensional wave-field phase distributions during the domain nucleation and growth in the LN crystal. The six frames labeled as (a) - (f) show the nucleation and growth of individual 180° domain microstructure in the wafer at different times after the application of the steady voltage (at t = 0s). The times t (in seconds) corresponding to each frame are (a) 3.6, (b)4.4, (c)4.8, (d)5.0, (e)6.8 and (f)8.6s. The polarization axis is along the c-axis.
shows the selected sequence of reconstructed three-dimensional mapping of reversed domain distributions during the individual domain nucleation and growth in congruent lithium niobate doped with 5.0 mol% MgO. From the Figs. 1(a)1(f), we find that the evolution of the lateral dimension for the light-assisted reversed domain is similar to the nucleus ones without light illumination, which start from the center of the spot and expand outside gradually. But the evolution of the longitudinal dimension for the light-assisted reversed domain is obviously different, that the domain nucleus appear firstly in the center of the laser spot on the –c surface, and propagate towards the + c surface with a crest-like shape, but run through the wafer at the peripheral of spot on the + c surface. In the domain reversal process, the domain boundary between the reversed and native domain shows a flat-top state at a moment, which is the most difference compared with normal domain reversal without light illumination [16

16. V. Y. Shur, “Kinetics of ferroelectric domains: Application of general approach to LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(1), 199–210 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. With the different spot size (30~70 μm), we found the similar results.

The phase images are obstructed seriously by the scattering light on the domain walls, which occurs after the domain walls penetrating through the crystal. So we omitted the images during this period. The scattering light on the penetrating domain walls which is ternary-symmetry, is relative to the polarization of the probe light, and not occurs when the domain walls are circular symmetrical (i.e. the domain walls don’t pass through the crystal).

3.2 The characterization of the longitudinal growth

To study the evolution of the longitudinal dimension of the reversed domain, we choose the longitudinal section of the three-dimensional mapping for the reversed domain through the center of the laser spot (see in the Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The evolution of the longitudinal section in the nucleation and growth of individual 180° domain microstructure in the wafer at different times after the application of the steady voltage (at t = 0s).
). From the figure, we find that the nucleus appears at the central of spot region, and the reversed domain appears a cylinder-like shape with a flat top in the spot when the depth of domain is about 500 μm. The lateral size of the flat-top reversed domain is equal to the spot ones. After the flat-top state, the reversed domain spread out the spot, and the domain at the outer of the spot runs faster than the inner ones, which firstly propagates through the crystal. With the poling time increasing, the reversed domain continues to spread outward and finally runs through the sample in the whole spot region.

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) The reversed domain depth at different positions of the light spot varies with time. (b) The velocity of the reversed domain walls at different times.
shows the evolution in the depth of the reversed domain for the selected position during the individual light-assisted domain nucleation and growth. From the figure, we find that the reversed domain at different positions has a same depth at a moment. The longitudinal velocity of domain walls via the different position in the light spot at different time is shown in Fig. 3(b). From the figure, we find that the longitudinal velocity is nonlinear. The velocity in the central region increases firstly with the time, and then decreases after the depth equal to the half thickness of the crystal. The velocity at the peripheral spot lags behind the central ones.

3.3 Discussions

For the visible light-assisted domain reversal, it requires a higher light intensity for domain reversal. However, it doesn’t require a focusing light illumination for domain reversal in the ultraviolet band. With the visible light illumination, the absorption of the crystal is very little, so we can ignore the temperature effect as involved in the [5

5. C. L. Sones, M. C. Wengler, C. E. Valdivia, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, and K. Buse, “Light-induced order of magnitude decrease in the electric field for domain nucleation in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 212901 (2005). [CrossRef]

,17

17. V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Direct-write method for domain inversion patterns in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 3987–3989 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Similarly, the photovoltaic effect caused by the absorption isn’t the reason for the reduction of the switching field, which is considered in the UV range [11

11. M. C. Wengler, U. Heinemeyer, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Ultraviolet light-assisted domain inversion in magnesium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064104 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

From the former study, the velocity of the domain boundary is proportional to the extra electric field and described by V = V exp (-δ/E) [18

18. R. C. Miller and G. Weinreich, “Mechanism for the sidewise motion of 180° domain walls in barium titanate,” Phys. Rev. 117(6), 1460–1466 (1960). [CrossRef]

], with V and δ field independent. The Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The evolution of the space charge field produced by light excited carriers at different times after the application of the steady voltage (at t = 0s). The times t (in seconds) corresponding to each frame are (a) 4.4, (b) 5.2, (c) 5.6, (d)8.0, (e) 9.2, (f) 10.2 and (g) 19.2, separately.
shows the space charge field in the crystal. For V and δ are not constant over the entire range, we only show a relative variation. From the Fig. 4, we find that the space charge field changes over time and the space charge field is a Gaussian-like shape at initial stage. As it is well known, the photorefraction is a general effect in the lithium niobate, that the photon-excited carriers could migrate and construct the space charge field, to vary the external electric field of the domain reversal. So we consider the electric field in the light-assisted domain reversal come from the photorefraction.

According to former and our results, we propose a light-assisted domain reversal model as schematically shown in Fig. 4. Strong illumination leads to photoexcitation of charges, including electrons and holes [19

19. C. Sandmann and V. Dierolf, “The role of defects in light induced domain inversion in lithium niobate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2(1), 136–140 (2005). [CrossRef]

,20

20. W. J. Wang, Y. F. Kong, H. D. Liu, Q. Hu, S. G. Liu, S. L. Chen, and J. J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. A concentration gradient is formed which drives electrons into the dark area and holes with lower mobility remain in the illuminated region producing a forward extra electric field near the -c surface, which decreases the switching field locally, and a reversed electric field at the other end which restrains the domain propagating forward (Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 The schematic diagram for light-assisted domain reversal process. (a) The distribution of light-excited electrons and holes. (b) The formation of a light-assisted reversed domain on –c face. (c) The reversed domain with a flat-top shape. (d) The domain tips at the periphery of spot arrive at + c surface. (e) The light-assisted domain reversal completed. The bottom line is the schematic diagram of reversed domain on the –c surface.
). The reduction proportion of nucleation field increases exponentially with increasing laser intensity over a threshold value and eventually reaches some saturation value at higher intensities [5

5. C. L. Sones, M. C. Wengler, C. E. Valdivia, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, and K. Buse, “Light-induced order of magnitude decrease in the electric field for domain nucleation in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 212901 (2005). [CrossRef]

,7

7. Y. Zhi, D. Liu, W. Qu, Z. Luan, and L. Liu, “Wavelength dependence of light-induced domain nucleation in MgO-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 042904 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The intensity used in our experiment was about 2.5 × 103 W/cm2, which is beyond the intensity threshold. When an external constant electric field and a focal laser beam are applied, domain nucleation occurred within the central region of the beam spot on the –c surface; at the same time, domains propagate toward the + c face forming head-to-head boundary beneath the surface (Fig. 5(b)).

In the central region of illumination, holes reach a high concentration level, which are easily accumulated by the head-to-head boundary and then screen the depolarization field of the reversed domains. When the reversed domain boundary arrives at the middle of the crystal, the domain walls are strained for the reversed electric field. The domain walls show a flat-top shape at a moment (Fig. 5(c)).At the outer of the spot, the laser intensity decreases rapidly, causing a lower concentration of light excited holes. In this region, the light-assisted reversed domains need to grow deeper and larger in order to accumulate enough holes for boundary charge compensation, some of them even cross the whole thickness. Because of merging with each other, domains with lower wall energy in this region become more stable in the consequent poling process (Fig. 5(d)). Finally, with the steady electric field appling, the light-assisted domain reversal complete as shown in Fig. 5(e)).

4. Summary

In a summary, we investigated the evolution of the light-assisted domain nucleation and growth by digital holographic interferometry, and found a flat-top reversed domain in the crystal and a Gaussian space charge field. From the study about the domain walls mapping and space charge field in crystal, we propose a model to explain the process of light-assisted domain reversal.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (200800551019), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (65010941 & 65030091), the Tianjin Natural Science Foundation (10JCYBJC02800), the National Basic Research Program of China (2010CB934101), and the Chinese National Key Basic Research Special Fund (No. 2011CB922003). The authors would like to thank the referees for their valuable comments and suggestions.

References and links

1.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, “Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(23), 3719–3721 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

N. G. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. Fujimura, T. Sohmura, and T. Suhara, “Fabrication of domain-inverted gratings in MgO:LiNbO3 by applying voltage under ultraviolet irradiation through photomask at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39(9), 719–721 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

C. L. Sones, M. C. Wengler, C. E. Valdivia, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, and K. Buse, “Light-induced order of magnitude decrease in the electric field for domain nucleation in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 212901 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Steigerwald, F. Luedtke, and K. Buse, “Ultraviolet light assisted periodic poling of near-stoichiometric, magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(3), 032906 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. Zhi, D. Liu, W. Qu, Z. Luan, and L. Liu, “Wavelength dependence of light-induced domain nucleation in MgO-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 042904 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

Y. J. Ying, C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “Latent light-assisted poling of LiNbO3.,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18681–18692 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. Y. Ying, C. L. Sones, A. C. Peacock, F. Johann, E. Soergel, R. W. Eason, M. N. Zervas, and S. Mailis, “Ultra-smooth lithium niobate photonic micro-structures by surface tension reshaping,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11508–11513 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. L. Sones, P. Ganguly, Y. J. Ying, F. Johann, E. Soergel, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “Spectral and electro-optic response of UV-written waveguides in LiNbO3 single crystals,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23755–23764 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. C. Wengler, U. Heinemeyer, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Ultraviolet light-assisted domain inversion in magnesium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064104 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 535–539 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, M. Paturzo, D. Alfieri, P. De Natale, M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “In-situ visualization, monitoring and analysis of electric field domain reversal process in ferroelectric crystals by digital holography,” Opt. Express 12(9), 1832–1842 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, D. Alfieri, P. De Natale, M. de Angelis, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, G. Pierattini, F. Caccavale, D. Callejo, and A. Morbiato, “On the origin of internal field in lithium niobate crystals directly observed by digital holography,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5416–5423 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Paturzo, F. Merola, and P. Ferraro, “Multi-imaging capabilities of a 2D diffraction grating in combination with digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1010–1012 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

V. Y. Shur, “Kinetics of ferroelectric domains: Application of general approach to LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(1), 199–210 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Direct-write method for domain inversion patterns in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 3987–3989 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

R. C. Miller and G. Weinreich, “Mechanism for the sidewise motion of 180° domain walls in barium titanate,” Phys. Rev. 117(6), 1460–1466 (1960). [CrossRef]

19.

C. Sandmann and V. Dierolf, “The role of defects in light induced domain inversion in lithium niobate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 2(1), 136–140 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

W. J. Wang, Y. F. Kong, H. D. Liu, Q. Hu, S. G. Liu, S. L. Chen, and J. J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(4), 043105 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(090.2880) Holography : Holographic interferometry
(160.2260) Materials : Ferroelectrics
(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate

ToC Category:
Ferroelectrics

History
Original Manuscript: September 6, 2011
Revised Manuscript: October 14, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 14, 2011
Published: November 2, 2011

Citation
Hongde Liu, Meiling Zhu, Qirui Liang, Wei Li, Shiguo Liu, Ling Zhang, Shaolin Chen, Yongfa Kong, and Jingjun Xu, "In situ observation of light-assisted domain reversal in lithium niobate crystals," Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1433-1438 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-1-8-1433


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References

  1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(11), 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Q. Lu, Z. L. Wan, Q. Wang, Y. X. Xi, and N. B. Ming, “Electro-optic effect of periodically poled optical superlattice LiNbO3 and its applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3719–3721 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. N. G. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(19), 4345–4348 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Fujimura, T. Sohmura, and T. Suhara, “Fabrication of domain-inverted gratings in MgO:LiNbO3 by applying voltage under ultraviolet irradiation through photomask at room temperature,” Electron. Lett.39(9), 719–721 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. C. L. Sones, M. C. Wengler, C. E. Valdivia, S. Mailis, R. W. Eason, and K. Buse, “Light-induced order of magnitude decrease in the electric field for domain nucleation in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 212901 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Steigerwald, F. Luedtke, and K. Buse, “Ultraviolet light assisted periodic poling of near-stoichiometric, magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(3), 032906 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Zhi, D. Liu, W. Qu, Z. Luan, and L. Liu, “Wavelength dependence of light-induced domain nucleation in MgO-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(4), 042904 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. J. Ying, C. E. Valdivia, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “Latent light-assisted poling of LiNbO3.,” Opt. Express17(21), 18681–18692 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Y. Ying, C. L. Sones, A. C. Peacock, F. Johann, E. Soergel, R. W. Eason, M. N. Zervas, and S. Mailis, “Ultra-smooth lithium niobate photonic micro-structures by surface tension reshaping,” Opt. Express18(11), 11508–11513 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. L. Sones, P. Ganguly, Y. J. Ying, F. Johann, E. Soergel, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, “Spectral and electro-optic response of UV-written waveguides in LiNbO3 single crystals,” Opt. Express17(26), 23755–23764 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. C. Wengler, U. Heinemeyer, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, “Ultraviolet light-assisted domain inversion in magnesium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.98(6), 064104 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Steigerwald, F. Cube, F. Luedtke, V. Dierolf, and K. Buse, “Influence of heat and UV light on the coercive field of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 535–539 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, M. Paturzo, D. Alfieri, P. De Natale, M. de Angelis, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “In-situ visualization, monitoring and analysis of electric field domain reversal process in ferroelectric crystals by digital holography,” Opt. Express12(9), 1832–1842 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Paturzo, P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, D. Alfieri, P. De Natale, M. de Angelis, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, G. Pierattini, F. Caccavale, D. Callejo, and A. Morbiato, “On the origin of internal field in lithium niobate crystals directly observed by digital holography,” Opt. Express13(14), 5416–5423 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Paturzo, F. Merola, and P. Ferraro, “Multi-imaging capabilities of a 2D diffraction grating in combination with digital holography,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1010–1012 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. Y. Shur, “Kinetics of ferroelectric domains: Application of general approach to LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” J. Mater. Sci.41(1), 199–210 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Direct-write method for domain inversion patterns in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 3987–3989 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. R. C. Miller and G. Weinreich, “Mechanism for the sidewise motion of 180° domain walls in barium titanate,” Phys. Rev.117(6), 1460–1466 (1960). [CrossRef]
  19. C. Sandmann and V. Dierolf, “The role of defects in light induced domain inversion in lithium niobate,” Phys. Status Solidi C2(1), 136–140 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. W. J. Wang, Y. F. Kong, H. D. Liu, Q. Hu, S. G. Liu, S. L. Chen, and J. J. Xu, “Light-induced domain reversal in doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.105(4), 043105 (2009). [CrossRef]

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