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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 2012
  • pp: 1156–1164
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Crystalline phase distribution of Dy2(MoO4)3 in glass induced by 250 kHz femtosecond laser irradiation

Minjian Zhong, Yingying Du, Hongliang Ma, Yongmei Han, Bo Lu, Ye Dai, and Xianglong Zeng  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 2, Issue 8, pp. 1156-1164 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.2.001156


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Abstract

Spatial precipitation of Dy2(MoO4)3 crystal in the glass is achieved by using 800 nm, 250 kHz femtosecond laser. Micro-Raman spectra show that multiple crystalline phases of Dy2(MoO4)3 can be formed in femtosecond laser-modified region. Their distributions depend mainly on femtosecond laser-induced temperature field, which is asymmetric along the light propagation direction. This phenomenon results from an inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the incident pulse due to both of self-focusing effect and spherical aberration effect. Furthermore, the EPMA mapping demonstrates that the O element concentration is reduced in the center of the modified region, while the Mo element one increases. The composition change is according strongly with the phase transformation of Dy2(MoO4)3 crystal. The present study implies that the asymmetry of the temperature field is an important factor to influence the crystal precipitation.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

However, self-focusing and spherical aberration, as two common optical effects in the case of a tightly focused fs laser irradiating into glass, will cause intensity redistributions along the light propagation direction, which make the associated phenomena more complicated. For example, some literatures have reported that the fs laser-induced temperature fields became asymmetric in isotropic glass and elongated along the light propagation direction [17

17. A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, V. Dierolf, and H. Jain, “Unexpected influence of focal depth on nucleation during femtosecond laser crystallization of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 990–995 (2011). [CrossRef]

19

19. J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Meanwhile, an anisotropic heat diffusion dynamics has also been proposed to explain the aspect ratio of the elemental migration traces under the laser-driven temperature gradient field [5

5. Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu2+-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010). [CrossRef]

,20

20. F. Luo, B. Qian, G. Lin, J. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Song, H. Sun, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Redistribution of elements in glass induced by a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6262–6269 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since fs laser-induced crystal precipitation depends strongly on the heat accumulation, the asymmetry of temperature distribution would have a significant effect on nucleation and growth of crystals.

Dysprosium molybdate Dy2(MoO4)3 (DMO) is a member of the RE2(MoO4)3 (RE: trivalent rare earth ions) family which owns the characters of ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity, and nonlinear optical properties [21

21. M. Roy, R. N. P. Choudhary, and H. N. Acharya, “X-ray and thermal studies of ferroelectric Dy2(MoO4)3,” J. Therm. Anal. 35(5), 1471–1476 (1989). [CrossRef]

]. Since the DMOs have exhibited a comparatively large electro-optic effect [22

22. A. Kumada, “Optical properties of gadolinium molybdate and their device applications,” Ferroelectrics 3(1), 115–123 (1972). [CrossRef]

24

24. Z. Wang, H. Liang, M. Gong, and Q. Su, “Novel red phosphor of Bi3+, Sm3+ co-activated NaEu(MoO4)2,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 896–900 (2007). [CrossRef]

], therefore they hold considerable technological promise for device application. However, high-quality DMO is always difficult to be obtained until a direct laser writing (DLW) technique was applied to its fabrication. A few molybdate crystals in the same isostructure, e.g., Gd2(MoO4)3, Dy2(MoO4)3 and Sm2(MoO4)3, have been achieved on the surface of the glasses via a so-called “transition metal atom or rare earth metal atom heating technique” for laser hosts, tunable waveguides, tunable fiber gratings [25

25. Y. Tsukada, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, “Corrected article: ‘Self-organized periodic domain structure for second harmonic generations in ferroelastic β′-(Sm, Gd)2(MoO4)3 crystal lines on glass surfaces [Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041915 (2009)]’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 059901 (2009). [CrossRef]

28

28. Y. Wang, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, “Synthesis and laser patterning of ferroelastic β′-RE2(MoO4)3 crystals (RE: Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy) in rare-earth molybdenum borate glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(1), 118–125 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. But this technique is hard to directly write crystal pattern inside the glasses, which prevents their device application in three-dimensional architecture.

In this study, our results show that the fs laser induced temperature distribution could make important influence on the asymmetry of the modified region and on the crystalline phase transformation. We investigate the spatial distribution of the crystalline phase by using micro-Raman spectra and show that the formation of the DMO crystals, no matter for α-phase or β'-phase, strongly depends on the temperature field induced by fs laser irradiation. We further present that the transformation from β-phase to α-phase occurred in the lower part of the modified structure, which was mainly because of the asymmetry of the temperature distribution. The involved mechanism was discussed from two aspects of self-focusing and spherical aberration. In addition, the results of the electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) mapping also reveal that the O ions migrate outward from the focal center while the Mo ions have the opposite movement after the laser irradiation. This migration process partly supports the crystal phase transformation from a perspective of material composition.

2. Experimental

The glass sample was prepared using a conventional melt quenching technique. The mixed materials with the composition of 21.25Dy2O3-63.75MoO3-15B2O3 (mol %) about 20 g in weight were melted in a crucible at 1100°C for 45 min in air. Then the melt was poured onto a steel plate and cooled down to the room temperature. The glass transition (Tg) and melting temperature (Tm) were determined by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (NETZSCH DSC 404C) at a heating rate of 10 K/min. The glass pieces were annealed near Tg~491°C for 4 h to reduce the residual stress. All the samples were cut and optically polished.

The glass sample was placed on a computer controlling XYZ stage. A regeneratively amplified Ti: Sapphire laser (RegA 9000, Coherent Inc.) with 150 fs, 250 kHz, 800 nm mode-locked pulses was focused inside the glass via a 100 × objective lens with a numerical aperture of 0.8. The incident light power can be continuously adjusted by using a neutral density filter. After the laser irradiation, a micro-Raman spectrometer (Renishaw inVia) was used to measure the laser-modified region by a 514 nm laser excitation. The elemental redistribution mapping was performed through an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA: JEOL, JXA-8100). All the measurements were carried out at room temperature.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Optical microscopic images of the induced microstructures after 400 mW fs laser irradiated 30 s at different focal depths inside the molybdate glass, (a) topview and (b) sideview. (c) Transmittance of the glass sample.
shows the optical microscope images of the modified regions, which were irradiated for 30 seconds by focusing 400 mW fs laser at different focal depths inside the molybdate glass. It is clear that the volume of the formed microstructure is much larger than the laser focal spot, which is due to the induced heat accumulation accompanied with heat diffusion. Some dark regions appear inside the modified structure, which mostly come from the Rayleigh scattering of fs laser-induced defects, bubbles or even crystallites [17

17. A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, V. Dierolf, and H. Jain, “Unexpected influence of focal depth on nucleation during femtosecond laser crystallization of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 990–995 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Since the quantity of these defects is partly in terms of the glass temperature, the inhomogeneous dark regions from top to bottom indicate that more energy is accumulated in the lower part of the modified structure.

The topview image displays a group of the induced circular structures in which the focal point is surrounded by a continuous deformation. This multiple-ring pattern in Fig. 1(a) is usually considered from the center temperature elevation and the repeated shock waves during a long time irradiation. During this process, a continuous energy deposition in the center region might cause glass melting, volume expansion and further a lowering of viscosity, meanwhile the radial heat flow also increased the temperature of the surrounding matter and led to the deformation area expanding. Hence, a circular temperature field formed in the fs laser-irradiated region. Another important factor to influence the induced pattern is the formed structural strain resulting from plastic deformation. The fast expansion of the heated material produced an outward pressure in the deformation area. Once the irradiation stopped, a rapid cooling led to a sharp increase of viscosity of the molten fluids, which prevented the compressed materials to recoil from the periphery to the center. As a result, the strains were inevitably to be generated in the frozen region where the lattice’s distortion or displacement may possibly appear [10

10. M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008). [CrossRef]

,11

11. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These lattice defects would benefit for nucleation of the DMO crystal. The detailed reason will be discussed in the following context.

Unlike the circular symmetry of the cross-section perpendicular to the incident direction, the longitudinal laser-modified structures become gradually elongated and narrower when the focal depth increases. Figure 1(b) shows the dependence of the longitudinal profile on the focal depth. The mechanism of the elongated structures is explained from two aspects of self-focusing and spherical aberration, which produce light intensity redistribution of the incident pulse. When an fs laser is focused into the glass via an objective, the index mismatch between air and glass will lead to an aberration which distorts the wave front of the converging spherical wave, and causes significant stretch of the intensity distribution along the beam propagation direction on the focal axis [29

29. A. Marcinkevičius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(2), 257–260 (2003). [CrossRef]

,30

30. C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5481–5492 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We have calculated this intensity redistribution and found it would make an obviously longitudinal elongation with the focal depth increasing [31

31. Y. Dai, G. Yu, G. Wu, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “The effect of spherical aberration on temperature distribution inside glass by irradiation of a high repetition rate femtosecond pulse laser,” Chin. Phys. B 21(2), 025201 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Like for the self-focusing, it is an optical Kerr effect induced by the change in refractive index of materials exposed to intense laser. This effect may cause long filament propagation inside the laser-modified structure as if the light travels a focusing lens. Its appearance depends on the instantaneous power of the incident pulse and has a threshold of Pcrit = (3.77λ2)/8πn0n2 [32

32. J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. Figure 1(c) shows the transmittance of the glass sample with two obvious absorption peaks respectively at 807 nm and 901 nm, which indicate the initial glass has an intensive linear absorption about the incident 800 nm light. Therefore, when the focal depth increases further, more energy is lost ahead of the focal region. This results in weakening of self-focusing and reduces its influence on the intensity distribution. The two kinds of intensity modulation produce an asymmetric energy deposition elongated along the light propagation direction, which further built an asymmetric temperature gradient field in glass. As a result, the olive shapes are formed in the longitudinal profile of the modified structure.

According to the above discussions, the dark color in the region II reflects the assembly of a mass of defects or bubbles, and their quantities to some extent depend on the induced temperature. These induced defects were the preferential nucleation sites for the β-phase crystallites, which would further transform to α-phase ones after some time irradiation. Therefore, the results in Fig. 2 prove that the asymmetry of the fs laser-induced temperature field can have important influences on crystal precipitation and on subsequent phase transformations.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 (a) The sketch map of the Raman scanning from both of topview and sideview (irradiation time: 60 s; laser power: 250 mW; depth: 120 μm). (b) Micro-Raman mapping at the 963 cm−1 peak for the modified region. (c) and (d) the intensity distribution at 963 cm−1 peak along the lines A and B, respectively.
shows the multi-point scanning Raman spectra for the DMO crystal distribution. We chose a Raman signal at 963 cm−1, which is the most intense peak of the DMO crystal, to plot an intensity mapping in the cross-section of the fs laser-modified structure. The intensity distribution of Raman signal shows a circular symmetry and is a radial gradient except a depression in the focal center. That indicates that the center of the irradiated region possibly formed a porous, bubble-filled core with lower density [14

14. A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, G. Stone, P. Gupta, K. Miura, K. Hirao, V. Dierolf, and H. Jain, “Formation of ferroelectric single-crystal architectures in LaBGeO5 glass by femtosecond vs. continuous-wave lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(52-54), 3059–3065 (2010). [CrossRef]

,15

15. A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, G. Stone, P. Gupta, K. Miura, K. Hirao, V. Dierolf, and H. Jain, “Directionally controlled 3D ferroelectric single crystal growth in LaBGeO5 glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23284–23289 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In order to better understand this phenomenon, let us recall the process of heat accumulation. When a high repetition rate fs laser beam is focused inside the glass, hot electron plasma is firstly induced via multiphoton ionization. After an experience on the electron-lattice collisions and the resulting energy accumulation, the heat-affected glass will expand outwards due to a temperature elevation in the modified structure. But a fraction of overheated glass in the focal center suffers from repeated ionizations, which results in material composition changing and imbalance of the chemical elements, thus the crystal growth rate at the focal center is slower than that at the surroundings. Furthermore, the ionized materials in the focal center might well be pushed downwards by an asymmetric temperature field. This anisotropic heat diffusion produced a shift of the crystallized region from the structural center to the lower part. Therefore, much more information about the asymmetric crystallization behavior should be dug out from the longitudinal cross-section.

We plot the horizontal distribution of Raman signal at 963 cm−1 in the different depths of the modified structure, as shown in Figs. 3(c) and 3(d). These two curves correspond to the scanning paths line A and line B described in Fig. 3(a). Both have an intensity depression in the center, which shows a little weaker crystallization than the periphery. Especially for the line B, the dark region in the middle part experiences a relatively high temperature and pressure where the transformation from β-phase to α-phase takes place. Besides, Raman signal in line B has more peaks including the ones in the same positions of line A and other two special ones with higher intensities, which are close to the contour of the inner boundary as labeled in Figs. 3(a) and 3(d). This means that the boundary of the inner region may be another favorable place with high temperature and pressure for the initial heterogeneous nucleation [17

17. A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, V. Dierolf, and H. Jain, “Unexpected influence of focal depth on nucleation during femtosecond laser crystallization of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 990–995 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Since this region is located near the bottom of the modified structure, a diffraction effect resulting from spherical aberration during the laser writing might be a plausible explanation for the lateral separation of light intensity [29

29. A. Marcinkevičius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(2), 257–260 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Based on this hypothesis, we suggest that this diffraction effect should also be responsible for the induced multiple-ring pattern. Following this idea, there can produce multiple heat sources including a central principal maximum and some low-level diffraction rings in the entire modified region, which result in a superimposed effect on the temperature distribution for the nucleation and growth of the DMO crystals, but the detailed mechanism still needs more investigations.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, spatial distribution of the Dy2(MoO4)3 crystal in the fs laser-modified glass has been studied. According to micro-Raman spectra, we found that the DMO crystals could precipitate inside the molybdate glass and a transformation from β-phase to α-phase occurred at the relatively high temperature region. The temperature discrepancy in different parts of the fs laser-modified structure resulted from an asymmetrical intensity distribution along the longitudinal direction due to both effects of self-focusing and spherical aberration. This phenomenon will make important influences on the subsequent crystal nucleation and growth. Meanwhile, the elements migration process in the modified region has been studied through the EPMA analysis. The result shows that a high concentration of the Mo element in the center possibly promotes the β- to α-phase transformation of the DMO crystal.

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 60908007, 11174195), Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (S30105) and Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (12YZ002).

References and links

1.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

Y. Teng, J. Zhou, F. Luo, G. Lin, and J. Qiu, “Controllable space selective precipitation of copper nanoparticles in borosilicate glasses using ultrafast laser irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2380–2383 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

Y. Teng, B. Qian, N. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Luo, S. Ye, J. Zhou, B. Zhu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Light and heat driven precipitation of copper nanoparticles inside Cu2+-doped borate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 485(1-3), 91–94 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, “Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials,” MRS Bull. 31(08), 620–625 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, “Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(4), 043506 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Memory in nonlinear ionization of transparent solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253001 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, X. Qiao, S. Ye, Y. Teng, Q. Guo, H. Ma, X. Fan, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser writing of Er3+-doped CaF2 crystalline patterns in glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3433–3435 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 408–410 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, G. Stone, P. Gupta, K. Miura, K. Hirao, V. Dierolf, and H. Jain, “Formation of ferroelectric single-crystal architectures in LaBGeO5 glass by femtosecond vs. continuous-wave lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(52-54), 3059–3065 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, G. Stone, P. Gupta, K. Miura, K. Hirao, V. Dierolf, and H. Jain, “Directionally controlled 3D ferroelectric single crystal growth in LaBGeO5 glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23284–23289 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. Dai, H. Ma, B. Lu, B. Yu, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser-induced oriented precipitation of Ba2TiGe2O8 crystals in glass,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3912–3917 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. Stone, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, K. Hirao, V. Dierolf, and H. Jain, “Unexpected influence of focal depth on nucleation during femtosecond laser crystallization of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 990–995 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013517 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

J. Song, X. Wang, X. Hu, Y. Dai, J. Qiu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Formation mechanism of self-organized voids in dielectrics induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 092904 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

F. Luo, B. Qian, G. Lin, J. Xu, Y. Liao, J. Song, H. Sun, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Redistribution of elements in glass induced by a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6262–6269 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. Roy, R. N. P. Choudhary, and H. N. Acharya, “X-ray and thermal studies of ferroelectric Dy2(MoO4)3,” J. Therm. Anal. 35(5), 1471–1476 (1989). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Kumada, “Optical properties of gadolinium molybdate and their device applications,” Ferroelectrics 3(1), 115–123 (1972). [CrossRef]

23.

A. A. Kaminskii, “New room-temperature laser-diode pumped efficient quasi-cw and cw single-mode laser based on ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3: Nd3+ crystal,” Phys. Status Solidi A 149(2), K39–K42 (1995). [CrossRef]

24.

Z. Wang, H. Liang, M. Gong, and Q. Su, “Novel red phosphor of Bi3+, Sm3+ co-activated NaEu(MoO4)2,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 896–900 (2007). [CrossRef]

25.

Y. Tsukada, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, “Corrected article: ‘Self-organized periodic domain structure for second harmonic generations in ferroelastic β′-(Sm, Gd)2(MoO4)3 crystal lines on glass surfaces [Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041915 (2009)]’,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(5), 059901 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

R. Nakajima, M. Abe, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, H. G. Kim, and T. Komatsu, “Laser-induced crystallization of β′-RE2(MoO4)3 ferroelectrics (RE: Sm, Gd, Dy) in glasses and their surface morphologies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(1), 85–93 (2007). [CrossRef]

27.

M. Abe, Y. Benino, T. Fujiwara, T. Komatsu, and R. Sato, “Writing of nonlinear optical Sm2(MoO4)3 crystal lines at the surface of glass by samarium atom heat processing,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123516 (2005). [CrossRef]

28.

Y. Wang, T. Honma, and T. Komatsu, “Synthesis and laser patterning of ferroelastic β′-RE2(MoO4)3 crystals (RE: Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy) in rare-earth molybdenum borate glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 133(1), 118–125 (2012). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Marcinkevičius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(2), 257–260 (2003). [CrossRef]

30.

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5481–5492 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

Y. Dai, G. Yu, G. Wu, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “The effect of spherical aberration on temperature distribution inside glass by irradiation of a high repetition rate femtosecond pulse laser,” Chin. Phys. B 21(2), 025201 (2012). [CrossRef]

32.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975). [CrossRef]

33.

K. Nassau, J. W. Shiever, and E. T. Keve, “Structural and phase relationships among trivalent tungstates and molybdates,” J. Solid State Chem. 3(3), 411–419 (1971). [CrossRef]

34.

H. Behrens and M. Haack, “Cation diffusion in soda-lime-silicate glass melts,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(52-54), 4743–4752 (2007). [CrossRef]

35.

L. H. Brixner, J. R. Barkley, and W. Jeitschko, Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths (North-Holland Publishing Company, 1979), Chap. 30.

OCIS Codes
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena
(350.3390) Other areas of optics : Laser materials processing

ToC Category:
Laser Materials Processing

History
Original Manuscript: May 7, 2012
Revised Manuscript: July 21, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: July 26, 2012
Published: July 30, 2012

Citation
Minjian Zhong, Yingying Du, Hongliang Ma, Yongmei Han, Bo Lu, Ye Dai, and Xianglong Zeng, "Crystalline phase distribution of Dy2(MoO4)3 in glass induced by 250 kHz femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1156-1164 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-2-8-1156


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References

  1. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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