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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1329–1335
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Investigation on radiation resistance of Er/Ce co-doped silicate glasses under 5 kGy gamma-ray irradiation

Rui-xian Xing, Yu-bang Sheng, Zi-jun Liu, Hai-qing Li, Zuo-wen Jiang, Jing-gang Peng, Lu-yun Yang, Jin-yan Li, and Neng-li Dai  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 10, pp. 1329-1335 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.2.001329


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Abstract

Various Er/Ce co-doped SiO2-Al2O3-CaO glasses are prepared by the melt-quenching method. The radiation resistance of Er/Ce co-doped glasses is investigated under 5 kGy gamma-ray irradiation. The absorption spectra, up-conversion spectra, fluorescence intensity and lifetime of Er/Ce co-doped glasses before and after irradiation are measured and analyzed in details. The radiation induced absorption (RIA) of the Er/Ce co-doped silicate glasses can be suppressed due to Ce ions co-doping. The fluorescence intensity and lifetime of Er/Ce co-doped glasses have no apparent change after irradiation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of Ce effect on the radiation resistance improvement is discussed. The result indicates that Er doped glasses with an optimal Ce concentration introduction can be used as active medias for radiation-resistant materials in harsh radiation environments.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Research on the development of RIA of the glasses has been actively continued in the past few years [14

14. Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010). [CrossRef]

17

17. O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093115 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The results show that the RIA arise from color centers generation due to the trapping of holes and electrons at pre-existing or radiation induced defect sites. The decrease in optical transmittance of the glasses with respect to ionizing-radiation dose and dose rate has been described by a power law [9

9. D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(7), 1019–1022 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093115 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. It is well known that the radiation resistance of the passive and scintillating glasses is improved with Ce co-doping [18

18. J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962). [CrossRef]

,19

19. S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 476(3), 785–789 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. By the reason that Ce3+ and Ce4+ coexist in the glass, Ce3+ ions can capture the radiation-induced holes and then inhibit the formation of all other kinds of centers due to trapped holes while Ce4+ inhibit the formation of all other kinds of centers result from trapped electrons and inhibit recombination of electrons with trapped holes through capture the electrons [18

18. J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962). [CrossRef]

,20

20. J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(7), 2442–2450 (1965). [CrossRef]

]. Some investigations have been performed in the Er/Ce co-doped fibers or glasses and the results show that the telluride fibers have a low noise figure around 1.55 μm band when pumped at 980 nm [21

21. Z. Chen, K. Zhou, and C. Jiang, “Modeling of Er3+-Ce3+-doped Telluride Fiber Amplifier,” in Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO), 2010 Symposium on (2010), pp. 1–3.

], and the fluorescence characteristics at 1.55 μm of the fluoride host glasses can effectively be improved when pumped at 980 nm [22

22. Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(5), 2187–2190 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. However, few studies have been carried out on the radiation resistance of the Er/Ce co-doped silicate glasses. As we know, Ce3+ has a 4f1 ground electronic configuration with two free ion states separated by 2000 cm−1 and as to Ce4+ is a 4f0 system [23

23. A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 11(11), 2082–2086 (1976). [CrossRef]

]. The property of the Ce ions has very slight effect on the radiative transition of other rear earth ions that could not increase the non-radiative quenching and energy transfer. Furthermore, Ce ions could easily introduced in silicate glass with aluminum and other rare earth ions.

The aim of this work was to investigate the radiation resistance of the Er/Ce co-doped silicate glasses under 5 kGy gamma-ray irradiation. We demonstrate that the addition of Ce into glass matrix can improve the radiation resistance of Er-doped silica-based glass for the first time. The influence of Ce co-doping on optical properties of Er-doped glasses has also been investigated. The results imply that Er/Ce co-doped silicate glasses can be used for active materials in harsh radiation environments.

2. Experiments

In this experiment, the glasses with composition in mol% was 65% SiO2, 10% Al2O3 and 25% CaO (SAC) were prepared by a conventional melting method under atmosphere. The doped samples were prepared with 0.5 mol% Er2O3 and different CeO2 concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 1.5, and 2 mol%). The glasses were prepared by mixing appropriate quantities of analytical grade in a sintered alumina crucible and melting the mixture for 2h at 1580°C in a normal atmosphere. The melts were poured on the pre-heated steel mold and then annealed for 2h at 550°C to obtain thermal and structural stability.

Then the sample glasses were cut and polished into with dimensions of 15 × 15 × 2 mm3 for subsequent measurements. The absorption spectra before and after irradiation in the ultra-violet and visible wavelength ranges were performed by using a Perkin Elmer Lambda 35 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The fluorescence spectra in the near infrared region and the up-conversion spectra in the visible range were measured on a ZOLIX SBP300 spectrophotometer under an 976 nm LD excitation. Photoluminescence decay measurements were carried out by exciting the samples with a modulated 980 nm LD, and monitoring 1535 nm emission with an InGaAs photodetector in TRIAX550 spectrofluorometer. The fluorescence data was processed by a Tektronix oscilloscope to determine the lifetime. In order to investigate the radiation resistance of the silicate glasses, the samples were exposed to gamma rays from a 60Co γ-source under normal atmosphere up to total doses of 5 kGy at a dose rate of 250 Gy/h. To avoid noticeable radiation-induced absorption relaxation during the measurements, the spectra of the glasses were measured within one day after finishing the irradiation. All of measurements were carried out at room temperature.

3. Results and discussions

The initial and 5 kGy irradiated glass samples are shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The photography of the Er-0.5 mol% Ce co-doped glasses (a, pristine; b, irradiated), and the single Er-doped glasses (c, pristine; d, irradiated).
. It is known that Ce ions exhibit both trivalent and tetravalent oxidation state (Ce3+ and Ce4+) in oxide glasses under normal conditions of melting. Ce3+ in oxide glasses has very little, if any, absorption in the visible region, therefore, the color of Ce-containing glasses origins from Ce4+ due to the tail of strong charge transfer absorption band in the near ultraviolet region [23

23. A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 11(11), 2082–2086 (1976). [CrossRef]

]. From Fig. 1 we know that the color of the single Er-doped glass changes from light pink to brown owning to irradiation while no obvious color change is observed in the Er/Ce co-doped glass. This can be confirmed from Fig. 2
Fig. 2 UV–visible absorption spectra of host, single Er-doped, and Er/Ce co-doped glasses (a) before irradiation (b) after irradiation. Inset: absorption spectra at 980 nm.
, the change in the optical absorption coefficient spectra of corresponding sample glasses upon irradiation.

We also measured the emission properties of the sample glasses before and after irradiation, as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Fluorescence spectra of single Er-doped, and Er/Ce co-doped glasses, pristine (solid curve) and 5 kGy irradiated (dashed curve); (b) luminescence (1535 nm) intensity of Er-doped glasses as a function of Ce concentration.
. Figure 4(a) shows the fluorescence spectra of typical non- and 5 kGy irradiated samples under 980 nm excitation, and the peak wavelength near 1535 nm. All spectra have been divided by the peak wavelength intensity of un-irradiated Er-doped glass for comparison. Figure 4(b) shows the intensity of Er/Ce co-doped glasses as a function of CeO2 concentrations at a wavelength of 1535 nm. As can be seen, the FWHM (full width at half maximum) and the peak wavelength have slightly change while the luminescence intensity of the glasses decreased obviously with increasing CeO2 concentration and only half when the CeO2 concentration up to 1.5 mol%. The intensity of the Er/Ce co-doped glass has barely changed after irradiation, as compared with single Er-doped glass. This also means that the radiation resistance of the Er-doped glass can be greatly improved with CeO2 co-doping.

4. Conclusion

We have demonstrated that Ce ions co-doping by some amount could effectively improve the radiation resistance of the Er-doped silicate glasses. The radiation induced loss of Er/Ce co-doped glass diminished significantly as compared with single Er-doped glass. However, taking into account the influence of Ce ions on the luminescent characteristics of Er3+ around 1.55 µm, an optimal concentration of Ce should be exist. We can reduce the negative impact of doped Ce to acceptable levels by controlling the ratio of Ce3+ and Ce4+ via adjusting the redox atmosphere.

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the National High-Technology Research and Development Program of China (2011AA030201). The authors would also like to thank Huazhong University of Science &Technology Analytical and Testing Center for the spectroscopic measurement.

References and links

1.

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51(5), 2763–2769 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE 2811, 30–36 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, and G. C. Valley, “Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: active and passive measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(12), 1918–1923 (2001). [CrossRef]

4.

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 1531–1536 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett. 28(19), 1816–1818 (1992). [CrossRef]

8.

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 4547, 126–133 (2002). [CrossRef]

9.

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(7), 1019–1022 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes Jr, and D. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(3), 1618–1625 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

O. Berne, M. Caussanel, and O. Gilard, “A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2227–2229 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 28(17), 1589–1591 (1992). [CrossRef]

13.

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Study of the radiation-induced optical sensitivity in erbium and aluminium doped fibres,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, 2003, RADECS 2003 (Citeseer, 2003), pp. 35–38.

14.

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 75(9), 959–966 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 262(2), 276–280 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093115 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962). [CrossRef]

19.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 476(3), 785–789 (2002). [CrossRef]

20.

J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(7), 2442–2450 (1965). [CrossRef]

21.

Z. Chen, K. Zhou, and C. Jiang, “Modeling of Er3+-Ce3+-doped Telluride Fiber Amplifier,” in Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO), 2010 Symposium on (2010), pp. 1–3.

22.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(5), 2187–2190 (2000). [CrossRef]

23.

A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 11(11), 2082–2086 (1976). [CrossRef]

24.

Y. Q. Wei, A. Harsh, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Er/Ce codoped tellurite fibre amplifier for high-gain and low-noise operation,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Vol. 1–8 (Optical Society of America, 2008), pp. 2496–2498.

OCIS Codes
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(350.5610) Other areas of optics : Radiation

ToC Category:
Glass and Other Amorphous Materials

History
Original Manuscript: June 19, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 13, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: August 25, 2012
Published: August 31, 2012

Citation
Rui-xian Xing, Yu-bang Sheng, Zi-jun Liu, Hai-qing Li, Zuo-wen Jiang, Jing-gang Peng, Lu-yun Yang, Jin-yan Li, and Neng-li Dai, "Investigation on radiation resistance of Er/Ce co-doped silicate glasses under 5 kGy gamma-ray irradiation," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1329-1335 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-2-10-1329


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References

  1. M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE2811, 30–36 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, and G. C. Valley, “Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: active and passive measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(12), 1918–1923 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.45(3), 1531–1536 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE4547, 126–133 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(7), 1019–1022 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.57(3), 1618–1625 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. O. Berne, M. Caussanel, and O. Gilard, “A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(10), 2227–2229 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.28(17), 1589–1591 (1992). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Study of the radiation-induced optical sensitivity in erbium and aluminium doped fibres,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, 2003, RADECS 2003 (Citeseer, 2003), pp. 35–38.
  14. Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(2), 338–341 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093115 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys.37(4), 836–841 (1962). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys.43(7), 2442–2450 (1965). [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Chen, K. Zhou, and C. Jiang, “Modeling of Er3+-Ce3+-doped Telluride Fiber Amplifier,” in Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO), 2010 Symposium on (2010), pp. 1–3.
  22. Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.11(11), 2082–2086 (1976). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Q. Wei, A. Harsh, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Er/Ce codoped tellurite fibre amplifier for high-gain and low-noise operation,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Vol. 1–8 (Optical Society of America, 2008), pp. 2496–2498.

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