OSA's Digital Library

Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2012
  • pp: 749–756
« Show journal navigation

Investigation of the electronic nonlinear refraction index of single-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped with different surfactants

D. R. B. Valadão, D. G. Pires, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, C. Fantini, M. A. Pimenta, and E. J. S. Fonseca  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp. 749-756 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.2.000749


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1075 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Nonlinear optical properties of colloidal systems containing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) disperse in different surfactants are investigated. Thermal nonlinearity management Z-scan technique was performed to measure the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of colloidal system. The results presented in this letter show that the presence of SWNT enhances significantly the electronic nonlinear responses of the colloid and that the surfactants play an important role in the determination of electronic part of n2.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

The studies of properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have evolved from rather fundamental studies to applications, reaching from nanoelectronics [1

1. J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to biosensors [2

2. K. Balasubramanian and M. Burghard, “Biosensors based on carbon nanotubes,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385(3), 452–468 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and nonlinear optics devices [3

3. J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7425–7443 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Particularly the latter, SWNT composites have been widely investigated as a potential candidate to be used in nonlinear optical devices in many applications: optical switches, passive mode looked, optical limiting, among others.

SWNT have attracted much attention as a promising candidate for ultrafast devices due to its large third-order nonlinearity and ultrafast electronic response as a consequence of delocalized π-electrons cloud along the tube axis [4

4. V. A. Margulis and T. A. Sizikova, “Theoretical study of third-order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor carbon nanotubes,” Physica B 245(2), 173–189 (1998). [CrossRef]

6

6. R. H. Xie and J. Jiang, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities of C-60-derived nanotubes in infrared,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280(1-2), 66–72 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, special interest has been devoted to study SWNT composites in the regime where electronic contributions to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility take place [7

7. Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002). [CrossRef]

10

10. T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In this regime the experiments are typically carry out using femtosecond mode-locked laser at high repetition rate. Interesting enough, high repetition rate laser irradiation is also responsible for the thermo-optical effect in the nonlinear response due to cumulative effect, which is undesirable for ultrafast optical devices. In this sense, great care must be taken with experiments using high repetition rate laser where thermal contribution may substantially alter the nonlinear response. It is interesting to notice that, for same experiments, even for low repetition rate as low as 1 KHz the cumulative heating may not be neglected and the thermal contribution can be important. It worthwhile to mention that thermal contribution to the nonlinear effect using SWNT composites is responsible for a considerable number of applications such as optical limiting [3

3. J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7425–7443 (2009). [CrossRef]

,11

11. P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999). [CrossRef]

13

13. L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of singlewall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174(1-4), 271–275 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

Another interesting point is to understand the role of the dispersant in SWNT composites in the nonlinear characterization of colloidal system. It is well known that some changes in the optical response are observed as a consequence of the changes in the environmental screening. For example, the influence of the nanotube and surfactant concentrations on the absorption and emission of light by individualized carbon nanotubes was studied in [14

14. C. Fantini, J. Cassimiro, V. S. T. Peressinotto, F. Plentz, A. G. Souza Filho, C. A. Furtado, and A. P. Santos, “Investigation of the light emission efficiency of single-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped with different surfactants,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 473(1-3), 96–101 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

In this work, we investigate nonlinear optical properties of colloidal systems containing SWNT using a technique that allows discriminating between electronic and thermal contributions to the nonlinear refractive index (n2) [15

15. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 133–136 (1999). [CrossRef]

,16

16. A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, “Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7976–7981 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We measured the electronic contribution only to the n2 of different colloidal systems using Z-scan measurements with high repetition rate laser. The colloidal systems consist of two types of SWNT disperse in different surfactants with different nanotube concentrations. We also investigate the influence of surfactants on the determination of n2 values for different types of SWNT.

2. Experiment

SWNT produced by two different methods were investigated in this work. SWNT were obtained by electric arc discharge method [17

17. C. Journet and P. Bernier, “Production of carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(1), 1–9 (1998). [CrossRef]

] in the laboratories of Federal University of Minas Gerais, using Co, Ni and Fe catalyst. These nanotubes are called here as CoNiFe and presented 1.4 ± 0.2 nm diameters with a Gaussian distribution. The second kind of SWNT was purchased from South-West Nanotechnologies, Inc., named CoMoCat. They were produced by catalytic decomposition of cobalt [18

18. B. Kitiyanan, W. E. Alvarez, J. H. Harwell, and D. E. Resasco, “Controlled production of single-wall carbon nanotubes by catalytic decomposition of CO on bimetallic Co-Mo catalysts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(3-5), 497–503 (2000). [CrossRef]

], and have 0.9 ± 0.2 nm diameters, also with a Gaussian distribution.

These two types of nanotubes were dispersed in NaC (sodium cholate) and NaDDBS (dodecyl benzene sulfonate) surfactants following the procedure described in [14

14. C. Fantini, J. Cassimiro, V. S. T. Peressinotto, F. Plentz, A. G. Souza Filho, C. A. Furtado, and A. P. Santos, “Investigation of the light emission efficiency of single-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped with different surfactants,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 473(1-3), 96–101 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. We used different amounts of to obtain the dispersions in different concentrations. We dispersed 2 mg, 0.2mg or 0.02mg of SWNT in 10mL of deionized water with 1%wt of surfactant to prepare the dispersions in the three concentrations 0.2, 0.02 and 0.002 mg/mL, respectively. Raman and UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopies were employed in the structural and optical characterization of the studied SWNT. For each set of SWNT kind and dispersant, we investigated the optical response of colloids with different nanotube concentration.

The nonlinear optical properties of the colloids were investigated using the Z-scan technique managed thermally [15

15. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 133–136 (1999). [CrossRef]

,16

16. A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, “Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7976–7981 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A mode-locked Ti-Sapphire laser, linearly polarized, delivering pulses of 200 fs at a 76 MHz repetition rate, tuned at 791 nm was employed as the excitation source. The laser beam was modulated by a chopper and focused on to the sample by convergent lens 7.5 cm focal length. The modulation frequency was 14 Hz, which provided a duty cycle equal to 0.09 and a chopper opening risetime of 24 µs. The samples consisted of 1 mm width quartz cell filled with the colloids of carbon nanotubes. The cell was mounted on a translation stage and moved around the lens focal plane (z = 0). The light transmittance was then measured by a closed-aperture photodetector as a function of the sample position. The detected signal was temporally analyzed by digital oscilloscope and then processed by a computer. Nonlinear absorption measurements were performed with the same experimental setup but using a configuration without aperture.

Owing to the laser large repetition rate, the cumulative thermo-optical effect dominates the refractive response of the medium after some time of the sample being irradiated. Hence, the measured transmittance in Z-scan technique can be expressed by [15

15. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 133–136 (1999). [CrossRef]

]
T(ξ,t)=I(ξ,t)I(ξ,0)=1+θTan1[2qξ[(2q+1)2+ξ2]tc(ξ)2qt+2q+1+ξ2]
(1)
where θ is the thermal induced phase-shift, ξ = z / z0 is the normalized distance, z0 corresponds to the Rayleigh range of the laser beam, q is the order of the multiphoton process and tc(ξ) is the characteristic thermal lens time. The time t = 0 is defined as instant that the chopper begins to unblock the laser beam. During the time period between t = 0 and the chopper risetime, the laser beam is partially blocked in such a way that the beam power on the sample varies with time. Therefore transmittance measurements within this period cannot be described by the Eq. (1) and are disregard at the analysis procedure. However, the temporal evolution of the Z-scan traces can be followed from the opening risetime onwards [15

15. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 133–136 (1999). [CrossRef]

].

Ideally, the electronic contribution to the observed nonlinear refraction gives an instantaneous response. Although we could not measure the normalized transmittance at t = 0, we can reconstruct this curve extrapolating the time evolution curves of the measured normalized transmittance, at all sample positions, using Eq. (1) [16

16. A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, “Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7976–7981 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Hence, the value of n2 can be obtained fitting the normalized transmittance curve at t = 0 employing the standard equation of Z-scan method [19

19. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]

]
T(ξ)1+4ΔΦ0ξ(ξ2+9)(ξ2+1)
(2)
where ΔΦ0=2kn2I0Leff, k is the modulus of the beam wave vector, I0 is the maximum laser intensity Leff=(1eα0L)/α0, α0, is the linear absorption coefficient of the colloid and L is the sample length.

3. Result and discussions

3.1 Samples characterization

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Raman spectra of CoMoCat and CoNiFe SWNTs. These results were obtained from the as-grown samples, without surfactant and with 514.5 nm excitation laser line. These spectra present the contribution of the SWNT species whose optical transitions are in resonance with the excitation laser line.
shows Raman spectra of CoNiFe and CoMoCat SWNT samples obtained by exciting the samples with a 514.5 nm line of an Ar+ ion laser. As can be observed, both systems present a characteristic of Raman spectrum for single-walled carbon nanotubes. The radial breathing mode (RBM) and D and G bands are clearly visible in these spectra.

Due to the larger diameters of the nanotubes in the CoNiFe sample, they did not present well defined absorption peaks in this spectral region. The nanotubes present in the sample have electronic transition energies very close together with each other, thus, instead of well defined absorption features we observe a broad band associated with the superposition of the optical absorption contributions from a whole set of semiconducting or metallic nanotubes in the sample. The band observed in Fig. 2(c) around 700 nm is associated with the first optical transition from metallic nanotubes.

3.2 Z-scan measurements

A typical result of the thermally managed Z-scan measurement, obtained at two different time instants, for the colloid consisting of 0.2 mg/ml CoNiFe SWNT using NaDDBS as surfactant is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Thermally managed Z-scan measurement for the colloid consisting of 0.2 mg/ml CoNiFe SWNT using NaDDBS as surfactant. (a) Complete temporal evolution of the Z-scan curve. (b) Z-scan measurements at time instants t = 80 µs (black curve) and at t = 300 µs (red curve). Inset: open-aperture Z-scan measurement. The laser average power was 100 mW at the sample position.
. As it can be observed, both Z-scan curves, at time instants t = 80 µs (black curve) and at t = 300 µs (red curve), the colloid presents negative nonlinear refraction responses and the difference between the peak-valley transmittance increases with time, which indicates that the cumulative thermo-optical effect is present in this sample. It is also shown in this figure the measured transmittance using the open-aperture Z-scan measurement (inset). This result demonstrates that nonlinear absorption is absent in this experimental condition for the investigated colloid, hence we can use q = 1 in Eq. (1) in the extrapolation process to reconstruct the Z-scan curve at t = 0 s. Similar results were observed for the different SWNT concentration. Similar behaviors were obtained using NaC as surfactant as well as for CoMoCat SWNT colloidal dispersions with NaDDBS and NaC.

From the complete time evolution of the Z-scan measurements, the electronic contribution to nonlinear refraction of the used samples was obtained applying the extrapolation method. Therefore, the reconstructed Z-scan curves were obtained in t = 0 s. Figures 4(a)
Fig. 4 Reconstruction of Z-scan curves were obtained in t = 0 s. (a) and (c) show the reconstructed Z-scan curves using CoMoCat SWNT disperse in NaDDBS and NaC, respectively. (b) and (d) show the same reconstruction using only the surfactants NaDDBS and NaC in aqueous solution, respectively. Squares correspond to experimental results; the solid curve is a fit obtained from Eq. (2).
and 4(c) show the reconstructed Z-scan curves using CoMoCat SWNT disperse in aqueous solution with NaDDBS and NaC, respectively. Figures 4(b) and 4(d) show the same reconstruction using only the surfactants NaDDBS and NaC in aqueous solution, respectively. The n2 values obtained in Figs. 4(a) and 4(c) at 0.2 mg/ml concentration, using 60mW laser power, were -8.34 x 10−14 cm2/W and -5.91 x 10−14 cm2/W respectively. On the other hand, + 1,02 x 10−16 cm2/W at 600 mW and -3,46 x 10−15 cm2/W at 500 mW were the n2 values obtained from Figs. 4(b) and 4(d), respectively. The same procedure was performed for the colloidal systems using CoNiFe SWNT, not shown here. The obtained results are summarized in Table 1

Table 1. Summary of the SWNT Colloids Nonlinear Refraction Index*

table-icon
View This Table
.

Using Eq. (2) we could measure the electronic contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of all investigated colloids. We observed that the different combinations of SWNT and surfactants produce colloids with distinct values of the effective nonlinear refractive index. For both kind of surfactants, the CoMoCat colloids presented larger values of n2 in modulus than the CoNiFe samples. For instance, in NaDDBS at 0.2 mg/ml concentration, the value of n2 in modulus was up to five times larger for the CoMoCat SWNT. This result suggests that SWNT of smaller diameter (CoMoCat) present larger negative values of the real part of the third-order optical susceptibility. We can understand this behavior when we compare the obtained results for the optical nonlinearity and the linear absorption of the colloids. As can be observed in Fig. 2, the CoMoCat colloids present more intense peaks in the near infrared and visible region, associated with electronic excitations of the nanotubes, while these transitions are less intense or absent in the CoNiFe response. As the laser frequency is smaller than the frequencies of these excitations and the detuning between them are small, the third-order nonlinear optical response of these media are dominated by the contributions of the non resonant one-photon transitions, which have negative values.

Owing to the production method of the nanotubes used in this work, our samples consisted in mixture of SWNTs of different chiralities and diameters, dispersed randomly within the colloidal systems. Hence, it was not possible to obtain the individual contribution of a single (n,m) nanotube to the nonlinear optical response observed in these systems. Further investigations are currently been made in order to elucidate this question, employing samples of SWNT colloids that present only nanotubes of a single chirality.

4. Conclusions

In summary, we investigated nonlinear optical properties of colloidal systems containing CoNiFe and CoMoCat SWNT disperse in NaC (sodium cholate) and NaDDBS (dodecyl benzene sulfonate) surfactants using a technique that allows discrimination between electronic and thermal contributions to the nonlinear refractive index (n2). It was observed that the presence of the SWNT enhances the electronic nonlinear response of the colloid, up to two orders of magnitude in modulus. We also investigated the influence of different surfactants in the electronic part of n2 of colloidal systems for different types of SWNT. We observed that changing the surfactant also modifies the nonlinear refractive response of the colloids. Our results suggest that surfactants may play an important role in the development of photonic applications involving SWNT.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the financial support from CAPES Pró-equipamentos/PROCAD/PROCAD-NF, CNPq/MCT, Pronex/FAPEAL, PADCT, Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia Fotônica para Telecomunicações - FOTONICOM, and FINEP. The authors also thank the Nanomaterials Laboratory at UFMG for supplying CoNiFe SWNT samples.

References and links

1.

J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science 300(5620), 783–786 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

K. Balasubramanian and M. Burghard, “Biosensors based on carbon nanotubes,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385(3), 452–468 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7425–7443 (2009). [CrossRef]

4.

V. A. Margulis and T. A. Sizikova, “Theoretical study of third-order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor carbon nanotubes,” Physica B 245(2), 173–189 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

X. G. Wan, J. M. Dong, and D. Y. Xing, “Optical properties of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6756–6759 (1998). [CrossRef]

6.

R. H. Xie and J. Jiang, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities of C-60-derived nanotubes in infrared,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280(1-2), 66–72 (1997). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, B. Karthikeyan, B. Kakade, V. K. Pillai, and A. K. Sood, “Ultrafast switching time and third order nonlinear coefficients of microwave treated single walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 5550–5554 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251103 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2548–2551 (1999). [CrossRef]

12.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(3-5), 510–514 (2000). [CrossRef]

13.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of singlewall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174(1-4), 271–275 (2000). [CrossRef]

14.

C. Fantini, J. Cassimiro, V. S. T. Peressinotto, F. Plentz, A. G. Souza Filho, C. A. Furtado, and A. P. Santos, “Investigation of the light emission efficiency of single-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped with different surfactants,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 473(1-3), 96–101 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69(2), 133–136 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, “Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7976–7981 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. Journet and P. Bernier, “Production of carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 67(1), 1–9 (1998). [CrossRef]

18.

B. Kitiyanan, W. E. Alvarez, J. H. Harwell, and D. E. Resasco, “Controlled production of single-wall carbon nanotubes by catalytic decomposition of CO on bimetallic Co-Mo catalysts,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317(3-5), 497–503 (2000). [CrossRef]

19.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optical Materials

History
Original Manuscript: March 15, 2012
Revised Manuscript: April 25, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: April 26, 2012
Published: May 4, 2012

Virtual Issues
Nanocarbon for Photonics and Optoelectronics (2012) Optical Materials Express

Citation
D. R. B. Valadão, D. G. Pires, M. A. R. C. Alencar, J. M. Hickmann, C. Fantini, M. A. Pimenta, and E. J. S. Fonseca, "Investigation of the electronic nonlinear refraction index of single-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped with different surfactants," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 749-756 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-2-6-749


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, P. Avouris, J. C. Tsang, S. Heinze, and J. Tersoff, “Electrically induced optical emission from a carbon nanotube FET,” Science300(5620), 783–786 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Balasubramanian and M. Burghard, “Biosensors based on carbon nanotubes,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem.385(3), 452–468 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. V. A. Margulis and T. A. Sizikova, “Theoretical study of third-order nonlinear optical response of semiconductor carbon nanotubes,” Physica B245(2), 173–189 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. X. G. Wan, J. M. Dong, and D. Y. Xing, “Optical properties of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. B58(11), 6756–6759 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Xie and J. Jiang, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities of C-60-derived nanotubes in infrared,” Chem. Phys. Lett.280(1-2), 66–72 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, B. Karthikeyan, B. Kakade, V. K. Pillai, and A. K. Sood, “Ultrafast switching time and third order nonlinear coefficients of microwave treated single walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol.9(9), 5550–5554 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater.21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Chen, X. Wu, X. Sun, J. Lin, W. Ji, and K. L. Tan, “Electronic structure and optical limiting behavior of carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.82(12), 2548–2551 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3-5), 510–514 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of singlewall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun.174(1-4), 271–275 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Fantini, J. Cassimiro, V. S. T. Peressinotto, F. Plentz, A. G. Souza Filho, C. A. Furtado, and A. P. Santos, “Investigation of the light emission efficiency of single-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped with different surfactants,” Chem. Phys. Lett.473(1-3), 96–101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B69(2), 133–136 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Gnoli, L. Razzari, and M. Righini, “Z-scan measurements using high repetition rate lasers: how to manage thermal effects,” Opt. Express13(20), 7976–7981 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Journet and P. Bernier, “Production of carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.67(1), 1–9 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. B. Kitiyanan, W. E. Alvarez, J. H. Harwell, and D. E. Resasco, “Controlled production of single-wall carbon nanotubes by catalytic decomposition of CO on bimetallic Co-Mo catalysts,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3-5), 497–503 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited