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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1760–1767
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The increase of the light transparency induced by a magnetic field for the colloid film based on α–FeOOH nanoparticles

Jian Li, Anrong Wang, Yueqiang Lin, Xiaodong Liu, Jun Fu, Lihua Lin, and Longlong Chen  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 12, pp. 1760-1767 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.2.001760


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Abstract

α–FeOOH nanoparticles are spherical and weakly magnetic. The size of the particles is about 8 nm, so they are regarded as Rayleigh scatterers. Aqueous colloids based on these particles exhibit magnetically enhanced transmission of light; the relative transmission coefficient reaches almost 1.3 when H = 500 Oe. Since the magnetic interaction between the particles is too weak to form chain-like aggregates, the enhancing effect is mainly attributed to the variation of the absorption cross-sections of the colloidal system in relation to the coupling of magnetic and dielectric properties of the particles. Along the direction of the external magnetic field, the absorption cross-section of the colloid decreases so that the transmitted light parallel to the field direction is enhanced and increases with the field. The results of this investigation indicate that there could be potential applications for weakly magnetic colloids based on non-cubical nanocrystals.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Interest in the physical properties of colloid dispersions has grown because of their widespread technological applications [1

1. S. Klapp, “Dipolar fluids under external perturbations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(15), R525–R550 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Magnetic colloids in particular, i.e., ferrofluids, which are composed of magnetic nanoparticles with sizes of the order of 10 nm dispersed in a carrier liquid [2

2. B. Huke and M. Lücke, “Magnetic properties of colloidal suspension of interacting magnetic particles,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(10), 1731–1768 (2004). [CrossRef]

], have the possibility to control the properties and flow of these liquids using a moderate magnetic field. Thus, such magnetic colloids are regarded as interesting materials, in particular for engineering applications [3

3. S. Odenbach, “Ferrofluids—magnetically controlled suspensions,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 217(1-3), 171–178 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The optical transmission of a ferrofluid film under an applied magnetic field has recently attracted the attention of many researchers [4

4. J. E. Martin, K. M. Hill, and C. P. Tigges, “Magnetic-field-induced optical transmittance in colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 59(5), 5676–5692 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. Y. Zou, Z. Di, and X. Chen, “Agglomeration response of nanoparticles in magnetic fluid via monitoring of light transmission,” Appl. Opt. 50(8), 1087–1090 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Experiments have shown that the transmission of light is generally reduced for the ferrofluid film because the magnetic nanoparticles form chain-like structures when an external magnetic field is applied. Using a special design, a ferrofluid-based optical switch device has been produced, in which the transmittance is enhanced with the application of an external magnetic field [7

7. H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004). [CrossRef]

,12

12. S. Pu, L. Yao, F. Guan, and M. Liu, “Threshold-tunable optical limiters based on nonlinear refraction in ferrosols,” Opt. Commun. 282(5), 908–913 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The switching speed of such a device is mainly determined by the field-induced agglomeration rate of the ferrofluid nanoparticles [12

12. S. Pu, L. Yao, F. Guan, and M. Liu, “Threshold-tunable optical limiters based on nonlinear refraction in ferrosols,” Opt. Commun. 282(5), 908–913 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, when a magnetic field with gradient is applied, the transmittance of the ferrofluid demonstrates as a non-monotonic relaxation process due to motion of the chains, from both magnetic convergent force (MCF) and magnetic divergent force (MDF) processes [14

14. J. Li, Y. Huang, X. Liu, Y. Lin, Q. Li, and R. Gao, “Coordinated chain notion resulting in intensity variation of light transmitted through ferrofluid film,” Phys. Lett. A 372(46), 6952–6955 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Generally, the particles in ferrofluids are ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic [2

2. B. Huke and M. Lücke, “Magnetic properties of colloidal suspension of interacting magnetic particles,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(10), 1731–1768 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The colloids based on paramagnetic particles, known as “parafluids” [15

15. J. Miles, R. Chantrell, and M. Parker, “Model of magnetic-field-induced ordering in dispersions of fine paramagnetic particles,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(8), 4271–4273 (1985). [CrossRef]

], are seldom studied because the magnetic interaction between particles is so weak that they cannot cluster into chain-like structures under an applied external magnetic field. Therefore, such weakly magnetic colloids have been regarded as of little value other than being used as a model system to investigate complex liquids [15

15. J. Miles, R. Chantrell, and M. Parker, “Model of magnetic-field-induced ordering in dispersions of fine paramagnetic particles,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(8), 4271–4273 (1985). [CrossRef]

18

18. K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, “Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 158302 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Bulk α–FeOOH is an antiferromagnetic material and when finely divided such materials can exhibit weak ferromagnetism or superparamagnetism resulting from the uncompensated surface spins [19

19. W. Schuele and V. Deetscreek, “Appearance of weak ferromagnetism in fine particles of antiferromagnetic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(3), 1136–1137 (1962). [CrossRef]

,20

20. M. S. Seehra, V. S. Babu, A. Manivannan, and J. Lynn, “Neutron scattering and magnetic studies of ferrhydrite nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3513–3518 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. In this study, we investigate the field-induced optical properties of the apparently paramagnetic fluid based on α–FeOOH nanoparticles. The enhancement of the transmission of light through the fluid film in the presence of an applied magnetic field is revealed.

2. Experiments

2.1 Description of the samples

The particles were fabricated using chemical precipitation. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicated the particles to be α–FeOOH [21

21. H. Miao, J. Li, Y. Lin, X. Liu, Q. Zhang, and J. Fu, “Characterization of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles prepared by transformation of α-FeOOH,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(22), 2383–2388 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The magnetization curve of the nanoparticles powder was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) using go-and-return magnetic field cycles at room temperature, as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Magnetization curve of the powder. The inset is a typical TEM picture of the particles and the size bar is 100 nm.
.

The particles are apparently paramagnetic and the effective initial susceptibility χeff( = M/H) is calculated to be 1.29 × 10−2. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations indicated that the particle’s morphology is spherical (see the inset in Fig. 1), and the average diameter of the particles is 8.16 nm and the standard deviation of average size is 0.26. For antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, their magnetization M can be described using the modified Langevin formula [20

20. M. S. Seehra, V. S. Babu, A. Manivannan, and J. Lynn, “Neutron scattering and magnetic studies of ferrhydrite nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3513–3518 (2000). [CrossRef]

], M = MsL(α) + χaH, where Ms is the saturation magnetization, L(α) = coth(α)−1/α is the Langevin function and α = µ0mH/kBT is known as the Langevin parameter, χa is the susceptibility. The value μ0 is the permeability of free space, kB is the Boltzmann constant, T is the absolute temperature, H is the applied magnetic field and m = πd3Ms/6 is a particle magnetic moment, where d is the average diameter of the particles. Since χa is generally very small [20

20. M. S. Seehra, V. S. Babu, A. Manivannan, and J. Lynn, “Neutron scattering and magnetic studies of ferrhydrite nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3513–3518 (2000). [CrossRef]

], when a applied magnetic field is not high enough, the magnetization law of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles can be described as M = MsL(α). Under low field limit, χaH0, μ0mH<<kBT, so that M = MsL(α) and L(α)≈α/3, i.e., M = μ0πd3Ms2H/18kBT, so the effective initial susceptibilityχeffcan be described as χeff = μ0πd3Ms2/18kBT. Thus, from the experimental data for χeff and d, Ms is estimated to be 21.79 kA/m, and the dipolar coupling constant λ = μ0m2/2πd3kBT can be calculated as 3.22 × 10−3(<<1). Therefore, it is judged that the particles cannot form any aggregates as a result of their magnetic interactions [22

22. A. Wang, J. Li, and R. Gao, “The structural force arising from magnetic interactions in polydisperse ferrofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 212501 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The α-FeOOH colloids with 0.2% particle volume fraction (φ) were synthesized by the Massart method, without a surfactant [23

23. R. Massart, “Preparation of aqueous magnetic liquids in alkaline and acidic media,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 17(2), 1247–1248 (1981). [CrossRef]

], and appeared similar magnetization behavior to the particles.

2.2 The magneto-optical experiment

The colloids were sealed in a rectangular glass cell to form a colloidal film of thickness 0.3 mm. The light source for the magneto-optical measurement was a 10 mW He-Ne laser with 632.8 nm wavelength. The incident light was parallel to the applied magnetic field and normal to the film. The transmitted light was measured by a photoelectric cell. The details of the experimental set were shown in [24

24. J. Li, X.-D. Liu, Y.-Q. Lin, Y. Huang, and L. Bai, “Relaxation behavior measuring of transmitted light through ferrofluids film,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 81–84 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The measurement of the absolute amount of light transmitted can be greatly influenced by the cleanliness of the glass surface of the sample, so the normalized transmission was generally used to characterize the magneto-optical effects [25

25. S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetooptical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56(9), 3362–3374 (1987). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, in the present work, the action of the applied magnetic field is described as the variation of relative transmission coefficient T, which is defined as
T=(Ia/Ii)/(Io/Ii)=Ia/Io
(1)
where Ii is the intensity of incident light, and Ia is the intensity of transmitted light after the magnetic field was applied and Io is the one under zero field.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2
Fig. 2 The variation of the transmission T as a function of field strength. The external magnetic field was applied during the period 50 to 100 s.
plots the time-dependent applied magnetic field and shows the corresponding response of the relative transmission coefficient T. The experimental results show that the intensity of the light transmitted is stable before a magnetic field was applied.

From Fig. 2, it can be found that when a magnetic field exceeding 20 Oe was applied, the transmittance was clearly enhanced, whereas when the field was removed, the change in T vanished. At H = 500 Oe, the enhancement of T reached about 30%. The relationship between the relative transmission coefficient T and the applied magnetic field H is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The relation between T and H. The error bars represent the fluctuation region of the T values as Fig. 2 shown.
. From Fig. 3, it can be seen clearly that the transmittance increased nonlinearly and exhibited a saturation tendency with applied magnetic field.

It is apparent that the phenomenon of transparency enhancement cannot result from field-induced microstructure transformation in the α-FeOOH colloids since the dipolar coupling constant λ(<<1) is too small to make the colloidal particles cluster, even pair correlations exist among them [26

26. J. J. Cerdà, E. Elfimova, V. Ballenegger, E. Krutikova, A. Ivanov, and C. Holm, “Behavior of bulky ferrofluids in the diluted low-coupling regime: theory and simulation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81(1), 011501 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,27

27. E. A. Elfimova, A. O. Ivanov, and P. J. Camp, “Theory and simulation of anisotropic pair correlations in ferrofluids in magnetic fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(19), 194502 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] as a result of magnetic interactions. In addition, for weakly magnetic colloids, self-assembled droplet-like aggregates may be formed in zero field due to nonmagnetic colloidal forces [28

28. A. Yu. Zubarev and L. Yu. Iskakova, “Structural transformations in polydisperse ferrofluids,” Colloid J. 65(6), 711–719 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. However, the behavior of such aggregates is similar to those of individual large particles [29

29. A. Yu. Zubarev, J. Fleischer, and S. Odenbach, “Towards a theory of dynamical properties of polydisperse magnetic fluids: effect of chain-like aggregates,” Physica A 358(2-4), 475–491 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. And, the experiments shown that the optical behavior of the colloids based on ZnFe2O4 particles, whose magnetic coupling constant λ( = 3.16×10−1) is larger than the α-FeOOH particles, was not influenced by the magnetic field [30

30. J. Fu, J. Li, Y. Q. Lin, X. D. Liu, H. Miao, and L. H. Lin, “Study of magneto-optical effects in γ-Fe2O3/ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle ferrofluids, using circularly polarized light,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(8), 1404–1411 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. As a consequence, it is determined that for α-FeOOH colloids, the enhancement of the transparency cannot result from the particles being drifted apart from the place of the light beam by the gradients of the magnetic field. Accordingly, the magnetic enhancement could instead be attributed to the optical absorption behavior of the colloids in relation to the coupling of magnetic and dielectric properties of the colloidal particles. This can be explained as follows.

α–FeOOH has an orthorhombic crystal structure and is antiferromagnetic material, with a sublattice magnetization that lies essentially along the [010] direction [33

33. D. E. Madsen, L. Cervera-Gontard, T. Kasama, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, C. B. Koch, M. F. Hansen, C. Frandsen, and S. Mørup, “Magnetic fluctuations in nanosized goethite (α-FeOOH) grains,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 016007 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For the orthorhombic crystal structure, the three principal values of the permittivity tensor, εx, εy, and εz, are different and the positions of the principal axes coincide with the three crystal axes within the crystallographic unit [28

28. A. Yu. Zubarev and L. Yu. Iskakova, “Structural transformations in polydisperse ferrofluids,” Colloid J. 65(6), 711–719 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The permittivity is, in general, complex and can be written as: εx = εx'–iεx'', εy = εy'–iεy'', and εz = εz'–iεz''. For a colloid comprised the nanoparticles with permanent moments, the permittivity tensor of the colloidal system under an external magnetic field can be anisotropic [34

34. J. Li, X. Qiu, Y. Lin, X. Liu, H. Miao, J. Fu, and Q. Zhang, “An optical effect arising from the coupling of the magnetic and dielectric properties of colloidal particles,” Opt. Express (submitted).

]. While the light propagates along the direction of the external magnetic field, its absorption should be described by the permittivity perpendicular to the magnetization of the medium. For the α–FeOOH system, the direction of the magnetization, which is fixed inside the grains and lies essentially along the [010] direction, is defined as y, and the magnetic field/light path is defined as the Y direction. Consequently, when a magnetic field is applied along the direction defined, the direction of magnetization, i.e. [010] crystallographic direction of α–FeOOH nanocrystals tends to realign the Y direction, and the permittivity perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field (Y direction) EX = EZ ( = E2) is
EX=EX'EX''=(εx'+εz')(1L(α)/α)/2+εy'L(α)/αi[(εx''+εz'')(1L(α)/α)/2+εy''L(α)/α]
(10)
From Eq. (10), it can be seen that when H→0, i.e. α→0, L(α) = α/3, and EX = (εx' + εy' + εz')/3– i(εx'' + εy'' + εz'')/3 is just the permittivity of the system before the application of the magnetic field. For a moderate field, as in the experiment, L(α) can be taken as L(α) = α/3– α3/45, so L(α)/α = 1/3– α2/45, 1–L(α)/α = 2/3 + α2/45. Thus, when the incident light was parallel to the magnetic field (Y direction) and normal to the α−FeOOH colloidal film (XZ plane), according to Eq. (7) and Eq. (10), σabsacan be described as
σabsa=8πd3λE1[εx''+εy''+εz''+α2(εx''+εz''2εy'')30][13(εx'+εy'+εz')+α2(εx'+εz'2εy')90+2E1]2+[13(εx''+εy''+εz'')+α2(εx''+εz''2εy'')90]2
(11)
Although the details of the permittivity of the α−FeOOH particle are unknown so that the σabsais difficult to be calculated theoretically, it can be known still from the Eq. (11) that the σabsawill reduce with increasing magnetic field because, in the formula, the numerator increases with the α2(∝H2) and the denominator with the α4(∝H4). Consequently, the relative transmission coefficient T increases with the magnetic field, while l and N are constants. However, the variation of T will gradually slow down as α (or H) increases. While α2 is large enough, σabsa0 and TA, so T will tend to a saturation with increasing applied magnetic field. Obviously, the maximum value of T depends on the absorption cross-section of the colloids in zero field, i.e. on the intrinsic dielectric properties of the colloids besides the thickness of the film and the particle volume fraction of the colloids.

4. Conclusions

The colloidal film based on spherical α−FeOOH nanoparticles exhibits a novel enhancement effect of transmitted light when an external magnetic field is applied. The magnetization of the particles is so weak that the effect cannot be attributed to field-induced particle aggregation. In addition, the size of the particles is only 8 nm or so, so enhancement of the light transmitted through α−FeOOH colloidal film can be regarded as a reduction of absorption cross-section in the applied magnetic field. It is apparent that the mechanism of the magnetic enhancement effect from the α−FeOOH colloids is not only different from the similar effect found with ferrofluids but also that of liquid crystals, whose additional magneto-optical effects result from the orientation of the anisotropic building blocks in the field [35

35. B. J. Lemaire, P. Davidson, J. Ferré, J. P. Jamet, P. Panine, I. Dozov, and J. P. Jolivet, “Outstanding magnetic properties of nematic suspensions of goethite (α-FeOOH) nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(12), 125507 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,36

36. H. Mukai, S. Shibli, and P. Fernandes, “Orientational order studies by magneto-optical and light-effects in lyotropic liquid crystal,” J. Mol. Liq. 135(1-3), 53–56 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The magnetic field in technical devices usually exhibits non-uniformity of the order of 104-105Gs/m [37

37. B. Berkovsy, V. Medvedev, and M. Krakov, Magnetic Fluids Engineering Application (Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 26.

], which would result in a relaxation process during the transmission of the light through the ferrofluid film [24

24. J. Li, X.-D. Liu, Y.-Q. Lin, Y. Huang, and L. Bai, “Relaxation behavior measuring of transmitted light through ferrofluids film,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 81–84 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, optical switching devices made using weakly magnetic α−FeOOH colloids could give faster and more stable responses compared with the general ferrofluids based on strongly magnetic nanoparticles, because the field-induced response is independent of the chain-like formation of the colloid nanoparticles and the motion of the chains.

Acknowledgment

The work has been supported by the Natural Science Foundation Project of P. R. China (11074205).

References and links

1.

S. Klapp, “Dipolar fluids under external perturbations,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(15), R525–R550 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

B. Huke and M. Lücke, “Magnetic properties of colloidal suspension of interacting magnetic particles,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 67(10), 1731–1768 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Odenbach, “Ferrofluids—magnetically controlled suspensions,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 217(1-3), 171–178 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

J. E. Martin, K. M. Hill, and C. P. Tigges, “Magnetic-field-induced optical transmittance in colloidal suspensions,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 59(5), 5676–5692 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. Yang, Y. Chiu, B. Jeang, H. Horng, C. Hong, and H. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001). [CrossRef]

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H. Horng, S. Yang, W. Tse, H. Yang, W. Luo, and C. Hong, “Magnetically modulated optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 252, 104–106 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C.-Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004). [CrossRef]

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K. Wu, Y. Yao, G. Rao, Y. Chen, and J. Chen, “Magnetic field induced optical variation in nanosize iron oxide fluid-particles,” Microelectron. Eng. 81(2-4), 323–328 (2005). [CrossRef]

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D. Zhang, Z. Di, Y. Zou, and X. Chen, “Temperature sensor using ferrofluid thin film,” Microfluid. Nanofluid. 7(1), 141–144 (2009). [CrossRef]

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S. Pu, L. Yao, F. Guan, and M. Liu, “Threshold-tunable optical limiters based on nonlinear refraction in ferrosols,” Opt. Commun. 282(5), 908–913 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

Y. Zou, Z. Di, and X. Chen, “Agglomeration response of nanoparticles in magnetic fluid via monitoring of light transmission,” Appl. Opt. 50(8), 1087–1090 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. Li, Y. Huang, X. Liu, Y. Lin, Q. Li, and R. Gao, “Coordinated chain notion resulting in intensity variation of light transmitted through ferrofluid film,” Phys. Lett. A 372(46), 6952–6955 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

J. Miles, R. Chantrell, and M. Parker, “Model of magnetic-field-induced ordering in dispersions of fine paramagnetic particles,” J. Appl. Phys. 57(8), 4271–4273 (1985). [CrossRef]

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K. Zahn, J. Méndez-Alcaraz, and G. Maret, “Hydrodynamic interactions may enhance the self-diffusion of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(1), 175–178 (1997). [CrossRef]

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K. Zahn, R. Lenke, and G. Maret, “Two-stage melt of paramagnetic colloidal crystals in two dimensions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(13), 2721–2724 (1999). [CrossRef]

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K. Mangold, P. Leiderer, and C. Bechinger, “Phase transitions of colloidal monolayers in periodic pinning arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(15), 158302 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

W. Schuele and V. Deetscreek, “Appearance of weak ferromagnetism in fine particles of antiferromagnetic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 33(3), 1136–1137 (1962). [CrossRef]

20.

M. S. Seehra, V. S. Babu, A. Manivannan, and J. Lynn, “Neutron scattering and magnetic studies of ferrhydrite nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3513–3518 (2000). [CrossRef]

21.

H. Miao, J. Li, Y. Lin, X. Liu, Q. Zhang, and J. Fu, “Characterization of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles prepared by transformation of α-FeOOH,” Chin. Sci. Bull. 56(22), 2383–2388 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Wang, J. Li, and R. Gao, “The structural force arising from magnetic interactions in polydisperse ferrofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 212501 (2009). [CrossRef]

23.

R. Massart, “Preparation of aqueous magnetic liquids in alkaline and acidic media,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 17(2), 1247–1248 (1981). [CrossRef]

24.

J. Li, X.-D. Liu, Y.-Q. Lin, Y. Huang, and L. Bai, “Relaxation behavior measuring of transmitted light through ferrofluids film,” Appl. Phys. B 82(1), 81–84 (2006). [CrossRef]

25.

S. Taketomi, M. Ukita, M. Mizukami, H. Miyajima, and S. Chikazumi, “Magnetooptical effects of magnetic fluid,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56(9), 3362–3374 (1987). [CrossRef]

26.

J. J. Cerdà, E. Elfimova, V. Ballenegger, E. Krutikova, A. Ivanov, and C. Holm, “Behavior of bulky ferrofluids in the diluted low-coupling regime: theory and simulation,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 81(1), 011501 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

E. A. Elfimova, A. O. Ivanov, and P. J. Camp, “Theory and simulation of anisotropic pair correlations in ferrofluids in magnetic fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(19), 194502 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

A. Yu. Zubarev and L. Yu. Iskakova, “Structural transformations in polydisperse ferrofluids,” Colloid J. 65(6), 711–719 (2003). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Yu. Zubarev, J. Fleischer, and S. Odenbach, “Towards a theory of dynamical properties of polydisperse magnetic fluids: effect of chain-like aggregates,” Physica A 358(2-4), 475–491 (2005). [CrossRef]

30.

J. Fu, J. Li, Y. Q. Lin, X. D. Liu, H. Miao, and L. H. Lin, “Study of magneto-optical effects in γ-Fe2O3/ZnFe2O4 nanoparticle ferrofluids, using circularly polarized light,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(8), 1404–1411 (2012). [CrossRef]

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D. E. Madsen, L. Cervera-Gontard, T. Kasama, R. E. Dunin-Borkowski, C. B. Koch, M. F. Hansen, C. Frandsen, and S. Mørup, “Magnetic fluctuations in nanosized goethite (α-FeOOH) grains,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 016007 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

J. Li, X. Qiu, Y. Lin, X. Liu, H. Miao, J. Fu, and Q. Zhang, “An optical effect arising from the coupling of the magnetic and dielectric properties of colloidal particles,” Opt. Express (submitted).

35.

B. J. Lemaire, P. Davidson, J. Ferré, J. P. Jamet, P. Panine, I. Dozov, and J. P. Jolivet, “Outstanding magnetic properties of nematic suspensions of goethite (α-FeOOH) nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(12), 125507 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

H. Mukai, S. Shibli, and P. Fernandes, “Orientational order studies by magneto-optical and light-effects in lyotropic liquid crystal,” J. Mol. Liq. 135(1-3), 53–56 (2007). [CrossRef]

37.

B. Berkovsy, V. Medvedev, and M. Krakov, Magnetic Fluids Engineering Application (Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 26.

OCIS Codes
(160.3820) Materials : Magneto-optical materials
(350.4990) Other areas of optics : Particles

ToC Category:
Magneto-optic Materials

History
Original Manuscript: August 30, 2012
Revised Manuscript: October 17, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 5, 2012
Published: November 8, 2012

Citation
Jian Li, Anrong Wang, Yueqiang Lin, Xiaodong Liu, Jun Fu, Lihua Lin, and Longlong Chen, "The increase of the light transparency induced by a magnetic field for the colloid film based on α–FeOOH nanoparticles," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1760-1767 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-2-12-1760


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