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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2012
  • pp: 682–684
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Feature issue introduction: quantum dots for photonic applications

Kwang-Sup Lee, Paras N. Prasad, Guillaume Huyet, and Chee Hing Tan  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 5, pp. 682-684 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.2.000682


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Abstract

Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with peculiar optoelectronic properties. Their wide application in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and the medical and defense fields makes them a potential candidate in the area of photonics and biophotonics. In this feature issue of Optical Materials Express, together with Optics Express we focus on different aspects of semiconducting nanocrystals research, especially on the advances in the synthesis, physical properties, and application of QDs.

© 2012 OSA

Semiconductor nanocrystals, especially quantum dots (QDs), have attracted much attention in the past decades, and their unique properties due to the quantum confinement are intensely studied [1

1. T. Trindade, P. O'Brien, and N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13(11), 3843–3858 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Different QDs have been synthesized by using groups II-VI, III-V, IV-VI, IV elements and their alloys. The size of QDs is on nanometer scale, and the diameter is less than twice the Bohr radius of electronic particles or excitons in the bulk material [2

2. A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this case the excitons are confined by potential barriers in all three dimensions. Two-dimensional quantum confinement produces quantum wires or rods, and one-dimensional confinement produces quantum films [3

3. A. J. Nozik, “Nanoscience and nanostructures for photovoltaics and solar fuels,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2735–2741 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The probability of multiple exciton generation in QDs per single excitation makes them a potential candidate in photodriven applications [4

4. A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1–3), 3–11 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Different experimental techniques based on femtosecond to nanosecond spectroscopy, such as transient IR absorption, tetrahertz spectroscopy, time-resolved photoluminescence, etc., are used by many research groups as evidence of multiple exciton generation. No free electrons and holes exist in an isolated QD, and they can be generated only by dissociation of the excitons followed by the separation of charge carriers in a device. An important area of semiconductor nanoscience is the formation of QD arrays and studying the charge transport and other properties [2

2. A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Advances in the nanomaterial synthesis and nanoscale characterizations help us to investigate their structure-property relationship in a better way [5

5. Y. Li and G. A. Somorjai, “Nanoscale advances in catalysis and energy applications,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2289–2295 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Introduction of mild reaction conditions, one-pot synthesis, size and shape control, and appropriate functionalizations have improved the synthesis of QDs today.

Because of the toxicity, heavy-metal-free semiconductor materials like silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) are necessary for biomedical applications. Intartaglia et al. synthesized luminescent silicon nanoparticles by ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in liquid for bioimaging [8

8. R. Intartaglia, K. Bagga, M. Scotto, A. Diaspro, and F. Brandi, “Luminescent silicon nanoparticles prepared by ultra short pulsed laser ablation in liquid for imaging applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 510–518 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In this article the authors report on a simple and effective method for the generation of luminescent silicon QDs in colloidal form and investigation of photoemissive properties. Jeon et al. describe the fabrication and optoelectric properties of blue OLEDs with a hole transport layer based on QDs embedded in a poly(N-vinyl cabazole) (PVK) layer [9

9. Y. P. Jeon, S. J. Park, and T. W. Kim, “Electical and optical properties of blue organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing color conversion CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a poly (N-vinyl carbazole) hole transport layer,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 663–670 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. They have synthesiszed CdSe and CdSe/Zns QDs for their studies on optical and electrical properties. The origin of temperature broadband light emission in the UV to red from silver ion-implanted Si-NPs is studied by Singh et al. [10

10. A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, and A. Neogi, “Origin of room temperature broadband light emission and carrier dynamics in Ag ion-implanted Silicon nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 501–509 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In their studies, it was observed that the spectral characteristics in the UV and blue region remain unchanged by annealing at different temperatures except for the light emission intensity enhancement.

The preparation of solution-processable and -photopatternable QDs from core-only CdSe as well as core-shell type QDs of CdS/ZnS, CdSe/ZnS, and CdSe/ZnSe is reported by Jang et al. [11

11. K. K. Jang, P. Prabhakaran, D. Chandran, J. J. Park, and K. S. Lee, “Solution processable and photopatternable blue, green and red quantum dots suitable for full color displays devices,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 519–525 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. These QDs were able to spin cast on organic and inorganic substrates. Three-dimensional microstructure fabrication using these materials by two-photon nanostereo-lithography is also reported in this article. Moreels et al. present spectra of the dielectric function of PbS QDs in a glass matrix in the 200–1800 nm range [12

12. I. Moreels, D. Kruschke, P. Glas, and J. W. Tomm, “The dielectric function of PbS quantum dots in a glass matrix,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 496–500 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The dielectric function of QDs with diameters of 3.5–5.0 nm is determined by Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory combined with Kramers-Kronig analysis. By comparing the results from QDs in a glass matrix with that in colloidal form it is found that the optical properties are comparable. The authors provide an important input for the modeling of photonic devices from PbS QD-doped glasses, by calculating both the intrinsic QD refractive index and extinction coefficient and data on the effective optical constants. Laurand et al. report on the steady-state and optical modulation characteristics of luminescent colloidal QD nanocomposite suitable for integration with gallium nitride optoelectronics [13

13. N. Laurand, B. Guilhabert, J. McKendry, A. E. Kelly, B. Rae, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “Colloidal quantum dot nanocomposites for visible wavelength conversion of modulated optical signals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(3), 250–260 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. These modulation characteristics are in correlation with the lifetime of charge carriers. Their work gives some guidelines to the construction of hybrid LEDs for various applications.

In the area of sensors, Ling et al. demonstrate how a dual-band infrared QD photodetector, covering the midwave and longwave IR wavelengths, can be used for temperature measurements. The ratio of the photocurrents measured at different applied bias was shown to vary as the target temperature was lowered from 1000°C to 27°C [17

17. H.-S. Ling, S.-Y. Wang, W.-C. Hsu, and C.-P. Lee, “Voltage-tunable dual-band quantum dot infrared photodetectors for temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10484–10489 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. QDs can enhance the performance of photovoltaics as reported by Kim et al. [18

18. D. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic cells due to a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10476–10483 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In this paper the authors utilize ZnSe QDs to enhance the power conversion efficiency of an organic photovoltaic cell. Relative to a control sample without QDs, they were able to double the power conversion efficiency as well as enhance the short circuit current density and open circuit voltage.

In conclusion, we present the synthesis and potential applications of QDs in this feature issue. We thank all the authors and reviewers who strengthen the importance of this special issue with their valuable contributions.

References and links

1.

T. Trindade, P. O'Brien, and N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13(11), 3843–3858 (2001). [CrossRef]

2.

A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

A. J. Nozik, “Nanoscience and nanostructures for photovoltaics and solar fuels,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2735–2741 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1–3), 3–11 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

Y. Li and G. A. Somorjai, “Nanoscale advances in catalysis and energy applications,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2289–2295 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

P. Prabhakaran, W. J. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and P. N. Prasad, “Quantum dots (QDs) for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 578–593 (2012). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Lim, W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, S. Lee, C. Lee, and K. Char, “Perspective on synthesis, device structures, and printing processes for quantum dot displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 594–628 (2012). [CrossRef]

8.

R. Intartaglia, K. Bagga, M. Scotto, A. Diaspro, and F. Brandi, “Luminescent silicon nanoparticles prepared by ultra short pulsed laser ablation in liquid for imaging applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 510–518 (2012). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. P. Jeon, S. J. Park, and T. W. Kim, “Electical and optical properties of blue organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing color conversion CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a poly (N-vinyl carbazole) hole transport layer,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 663–670 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, and A. Neogi, “Origin of room temperature broadband light emission and carrier dynamics in Ag ion-implanted Silicon nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 501–509 (2012). [CrossRef]

11.

K. K. Jang, P. Prabhakaran, D. Chandran, J. J. Park, and K. S. Lee, “Solution processable and photopatternable blue, green and red quantum dots suitable for full color displays devices,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 519–525 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

I. Moreels, D. Kruschke, P. Glas, and J. W. Tomm, “The dielectric function of PbS quantum dots in a glass matrix,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 496–500 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

N. Laurand, B. Guilhabert, J. McKendry, A. E. Kelly, B. Rae, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “Colloidal quantum dot nanocomposites for visible wavelength conversion of modulated optical signals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(3), 250–260 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

K.-Y. Kuo, S.-W. Hsu, P.-R. Huang, W.-L. Chuang, C.-C. Liu, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical properties and sub-bandgap formation of nano-crystalline Si quantum dots embedded ZnO thin film,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10470–10475 (2012). [CrossRef]

15.

I. Sandall, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, C. H. Tan, T. Wang, and H. Liu, “1300 nm wavelength InAs quantum dot photodetector grown on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10446–10452 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

C. A. Foell, E. Schelew, H. Qiao, K. A. Abel, S. Hughes, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and J. F. Young, “Saturation behaviour of colloidal PbSe quantum dot exciton emission coupled into silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10453–10469 (2012). [CrossRef]

17.

H.-S. Ling, S.-Y. Wang, W.-C. Hsu, and C.-P. Lee, “Voltage-tunable dual-band quantum dot infrared photodetectors for temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10484–10489 (2012). [CrossRef]

18.

D. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic cells due to a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10476–10483 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
(160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Introduction

History
Original Manuscript: April 20, 2012
Published: April 24, 2012

Virtual Issues
Quantum Dots for Photonic Applications (2012) Optical Materials Express

Citation
Kwang-Sup Lee, Paras N. Prasad, Guillaume Huyet, and Chee Hing Tan, "Feature issue introduction: quantum dots for photonic applications," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 682-684 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-2-5-682


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References

  1. T. Trindade, P. O'Brien, and N. L. Pickett, “Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives,” Chem. Mater. 13(11), 3843–3858 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Nozik, M. C. Beard, J. M. Luther, M. Law, R. J. Ellingson, and J. C. Johnson, “Semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot arrays and applications of multiple exciton generation to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 110(11), 6873–6890 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. J. Nozik, “Nanoscience and nanostructures for photovoltaics and solar fuels,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2735–2741 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. J. Nozik, “Multiple exciton generation in semiconductor quantum dots,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 457(1–3), 3–11 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Li and G. A. Somorjai, “Nanoscale advances in catalysis and energy applications,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2289–2295 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Prabhakaran, W. J. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and P. N. Prasad, “Quantum dots (QDs) for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 578–593 (2012). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Lim, W. K. Bae, J. Kwak, S. Lee, C. Lee, and K. Char, “Perspective on synthesis, device structures, and printing processes for quantum dot displays,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 594–628 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Intartaglia, K. Bagga, M. Scotto, A. Diaspro, and F. Brandi, “Luminescent silicon nanoparticles prepared by ultra short pulsed laser ablation in liquid for imaging applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 510–518 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. P. Jeon, S. J. Park, and T. W. Kim, “Electical and optical properties of blue organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing color conversion CdSe and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots embedded in a poly (N-vinyl carbazole) hole transport layer,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 663–670 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. A. K. Singh, K. G. Gryczynski, and A. Neogi, “Origin of room temperature broadband light emission and carrier dynamics in Ag ion-implanted Silicon nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 501–509 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. K. K. Jang, P. Prabhakaran, D. Chandran, J. J. Park, and K. S. Lee, “Solution processable and photopatternable blue, green and red quantum dots suitable for full color displays devices,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 519–525 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. I. Moreels, D. Kruschke, P. Glas, and J. W. Tomm, “The dielectric function of PbS quantum dots in a glass matrix,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 496–500 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. N. Laurand, B. Guilhabert, J. McKendry, A. E. Kelly, B. Rae, D. Massoubre, Z. Gong, E. Gu, R. Henderson, and M. D. Dawson, “Colloidal quantum dot nanocomposites for visible wavelength conversion of modulated optical signals,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(3), 250–260 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. K.-Y. Kuo, S.-W. Hsu, P.-R. Huang, W.-L. Chuang, C.-C. Liu, and P.-T. Lee, “Optical properties and sub-bandgap formation of nano-crystalline Si quantum dots embedded ZnO thin film,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10470–10475 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. I. Sandall, J. S. Ng, J. P. R. David, C. H. Tan, T. Wang, and H. Liu, “1300 nm wavelength InAs quantum dot photodetector grown on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10446–10452 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. C. A. Foell, E. Schelew, H. Qiao, K. A. Abel, S. Hughes, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and J. F. Young, “Saturation behaviour of colloidal PbSe quantum dot exciton emission coupled into silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10453–10469 (2012). [CrossRef]
  17. H.-S. Ling, S.-Y. Wang, W.-C. Hsu, and C.-P. Lee, “Voltage-tunable dual-band quantum dot infrared photodetectors for temperature sensing,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10484–10489 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. D. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, D. U. Lee, T. W. Kim, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for organic photovoltaic cells due to a P3HT pillar layer containing ZnSe quantum dots,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10476–10483 (2012). [CrossRef]

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