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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2013
  • pp: 1798–1802
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Third harmonic generation at 343nm in nonlinear Ca5(BO3)3F (CBF) crystals

Loïc Deyra, Simon Ilas, Xavier Délen, Pascal Loiseau, François Balembois, Gerard Aka, François Salin, and Patrick Georges  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 11, pp. 1798-1802 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.3.001798


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Abstract

We demonstrate for the first time UV generation at 343 nm by frequency-tripling in the new non-hygroscopic Ca5(BO3)3F crystal. A boule of CBF crystal was grown and cut along the two possible phase matching configurations for third harmonic generation in plans XY and YZ. 300 mW of UV average power have been obtained with a deff estimated at 0.45 pm/V for the XY plan and 0.38 pm/V for the YZ plan.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Crystal characterization

A CBF crystal with a large size (diameter = 17 mm and length = 35 mm) has been obtained by using 20wt% LiF as flux in air. The CBF boule was cut in two different planes corresponding to the two possible type-II THG phase matching directions. Two crystals of dimensions 3x3x3 mm3 were cut in the YZ plane, with θ = 57.7° and φ = 90°. Then, a third crystal of dimension 3x3x5 mm3 was cut in the XY plane with θ = 90° and φ = 72.6°. The 3 crystals picture is displayed in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1 CBF boule (left) and cut crystals (right), cut in YZ plan (a&b) and XY plan (c).
The theoretical nonlinearities can be calculated from the following formulas:
deffIIXY=d31sin2φ+d32cos2φ
(1)
deffIIYZ=d31sinθ
(2)
By using d31 = 0.49 pm/V and d32 = −0.53 pm/V [9

9. M. J. Xia and R. K. Li, “Structure and optical properties of a noncentrosymmetric borate RbSr4(BO3)3,” J. Solid State Chem. 197, 366–369 (2013). [CrossRef]

], the theoretical nonlinearities of CBF for THG of 1030nm are dXYeff II = 0.41 pm/V and dYZeff II = 0.45 pm/V.

The crystals transmittance was measured at room temperature from 200 nm to 800 nm. The transmission curves are displayed in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 Measured transmission for both XY and YZ-cut crystals.
The XY-cut and YZ-cut CBF crystals show a transmission at 800 nm of respectively 85% and 86% (With a transmittance at 343 nm of respectively 73% and 81%). These values are to be compared to the theoretical absorption calculated with the refractive indexes, displayed in dotted line in Fig. 2. The differences between theoretical and measured transmittance are attributed to residual impurities of LiF during the crystal growth. The differences between the two cut plans are only due to the XY crystal being longer (5mm) the the YZ crystal (3mm).

3. Third harmonic generation

The experimental setup is detailed in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 Experimental set-up.
We used for the experiment a previously developed infrared source emitting 20 W at 1030 nm at a repetition rate of 30 kHz with pulse width of 15 ns, TEM00 beam profile and Fourier-limited spectral linewidth [10

10. X. Délen, L. Deyra, A. Benoit, M. Hanna, F. Balembois, B. Cocquelin, D. Sangla, F. Salin, J. Didierjean, and P. Georges, “Hybrid master oscillator power amplifier nanosecond laser source at 257 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 995–997 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A standard third harmonic generation set-up was implemented: a 20 mm long, type-I LBO was used in NCPM configuration to obtain 12 W of green power. The frequency tripling crystal was placed right after the second harmonic crystal, and the focal point was set at the entrance of the THG crystal with a beam diameter of 170 µm at 1030 nm. Both XY-cut and YZ-cut type II-CBF crystals were tested and the UV output power was measured, the results being displayed in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4 Output power at 343nm for both CBF cut plans versus the input IR 1030 nm power.
Both CBF crystals were uncoated and operated at room temperature. The wavelength was verified to be at 343 nm with a UV-sensitive spectrometer.

The measured beam profile for the conversion in the XY-cut CBF in the UV showed no sign of degradation that could indicate structure defects. The stability of the UV power was also measured (Fig. 5). After twenty minutes, the UV power stabilized around 300 mW and was stable for more than half an hour. We attribute the slow decay before stabilisation of the UV power to residual impurities in the crystal. Same phenomena, but of much higher intensities, can be observed for example in KTP crystals during second harmonic generation in the visible range [12

12. Z. Liao and S. Payne, “Thermally induced dephasing in periodically poled KTiOPO4 nonlinear crystals,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2004) pp. 2–6.

].

Fig. 5 UV power stability over one hour and beam profile of the 343nm output.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, these results show that a UV laser can be realized by third harmonic generation in the non-hygroscopic borate crystal Ca5(BO3)3F (CBF). We demonstrate 300mW of stable 343nm output, which is the first demonstration of UV generation in this non-hygroscopic crystal. We measured a nonlinear coefficient (deff) similar to the one of Type-II LBO. New flux and growth methods are currently under development. Hence, with larger crystals grown as expected in the near future, CBF could be considered as an alternative to LBO.

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to acknowledge the DGA and EADS foundation for PhD funding. This work is supported by the french ANR agency (ANR UV-Challenge, N° ANR: 12-B504-0014-01)

References and links

1.

V. P. Gapontsev, V. A. Tyrtyshnyy, O. I. Vershinin, B. L. Davydov, and D. A. Oulianov, “Third harmonic frequency generation by type-I critically phase-matched LiB3O5 crystal by means of optically active quartz crystal,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3715–3720 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. Hong, Q. Liu, L. Huang, and M. Gong, “Improvement and formation of UV-induced damage on LBO crystal surface during long-term high-power third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7285–7293 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

N. La, O. Bo, J. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Li, G. Wang, and G. Zhang, “355nm laser generation based on NLBO crystal,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16490–16493 (2012). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. Zhou, G. Wang, Y. Yue, C. Li, Y. Lu, and D. Cui, “High-efficiency 355 nm generation in barium aluminum borate diflouride (BaAlBO 3 F 2),” Opt. Express 34(6), 746–748 (2009).

5.

L. R. Wang, Y. Wu, G. L. Wang, J. X. Zhang, Y. C. Wu, and C. T. Chen, “31.6-W, 355-nm generation with La2CaB10O19 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 108(2), 307–311 (2012). [CrossRef]

6.

Q. Liu, X. Yan, M. Gong, H. Liu, G. Zhang, and N. Ye, “High-power 266 nm ultraviolet generation in yttrium aluminum borate,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2653–2655 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

H. Liu, X. Chen, L. X. Huang, X. Xu, G. Zhang, and N. Ye, “Growth and optical properties of UV transparent YAB crystals,” Materials Research Innovations 15(2), 140–144 (2011). [CrossRef]

8.

K. Xu, P. Loiseau, G. Aka, R. Maillard, A. Maillard, and T. Taira, “Nonlinear optical properties of Ca5(BO3)3F crystal,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17735–17744 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. J. Xia and R. K. Li, “Structure and optical properties of a noncentrosymmetric borate RbSr4(BO3)3,” J. Solid State Chem. 197, 366–369 (2013). [CrossRef]

10.

X. Délen, L. Deyra, A. Benoit, M. Hanna, F. Balembois, B. Cocquelin, D. Sangla, F. Salin, J. Didierjean, and P. Georges, “Hybrid master oscillator power amplifier nanosecond laser source at 257 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 995–997 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. V. Smith, “Computer code SNLO (available from the authors at no charge).” 1997.

12.

Z. Liao and S. Payne, “Thermally induced dephasing in periodically poled KTiOPO4 nonlinear crystals,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2004) pp. 2–6.

OCIS Codes
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optical Materials

History
Original Manuscript: July 25, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 2, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 2, 2013
Published: October 1, 2013

Virtual Issues
Nonlinear Optics 2013 (2013) Optical Materials Express
Nonlinear Optics (2013) Optics Express

Citation
Loïc Deyra, Simon Ilas, Xavier Délen, Pascal Loiseau, François Balembois, Gerard Aka, François Salin, and Patrick Georges, "Third harmonic generation at 343nm in nonlinear Ca5(BO3)3F (CBF) crystals," Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1798-1802 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-11-1798


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References

  1. V. P. Gapontsev, V. A. Tyrtyshnyy, O. I. Vershinin, B. L. Davydov, and D. A. Oulianov, “Third harmonic frequency generation by type-I critically phase-matched LiB3O5 crystal by means of optically active quartz crystal,” Opt. Express21(3), 3715–3720 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Hong, Q. Liu, L. Huang, and M. Gong, “Improvement and formation of UV-induced damage on LBO crystal surface during long-term high-power third-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express21(6), 7285–7293 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. La, O. Bo, J. Zhang, L. Wang, Y. Li, G. Wang, and G. Zhang, “355nm laser generation based on NLBO crystal,” Opt. Express20(15), 16490–16493 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Zhou, G. Wang, Y. Yue, C. Li, Y. Lu, and D. Cui, “High-efficiency 355 nm generation in barium aluminum borate diflouride (BaAlBO 3 F 2),” Opt. Express34(6), 746–748 (2009).
  5. L. R. Wang, Y. Wu, G. L. Wang, J. X. Zhang, Y. C. Wu, and C. T. Chen, “31.6-W, 355-nm generation with La2CaB10O19 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B108(2), 307–311 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Liu, X. Yan, M. Gong, H. Liu, G. Zhang, and N. Ye, “High-power 266 nm ultraviolet generation in yttrium aluminum borate,” Opt. Lett.36(14), 2653–2655 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Liu, X. Chen, L. X. Huang, X. Xu, G. Zhang, and N. Ye, “Growth and optical properties of UV transparent YAB crystals,” Materials Research Innovations15(2), 140–144 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. K. Xu, P. Loiseau, G. Aka, R. Maillard, A. Maillard, and T. Taira, “Nonlinear optical properties of Ca5(BO3)3F crystal,” Opt. Express16(22), 17735–17744 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Xia and R. K. Li, “Structure and optical properties of a noncentrosymmetric borate RbSr4(BO3)3,” J. Solid State Chem.197, 366–369 (2013). [CrossRef]
  10. X. Délen, L. Deyra, A. Benoit, M. Hanna, F. Balembois, B. Cocquelin, D. Sangla, F. Salin, J. Didierjean, and P. Georges, “Hybrid master oscillator power amplifier nanosecond laser source at 257 nm,” Opt. Lett.38(6), 995–997 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. V. Smith, “Computer code SNLO (available from the authors at no charge).” 1997.
  12. Z. Liao and S. Payne, “Thermally induced dephasing in periodically poled KTiOPO4 nonlinear crystals,” in Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2004) pp. 2–6.

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