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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2013
  • pp: 1855–1861
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Fluorescence and second-harmonic generation correlative microscopy to probe space charge separation and silver cluster stabilization during direct laser writing in a tailored silver-containing glass

G. Papon, Y. Petit, N. Marquestaut, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 11, pp. 1855-1861 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.3.001855


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Abstract

We report on fluorescence and second-harmonic generation correlative microscopy of femtosecond direct laser-induced structures in a tailored silver-containing phosphate glass. We compare the spatial distributions of the related permanent electric field and silver clusters. The latter appear to be co-localized where the associated electric potential ensures favorable reduction-oxidation conditions for their formation and stabilization. Space charge separation is shown to occur prior the cluster formation. The associated electric field is a key parameter for silver clustering, thanks to electric field assisted silver ion motion. Future photonic structures combining 3D laser-structured fluorescence and nonlinear optical properties in such tailored glass will require an optimal control of the induced electric field distribution.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Femtosecond direct laser writing (DLW) in homogeneous glasses gives three-dimensional access to local material modifications at the micro-nanoscale, at the root of chemical [1

1. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003). [CrossRef]

], mechanical [2

2. Y. Bellouard, “On the bending strength of fused silica flexures fabricated by ultrafast lasers [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 816–831 (2011). [CrossRef]

] as well as optical [3

3. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008). [CrossRef]

] contrasts. Such approach already demonstrated an extremely broadband range of fundamental mechanisms and original applications [4

4. J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008). [CrossRef]

,5

5. A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 866–882 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

Fluorescence contrast has already largely been reported [6

6. K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010). [CrossRef]

], providing suitable approach for perennial high-density 3D data storage [7

7. A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5282–5286 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. On the other hand, nonlinear optical contrast has also been reported, in a smaller proportion, with third-harmonic generation (THG) [8

8. L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 360–362 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] but also effective second-harmonic generation (SHG), even in an initially centro-symmetric material, thanks to local space charge separation. Such buried static electric field induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) has largely been reported under thermal poling leading to intense electric fields up to 109 V.m−1 [9

9. H. Takebe, P. G. Kazansky, P. S. Russell, and K. Morinaga, “Effect of poling conditions on second-harmonic generation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 468–470 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science 3(4), 309–320 (2012). [CrossRef]

], with a typical thickness of the poled region ranging from 1 to few tens of microns. Such effective second-order nonlinearity originates from the coupling of the static electric field EDC with the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of the glass, to make χeff(2)=3EDC·χ(3). While thermal poling is restricted to 2D material structuring, direct laser poling (DLP) gives promising 3D access to the local engineering of the buried electric field at the root of the EFISHG, with similar remnant electric field amplitude [12

12. J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1029–1031 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, to our knowledge, no correlative studies of both fluorescence and nonlinear laser-induced responses originating from fs DLW were conducted in detail, in order to improve the understanding of the joint production processes of both of these optical responses.

In this article, we report on correlative microscopy studies of both fluorescence and effective second-order nonlinear responses that resulted from 3D fs laser irradiation in our tailored silver-containing phosphate glass. We depict original spatial distributions of SHG for different DLW conditions, enlarging recently published observations [12

12. J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1029–1031 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Then, fluorescence and SHG spatial distributions are compared, showing a clear anti-correlation of these patterns. The buried static electric field, originating from the space charge creation under DLP, is modelled, which offers experimental access to the local electric potential modification. The fluorescence pattern, originating from silver cluster production, is shown to remarkably match such modified electric potential distribution. Laser-induced space charge separation and fluorescent cluster creation are investigated, providing correlative information on both laser-induced buried electric field and associated electric potential modifications, respectively. The EFISHG efficiency (χeff(2)0.6pm.V1, typically corresponding to EDC8.108V.m1) and remarkable stability are being detailed elsewhere [13

13. G. Papon, N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond direct laser poling of sub-micron, stable and efficient second-order optical properties in a tailored silver phosphate glass,” submitted to (2013).

], which is quite comparable to that obtained with thermal poling. Such work provides a new interpretation of the sequence of mechanisms at play during fs DLW in our tailored glass.

2. Experimental method

2.1. Glass sample & DLW setup

Our tailored glass was a silver-zinc containing phosphate glass, with 5% of Ag2O, classically prepared as reported elsewhere [6

6. K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010). [CrossRef]

,13

13. G. Papon, N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond direct laser poling of sub-micron, stable and efficient second-order optical properties in a tailored silver phosphate glass,” submitted to (2013).

]. DLW was performed with a home-made nonlinear microscope as described elsewhere [5

5. A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 866–882 (2011). [CrossRef]

,7

7. A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5282–5286 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] (KGW:Yb oscillator, 5W, 10 MHz, 470 fs at 1030 nm, T-Pulse 500, Amplitude Systemes; a Mitutoyo objective APO PLAN IR, 100 × , NA 0.7; a high-precision 3D translation stage XMS-50 stages, Micro-Contrôle, 50 nm resolution). DLW was performed in the bulk at typically 160 microns below the surface, at fixed positions or by linearly moving the glass sample at controlled speed.

2.2. Correlative fluorescence and nonlinear SHG imaging setup

Another home-made nonlinear microscope was developed to perform the correlative study of both silver cluster fluorescence and EFISHG [13

13. G. Papon, N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond direct laser poling of sub-micron, stable and efficient second-order optical properties in a tailored silver phosphate glass,” submitted to (2013).

]. For the SHG, it included a femtosecond laser (KGW:Yb oscillator, 1W, 50 MHz, typically 200 fs at 1030 nm, T-Pulse 20, Amplitude Systemes), a wave plate and Faraday rotator to control laser irradiance, a Gires-Tournois interferometer (GTI) mirror pair to partially compensate the setup group velocity dispersion, a half-wave plate to control the incident polarization orientation, a loosely focusing objective to provide broad-field illumination and to prevent longitudinal polarization at the focus (Olympus, 10 × , NA 0.25). For the fluorescence, the excitation was performed with a 405 nm laser diode (100 mW). Both SHG and fluorescence signals were alternatively or simultaneously collected with a sharp collecting objective (Olympus, 100 × , NA 0.8) by imaging the illuminated laser-induced emitting structures onto a Peltier-cooled high-sensitivity 2D CCD camera (Hamamatsu C4742-95) mounted with a band-pass filter centered at 515 nm (20 nm bandwidth FWHM) and a long-pass filter (above 450 nm) for both SHG or fluorescence signals, as seen in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1 Correlative microscopy setup for silver cluster fluorescence and EFISHG response.
Such approach ensured that SHG and fluorescence are exactly collected in the same focal plane, preventing any chromatic artifact in the recorded spatial distributions of each property.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Topologies of laser-induced fluorescence and SHG patterns

For DLW performed at fixed position under TEM00 Gaussian-shaped laser beam, we observed the creation of a fluorescent hollow pipe made of silver clusters, seen as a single fluorescent ring from the top (Fig. 2(a)), as previously reported [5

5. A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 866–882 (2011). [CrossRef]

,6

6. K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010). [CrossRef]

,14

14. M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. SHG imaging also showed nonlinear patterns with cylindrical revolution symmetry, but with a significantly distinct spatial distribution since it was composed of a double-ring SHG structure (Figs. 2(b)-2(c)). Indeed, Fig. 2(b) demonstrates the EFISHG nature of the nonlinear four wave mixing process, thanks to polarization dependence analysis as reported elsewhere [12

12. J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1029–1031 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. G. Papon, N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond direct laser poling of sub-micron, stable and efficient second-order optical properties in a tailored silver phosphate glass,” submitted to (2013).

]. For an unpolarized incident probe beam, we observed the complete SHG emission pattern with its radial distribution and its intrinsic cylindrical revolution symmetry. Finally, EFISHG spatial distribution remarkably differed from that reported in Choi et al. [12

12. J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1029–1031 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], where only one SHG ring was observed. Further research will explain if this comes from different DLW conditions (1.5 MHz versus MHz repetition rates), or from our better-spatially resolved imaging setup.
Fig. 2 DLW of an individual point with fixed sample (4.53 J.cm−2, 103 pulses), observed in the plane perpendicular to light propagation: (a) single-ring fluorescence pattern; (b) and (c) double-ring EFISHG pattern, giving new insight with respect to previously reported EFISHG observation [12], for either horizontal linearly polarized or unpolarized incident fs near infrared (NIR) probe beam, respectively.

3.2. Spatial correlation between fluorescence and SHG laser-induced patterns

Detailed analysis of the spatial correlation between laser-induced fluorescence and SHG patterns was led on linear structures obtained under sample translation, since it allows an easier discussion. However, results can directly be extended to DLW at fixed positions (Fig. 2).

3.3. Distinct EFISHG and fluorescence build-up processes versus DLW conditions

3.4. Breakthrough interpretation of DLW mechanisms for EFISHG & cluster fluorescence

These observations provide a remarkable breakthrough in the understanding of the writing processes in these glasses. We previously thought that the DLW-induced production of silver clusters, associated to silver ion Ag+ and silver metal Ag0 diffusion, was leading to the creation of a net space charge separation at the root of the EFISHG response [12

12. J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1029–1031 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Now, we provide the following interpretation: (i) the EFISHG signal appears for moderate irradiance conditions, even if the induced temperature increase does not significantly activate chemical species mobility, which corresponds thus to non-thermally driven diffusion; (ii) the EFISHG signal appears before any visible fluorescence, demonstrating the creation of a net space charge separation without cluster production (due to the initial absence of significant ion mobility); (iii) the net space charge separation thus results mainly from the entropic diffusion of free hot electrons followed by their subsequent trapping, resulting in electron migration and in the creation of a buried static electric field EDC, and in a modification of the spatial distribution of the associated electric potential VDC ; (iv) once it has reached its saturation amplitude, the spatial distribution of given favorable electric potential values are at the root of the subsequent localized chemical stabilization and growth of the silver clusters in such glassy matrix. Therefore, the silver cluster formation is thermally activated but mostly driven by the buried electric field and the chemical stabilization is associated to the local electric potential decrease, corresponding to more favorable oxido-reduction conditions in our tailored glass. Thanks to electron charge conservation, excluding any charge compensation at this stage, the electron diffusion should lead to a decrease of electronic density in the center of the irradiated structures. This might help to fix the sign of the electric potential modification and thus to fix the absolute orientation of the associated static electric field, as in Fig. 4. Further work is needed to confirm our interpretation, with chemical micro-probing to measure the final silver species distributions, as well as correlative time-resolved in situ experiments to probe both fluorescence and EFISHG build-up.

Figure 6 provides a sketch of the build-up behavior of both the space charge separation at the root of the EFISHG, its associated electric potential modification and the subsequent fluorescence, all these mechanisms and phenomena occurring below optical damage threshold.
Fig. 6 Sketch of build-up mechanisms, consisting first in a net space charge separation with a saturation plateau, subsequently followed by the growth and stabilization of silver fluorescent clusters with no visible saturation plateau here. We depict the electric field driven growth of silver clusters, and their reduction/oxidation stabilization with the associated electric potential.

4. Conclusion & perspectives

In this article, we have reported on the first detailed study of correlative microscopy for both silver cluster fluorescence and electric field induced second-harmonic generation that resulted from fs DLW. We have observed original topologies, namely single-ring fluorescent pattern and double-ring nonlinear SHG pattern for DLW under fixed position. DLW under sample translation led to distinct spatial distributions as double-line fluorescent pattern and surprisingly to a four-line nonlinear SHG pattern. Fluorescent silver cluster spatial distribution has been found to be anti-correlated with the buried static electric field but to properly match the associated laser-induced electric potential modulations. Fluorescent silver clusters appeared to be chemically stabilized under favorable reduction/oxidation laser-induced conditions: the local electric potential decrease leads to a locally more reductive behavior of our tailored glass.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the French Agency of National Research [Grant FELINS 2010 ANR BLAN 946 03], the French Aquitaine region [Grant FELINS REGION], and the group of scientific interest AMA GIS-LasINOF.

References and links

1.

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Bellouard, “On the bending strength of fused silica flexures fabricated by ultrafast lasers [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 816–831 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 866–882 (2011). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater. 22(46), 5282–5286 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 360–362 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

H. Takebe, P. G. Kazansky, P. S. Russell, and K. Morinaga, “Effect of poling conditions on second-harmonic generation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 468–470 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and H. Takebe, “Glass fiber poling and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1484–1493 (1997). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science 3(4), 309–320 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1029–1031 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

G. Papon, N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond direct laser poling of sub-micron, stable and efficient second-order optical properties in a tailored silver phosphate glass,” submitted to (2013).

14.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045328 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.3450) Lasers and laser optics : Laser-induced chemistry
(160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
(210.4810) Optical data storage : Optical storage-recording materials
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices

ToC Category:
Laser Materials Processing

History
Original Manuscript: July 25, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 9, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 9, 2013
Published: October 10, 2013

Virtual Issues
Ultrafast Laser Modification of Materials (2013) Optical Materials Express

Citation
G. Papon, Y. Petit, N. Marquestaut, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, "Fluorescence and second-harmonic generation correlative microscopy to probe space charge separation and silver cluster stabilization during direct laser writing in a tailored silver-containing glass," Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1855-1861 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-11-1855


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References

  1. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(5), 857–860 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Bellouard, “On the bending strength of fused silica flexures fabricated by ultrafast lasers [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 816–831 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(12-13), 1100–1111 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Royon, Y. Petit, G. Papon, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser induced photochemistry in materials tailored with photosensitive agents,” Opt. Mater. Express1(5), 866–882 (2011). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater.22(46), 5282–5286 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 360–362 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Takebe, P. G. Kazansky, P. S. Russell, and K. Morinaga, “Effect of poling conditions on second-harmonic generation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.21(7), 468–470 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russel, and H. Takebe, “Glass fiber poling and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(8), 1484–1493 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Dussauze, T. Cremoux, G. Yang, F. Adamietz, T. Cardinal, V. Rodriguez, and E. Fargin, “Thermal poling of optical glasses: mechanisms and second order optical properties,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Science3(4), 309–320 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. J. Choi, M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, G. Papon, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and M. Richardson, “Three-dimensional direct femtosecond laser writing of second-order nonlinearities in glass,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1029–1031 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Papon, N. Marquestaut, Y. Petit, A. Royon, M. Dussauze, V. Rodriguez, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond direct laser poling of sub-micron, stable and efficient second-order optical properties in a tailored silver phosphate glass,” submitted to (2013).
  14. M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(37), 15584–15588 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B72(4), 045328 (2005). [CrossRef]

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