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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1378–1383
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Photochromism and white long-lasting persistent luminescence in Bi3+-doped ZnGa2O4 ceramics

Yixi Zhuang, Jumpei Ueda, and Setsuhisa Tanabe  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 10, pp. 1378-1383 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.2.001378


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Abstract

White long-lasting persistent luminescence covering the whole visible region in Bi3+-doped ZnGa2O4 ceramics is reported. The afterglow luminescence can be observed for several tens of minutes after 360 nm or 280 nm excitation. Photochromism is also observed during ultra-violet excitation. The persistent luminescence and photochromism are considered to originate from electron trapping by defect centers in the ZnGa2O4 crystals. The Bi3+-doped ZnGa2O4 ceramics are expected to be potential white-color afterglow phosphors.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The phenomena of long-lasting persistent luminescence were documented as early as 17th century by an Italian shoemaker, V. Casciarolo [1

1. A. Roda, “The discovery of luminescence: ‘The Bolognian stone’,” (International Society for Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 1998). http://www.isbc.unibo.it/Files/10_SE_BoStone.htm.

]. Then new discovery and research progressed slowly during several hundred years. At the end of 20th century, Matsuzawa et al., reported Eu2+-Dy3+-doped SrAl2O4 phosphors, which show sufficient brightness and duration of persistent luminescence for practical application [2

2. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Extensive research activity on reporting new persistent phosphors as well as discussing mechanism models was triggered [3

3. H. Takasaki, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Long-lasting afterglow characteristics of Eu, Dy codoped SrO-Al2O3 phosphor,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 104(1208), 322–326 (1996). [CrossRef]

7

7. P. Dorenbos, “Mechanism of persistent luminescence in Eu2+ and Dy3+ codoped aluminate and silicate compounds,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(7), H107–H110 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Most of the reports focused on alkaline aluminates (e.g. MAl2O4, M = Ca or Sr) and alkaline earth disilicate (e.g. M2MgSi2O7, M = Ca, Sr or Ba) activated by rare-earth ions, especially by Eu2+ as emitters and Dy3+ as sensitizers. Long duration of blue and green persistent luminescence for several hours has been achieved.

White-color (full-color) afterglow phosphors as persistent emitting light sources would be important in many dark-environment applications [8

8. J. Hölsä, “Persistent luminescence beats the afterglow: 400 years of persistent luminescence,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 18, 42–45 (2009).

]. One of possible strategies is by combining three individual blue, green, and red persistent phosphors. However, the inconsistence of the duration of these three colors, especially due to weak and short red persistent luminescence, precludes practical application. Another idea of integrating several afterglow emissions with similar decay rate in one single material seems promising but very few studies have been reported.

The ZnGa2O4 crystal is a large band-gap semiconductor with band-gap of about 4.5 eV. The ZnGa2O4 crystallizes in normal spinel structure with Zn2+ ions occupying tetrahedral sites and Ga3+ ions occupying octahedral sites [9

9. S. K. Sampath and J. F. Cordaro, “Optical properties of zinc aluminate, zinc gallate, and zinc aluminogallate spinels,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81(3), 649–654 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Some kinds of defect centers depending on synthesis condition exist in ZnGa2O4 crystals, which are responsible for self-activated ultra-violet (UV) and blue luminescence in non-doped ZnGa2O4 ceramics [10

10. J. Kim, H. Kang, W. Kim, J. Kim, J. Choi, H. Park, G. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Hwang, S. Mho, M. Jung, and M. Han, “Color variation of ZnGa2O4 phosphor by reduction-oxidation processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2029–2031 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. With some transition metals doping, specific optical properties, for example green emission in ZnGa2O4: Mn2+ and red emission in ZnGa2O4: Cr3+, can be obtained [11

11. L. Shea, R. Datta, and J. Brown, “Photoluminescence of Mn2+-activated ZnGa2O4,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141(7), 1950–1954 (1994). [CrossRef]

,12

12. G. van Gorkom, J. Henning, and R. van Stapele, “Optical spectra of Cr3+ pairs in the spinel ZnGa2O4,” Phys. Rev. B 8(3), 955–973 (1973). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, red long-lasting persistent luminescence in ZnGa2O4: Cr3+ ceramics were reported by A. Bessière et al. [13

13. A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10131–10137 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The host of ZnGa2O4 crystal shows ability of trapping excited electrons of luminescent centers.

In this research, we report a new white persistent phosphor of Bi3+-activated ZnGa2O4 ceramics. The persistent luminescence of Bi3+ covers the whole visible region after 360 nm excitation.

2. Experimental

Polycrystalline ceramics of ZnGa2O4 (ZGO) and ZnGa1.98O4:Bi0.02 (ZGO-Bi) were synthesized by a solid state reaction method. Commercial powders of ZnO (99.9%), Ga2O3 (99.99%) and Bi2O3 (99.99%) were used as starting materials. The batches of starting powders were mixed in an alumina mortar by hand. The obtained powders were pressed into pellets with 13-mm-diameter and sintered at 1350 °C for 10 h under air atmosphere.

Crystal phases of the sintered samples were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement (Shimadzu, XRD6000). 5 wt% of silicon powers (Siltronic AG, SRM 640d) was mixed with sample powers before measurement for calibration of diffraction peaks.

Diffuse reflection spectra were measured by using a scanning-type spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, UV3600) with an BaSO4-based integrating sphere. The spectrometer was equipped with photomultiplier tubes as optical detectors (ultraviolet-visible region) and halogen-D2 lamp as light source. Probe light was obtained by monochromating the light source and the intensity was weakened by a slit to make sure the probe light did not induce obvious photochromism effect. The Photoluminescence (PL), Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, and afterglow curves were measured using a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, RF-5000). A set of photographs of the ZGO-Bi sample was taken by using a digital camera (Canon, 60D). The white balance was set to 5200 K of color temperature.

3. Result and discussion

Figure 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of the ZGO and ZGO-Bi samples.
shows XRD patterns of the ZGO and ZGO-Bi samples. Both samples show the same diffraction peaks assigned to ZnGa2O4 crystals (cubic, spinel structure) as well as peaks assigned to the reference silicon crystals. Diffraction peak shift of ZnGa2O4 phase between these two samples cannot be observed.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Diffuse reflection spectra of non-doped sample ZGO (black solid curve) and Bi-doped sample ZGO-Bi (red solid curve). Before measurement, the two samples were heated up to 250 °C. Then the ZGO-Bi sample was radiated by a 360 nm LED (100mW) for 2s, 5s, 10s and measured again. The results were shown as dash, dash-dot, and dot curves, respectively.
shows diffuse reflection spectra of the non-doped sample ZGO (black solid curve) and the Bi-doped sample ZGO-Bi (red solid curve). Before measurement, the two samples were heated up to 250 °C to release trapped electrons [22

22. M. Akiyama, H. Yamada, and K. Sakai, “Multi color density photochromism in reduced tridymite BaMgSiO4 by wavelength of irradiation light,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 119(1386), 105–109 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Other dash, dash-dot, and dot curves in Fig. 2 correspond to spectra of the ZGO-Bi samples after 2s, 5s, and 10s radiation respectively by a 360 nm LED (20 mA, 3.6 V). When the radiated ZGO-Bi sample was re-heated up to 250 °C and reflection spectra were re-measured, the same result as the ZGO-Bi-0s curve in Fig. 2 could be obtained.

The ZGO sample does not show obvious absorption in the visible region. Absorption edge of the ZGO sample starts from 300 nm and reaches maximum at 250 nm. On the other hand, three additional absorption bands at about 450, 360, and 280 nm can be identified in the ZGO-Bi sample. With increasing radiation time of the 360 nm LED, the 450 nm absorption band increases, while the 360 nm band slightly decreases.

According to S. Sampath et al., the 250 nm band is due to band-gap absorption of the ZnGa2O4 host [9

9. S. K. Sampath and J. F. Cordaro, “Optical properties of zinc aluminate, zinc gallate, and zinc aluminogallate spinels,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81(3), 649–654 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. The broad 450 nm band is due to charge transfer from Bi3+ and to neighboring Bi5+ ions based on the report from H. Mizoguchi et al. [23

23. H. Mizoguchi, H. Kawazoe, H. Hosono, and S. Fujitsu, “Charge transfer band observed in bismuth mixed-valence oxides, Bi1-xYxO1.5+δ (x = 0.3),” Solid State Commun. 104(11), 705–708 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The 360 nm and 280 nm absorption bands are assigned to the 1S03P1 transition of Bi3+ ions at two different sites in the ZnGa2O4 crystals [17

17. G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigations on Bi3+-activated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(1), 217–222 (1968). [CrossRef]

,18

18. M. Chirila, K. Stevens, H. Murphy, and N. Giles, “Photoluminescence study of cadmium tungstate crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(5), 675–681 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

After radiation by the 360 nm LED, the charger transfer band of Bi3+-Bi5+ at 450 nm was enhanced and the intra-transition band of Bi3+:1S03P1 at 360 nm was slightly weakened. One can infer that more Bi5+ ions were temporarily converted from Bi3+ during the 360 nm irradiation. After irradiation, the unstable Bi5+ ions return to Bi3+ valence state spontaneously at a slow rate at room temperature. In another case, these unstable Bi5+ ions return to Bi3+ when the sample was heated up to 250 °C.

Figures 3(a)
Fig. 3 PLE (a) and PL (b) spectra of the ZGO and ZGO-Bi samples at room temperature. Monitoring wavelength and excitation wavelength was noted in (a) and (b), respectively. The PL spectra of the ZGO-Bi sample were normalized.
and 3(b) show PLE and PL spectra of the ZGO and ZGO-Bi samples, respectively. The non-doped ZnGa2O4 shows a single excitation band at 254 nm. Under 254 nm excitation, two luminescence bands at 370 nm and 450 nm were observed. On the other hand, the Bi-doped sample shows three excitation bands in the UV region. Under 254 nm excitation, the similar bands as those in the non-doped sample were detected. Under 280 nm excitation, a broad luminescence band at 480 nm was shown; while under 360 nm excitation, two bands at 410 nm and 540 nm were observed.

The 280 nm and 360 nm excitation bands as well as corresponding luminescence bands were considered to originate from Bi3+ centers at different sites. Under the 360 nm excitation, two luminescence bands with Stokes shift of 3,300 cm−1 and 10,000 cm−1 were observed; while under the 280 nm excitation, single emission band with stokes shift of 14,000 cm−1 was detected. G. Blasse et al. discussed the optical properties of Bi3+ in various phosphors [24

24. G. Blasse, C. de Mello Donega, I. Berezovskaya, and V. Dotsenko, “The luminescence of bismuth (III) in indium orthoborate,” Solid State Commun. 91(1), 29–31 (1994). [CrossRef]

26

26. A. Srivastava and W. Beers, “On the impurity trapped exciton luminescence in La2Zr2O7: Bi3+,” J. Lumin. 81(4), 293–300 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The emission with small Stokes shift was attributed 3P0,11S0 electronic transitions of Bi3+. The emission with large Stokes shift (usually > 10,000 cm−1) was considered as a photoionization process. In the photoionization process, the excited electron non-radiatively relaxes to an exciton-like state (Bi4+ + e- state), which is located below the excited states 3P0,1 of Bi3+ with larger offset, then the transition from the exciton-like state to the ground state of Bi3+ emits a photon with longer wavelength (r.f. configurational coordinate model in [25

25. V. Dotsenko, I. Berezovskaya, and N. Efryushina, “Photoionization and luminescence properties of Bi3+ in In1-xLuxBO3 solid solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 57(4), 437–441 (1996). [CrossRef]

]).

It is noted that under excitation of 450 nm (charge transfer band from Bi3+ to Bi5+), no emission (PL as well as persistent luminescence in visible and near-infrared region) can be observed. The photochromism phenomenon (increase of 450 nm absorption) may be interesting for some applications such as optical recording, however, the 450 nm absorption band is undesired from the view point of luminescent materials.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Photograph images of the ZGO-Bi sample in nature light (a), under (b) and after stopping (c) excitation of an UV lamp in a dark room.
shows photographs of the ZGO-Bi sample. Under excitation of a UV lamp (peak wavelength at 352 nm), the sample shows white-color luminescence (b). After stopping the UV excitation, white persistent luminescence (c) was observed. The afterglow can be observed by naked eyes for several tens of minutes.

Afterglow curves of 410 nm and 550 nm in the ZGO-Bi sample after 360 nm excitation are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Afterglow curves of 410 nm and 550 nm emissions in the ZGO-Bi sample after 360 nm excitation for 5 min. Inset shows fluorescence spectra during 360 nm excitation (solid curve) and phosphorescence spectra measured at 30 s after stopping the excitation (dash curve).
. The intensity of the afterglow luminescence is normalized by that of the saturated fluorescence. Persistent time τ1/10000 is defined as the time when the intensity of persistent luminescence becomes 1/10000 of the saturated fluorescence intensity under excitation [27

27. J. Ueda, K. Aishima, S. Nishiura, and S. Tanabe, “Afterglow luminescence in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Ga3O12 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042602 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The persistent time τ1/10000 was calculated as 25 and 40 min for 410 nm and 550 nm emissions, respectively. The fluorescence spectra under 360 nm excitation and phosphorescence spectra after stopping excitation are presented in inset of Fig. 5. These two spectra show similar curves, which cover the whole visible region. These results indicate that the Bi-doped ZnGa2O4 ceramics can be used as white afterglow phosphors with long persistent time.

Meanwhile, the ZGO-Bi sample shows blue-white persistent luminescence after several minutes of 280 nm excitation. The phosphorescence spectra are similar to the fluorescence spectra under 280 nm excitation (the blue curve in Fig. 3).

However, the exact defect centers for the photochromism and persistent luminescence in the Bi-doped ZnGa2O4 ceramics are not clear now. A following research on the effect of ceramic composition and synthesis atmosphere on the defect equilibrium and optical properties is in progress.

4. Conclusion

Polycrystalline ceramics with the composition of ZnGa1.98O4: Bi0.02 shows two absorption bands due to 1S03P1 transition of Bi3+ ions in different sites as well as an absorption band due to Bi3+-Bi5+ charge transfer. Photochromism is observed when the Bi3+-doped ceramics are radiated by UV light. After UV excitation at 360 nm or 280 nm, the Bi3+-doped ceramics show white persistent luminescence covering the whole visible region. The persistent luminescence can be observed for several tens of minutes. The photochromism and persistent luminescence are considered to originate from electron trapping by defect centers in the ZnGa2O4 crystals.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by JST-PRESTO, the Toray Science Foundation.

References and links

1.

A. Roda, “The discovery of luminescence: ‘The Bolognian stone’,” (International Society for Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 1998). http://www.isbc.unibo.it/Files/10_SE_BoStone.htm.

2.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

H. Takasaki, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Long-lasting afterglow characteristics of Eu, Dy codoped SrO-Al2O3 phosphor,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 104(1208), 322–326 (1996). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Aitasalo, P. Dereń, J. Hölsä, H. Jungner, J.-C. Krupa, M. Lastusaari, J. Legendziewicz, J. Niittykoski, and W. Stręk, “Persistent luminescence phenomena in materials doped with rare earth ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 171(1-2), 114–122 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

Y. Lin, C. Nan, X. Zhou, J. Wu, H. Wang, D. Chen, and S. Xu, “Preparation and characterization of long afterglow M2MgSi2O7-based (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) photoluminescent phosphors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(3), 860–863 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Yamamoto and T. Matsuzawa, “Mechanism of long phosphorescence of SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ and CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+,” J. Lumin. 72-74, 287–289 (1997). [CrossRef]

7.

P. Dorenbos, “Mechanism of persistent luminescence in Eu2+ and Dy3+ codoped aluminate and silicate compounds,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 152(7), H107–H110 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Hölsä, “Persistent luminescence beats the afterglow: 400 years of persistent luminescence,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 18, 42–45 (2009).

9.

S. K. Sampath and J. F. Cordaro, “Optical properties of zinc aluminate, zinc gallate, and zinc aluminogallate spinels,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81(3), 649–654 (1998). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Kim, H. Kang, W. Kim, J. Kim, J. Choi, H. Park, G. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Hwang, S. Mho, M. Jung, and M. Han, “Color variation of ZnGa2O4 phosphor by reduction-oxidation processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2029–2031 (2003). [CrossRef]

11.

L. Shea, R. Datta, and J. Brown, “Photoluminescence of Mn2+-activated ZnGa2O4,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 141(7), 1950–1954 (1994). [CrossRef]

12.

G. van Gorkom, J. Henning, and R. van Stapele, “Optical spectra of Cr3+ pairs in the spinel ZnGa2O4,” Phys. Rev. B 8(3), 955–973 (1973). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10131–10137 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifuncitonal Bi-doped nanoporous silica glass: From blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(9), 1407–1413 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 3B), L279–L281 (2001). [CrossRef]

16.

X. G. Meng, J. R. Qiu, M. Y. Peng, D. P. Chen, Q. Z. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Near infrared broadband emission of bismuth-doped aluminophosphate glass,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1628–1634 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigations on Bi3+-activated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(1), 217–222 (1968). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Chirila, K. Stevens, H. Murphy, and N. Giles, “Photoluminescence study of cadmium tungstate crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 61(5), 675–681 (2000). [CrossRef]

19.

M. Hamstra, H. Folkerts, and G. Blasse, “Materials chemistry communications. Red bismuth emission in alkaline-earth-metal sulfates,” J. Mater. Chem. 4(8), 1349–1350 (1994). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Peng, N. Da, S. Krolikowski, A. Stiegelschmitt, and L. Wondraczek, “Luminescence from Bi2+-activated alkali earth borophosphates for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21169–21178 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

D. Jia, J. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Improvement of persistent phosphorescence of Ca0.9Sr0.1S: Bi3+ by codoping Tm3+,” J. Lumin. 91(1-2), 59–65 (2000). [CrossRef]

22.

M. Akiyama, H. Yamada, and K. Sakai, “Multi color density photochromism in reduced tridymite BaMgSiO4 by wavelength of irradiation light,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 119(1386), 105–109 (2011). [CrossRef]

23.

H. Mizoguchi, H. Kawazoe, H. Hosono, and S. Fujitsu, “Charge transfer band observed in bismuth mixed-valence oxides, Bi1-xYxO1.5+δ (x = 0.3),” Solid State Commun. 104(11), 705–708 (1997). [CrossRef]

24.

G. Blasse, C. de Mello Donega, I. Berezovskaya, and V. Dotsenko, “The luminescence of bismuth (III) in indium orthoborate,” Solid State Commun. 91(1), 29–31 (1994). [CrossRef]

25.

V. Dotsenko, I. Berezovskaya, and N. Efryushina, “Photoionization and luminescence properties of Bi3+ in In1-xLuxBO3 solid solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 57(4), 437–441 (1996). [CrossRef]

26.

A. Srivastava and W. Beers, “On the impurity trapped exciton luminescence in La2Zr2O7: Bi3+,” J. Lumin. 81(4), 293–300 (1999). [CrossRef]

27.

J. Ueda, K. Aishima, S. Nishiura, and S. Tanabe, “Afterglow luminescence in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Ga3O12 ceramics,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(4), 042602 (2011). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
(160.2900) Materials : Optical storage materials
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials

ToC Category:
Fluorescent and Luminescent Materials

History
Original Manuscript: June 19, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 27, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 5, 2012
Published: September 7, 2012

Citation
Yixi Zhuang, Jumpei Ueda, and Setsuhisa Tanabe, "Photochromism and white long-lasting persistent luminescence in Bi3+-doped ZnGa2O4 ceramics," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1378-1383 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-2-10-1378


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References

  1. A. Roda, “The discovery of luminescence: ‘The Bolognian stone’,” (International Society for Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 1998). http://www.isbc.unibo.it/Files/10_SE_BoStone.htm .
  2. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc.143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takasaki, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Long-lasting afterglow characteristics of Eu, Dy codoped SrO-Al2O3 phosphor,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.104(1208), 322–326 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Aitasalo, P. Dereń, J. Hölsä, H. Jungner, J.-C. Krupa, M. Lastusaari, J. Legendziewicz, J. Niittykoski, and W. Stręk, “Persistent luminescence phenomena in materials doped with rare earth ions,” J. Solid State Chem.171(1-2), 114–122 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Lin, C. Nan, X. Zhou, J. Wu, H. Wang, D. Chen, and S. Xu, “Preparation and characterization of long afterglow M2MgSi2O7-based (M: Ca, Sr, Ba) photoluminescent phosphors,” Mater. Chem. Phys.82(3), 860–863 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Yamamoto and T. Matsuzawa, “Mechanism of long phosphorescence of SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ and CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+,” J. Lumin.72-74, 287–289 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. P. Dorenbos, “Mechanism of persistent luminescence in Eu2+ and Dy3+ codoped aluminate and silicate compounds,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(7), H107–H110 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Hölsä, “Persistent luminescence beats the afterglow: 400 years of persistent luminescence,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface18, 42–45 (2009).
  9. S. K. Sampath and J. F. Cordaro, “Optical properties of zinc aluminate, zinc gallate, and zinc aluminogallate spinels,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.81(3), 649–654 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kim, H. Kang, W. Kim, J. Kim, J. Choi, H. Park, G. Kim, T. Kim, Y. Hwang, S. Mho, M. Jung, and M. Han, “Color variation of ZnGa2O4 phosphor by reduction-oxidation processes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(13), 2029–2031 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Shea, R. Datta, and J. Brown, “Photoluminescence of Mn2+-activated ZnGa2O4,” J. Electrochem. Soc.141(7), 1950–1954 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. G. van Gorkom, J. Henning, and R. van Stapele, “Optical spectra of Cr3+ pairs in the spinel ZnGa2O4,” Phys. Rev. B8(3), 955–973 (1973). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Bessière, S. Jacquart, K. Priolkar, A. Lecointre, B. Viana, and D. Gourier, “ZnGa2O4:Cr3+: a new red long-lasting phosphor with high brightness,” Opt. Express19(11), 10131–10137 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifuncitonal Bi-doped nanoporous silica glass: From blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 3B), L279–L281 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. X. G. Meng, J. R. Qiu, M. Y. Peng, D. P. Chen, Q. Z. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Near infrared broadband emission of bismuth-doped aluminophosphate glass,” Opt. Express13(5), 1628–1634 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Blasse and A. Bril, “Investigations on Bi3+-activated phosphors,” J. Chem. Phys.48(1), 217–222 (1968). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Chirila, K. Stevens, H. Murphy, and N. Giles, “Photoluminescence study of cadmium tungstate crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids61(5), 675–681 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Hamstra, H. Folkerts, and G. Blasse, “Materials chemistry communications. Red bismuth emission in alkaline-earth-metal sulfates,” J. Mater. Chem.4(8), 1349–1350 (1994). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Peng, N. Da, S. Krolikowski, A. Stiegelschmitt, and L. Wondraczek, “Luminescence from Bi2+-activated alkali earth borophosphates for white LEDs,” Opt. Express17(23), 21169–21178 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Jia, J. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Improvement of persistent phosphorescence of Ca0.9Sr0.1S: Bi3+ by codoping Tm3+,” J. Lumin.91(1-2), 59–65 (2000). [CrossRef]
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