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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2013
  • pp: 270–277
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Enhancement of 1.53 μm emission band in NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals for polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers

Xuesong Zhai, Jie Li, Shusen Liu, Xinyang Liu, Dan Zhao, Fei Wang, Daming Zhang, Guanshi Qin, and Weiping Qin  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 270-277 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.3.000270


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Abstract

NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by using a solvothermal approach. Under the excitation of a 980 nm laser, the 1.53 μm emission band of Er3+ ions in the NCs was enhanced by 6 times after codoping Ce3+ ions owing to the efficient energy transfer between Ce3+ and Er3+: 4I11/2 (Er3 +) + 2F5/2 (Ce3+) → 4I13/2 (Er3+) + 2F7/2 (Ce3+). By dispersing the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs into SU-8 2005 polymer matrix, we constructed Er3+-doped polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers (EDPOWAs) and measured their performances. The measured optical gain of the EDPOWA doped with NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs was enhanced by ~2dB in comparison with that doped with NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs. These results showed that NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs are promising candidates for building high gain EDPOWAs.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Erbium (Er3+)-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) have been widely employed to overcome losses in long haul silica fiber transmission systems [1

1. S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 79–83 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. This is due to the 4I13/24I15/2 transition (~1.53 µm) of Er3+ ions, which matches one of the low loss windows of optical fibers in optical communication networks [2

2. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 176–178 (2004). [CrossRef]

4

4. Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(7), 2278–2285 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. However, for access and home network applications, EDFAs are incompatible with miniature and integrated optical devices. Compared to EDFAs, Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs) could afford high gain in a much smaller device size and be integrated with photonic devices based on silicon substrate [5

5. S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 665–669 (2009). [CrossRef]

11

11. K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(35), 7526–7529 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In terms of waveguide materials and fabrication processes, polymers have attracted a great deal of attention because they exhibit many advantages over inorganic glasses or crystals, such as easy processing, permitting fabrication of devices with virtually any shape, and potential low cost [6

6. C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041119 (2009). [CrossRef]

,7

7. D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161109 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Especially, Er3+-doped inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) can be dispersed into polymer matrices and used to construct Er3+-doped polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers (EDPOWAs) [8

8. J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater. 15(24), 4604–4616 (2003). [CrossRef]

11

11. K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(35), 7526–7529 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

In this work, we describe the synthesis of NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs coated with oleic acid, which are readily dispersible in organic solvent [26

26. M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(44), 19021–19027 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. With the addition of a suitable amount of Ce3+ ions, the UV and visible UC emissions of Er3+ in the NCs have been reduced greatly, and the NIR emission around 1.53 µm has dramatically enhanced upon the excitation with a 980 nm laser diode. Furthermore, the influence of Ce3+ ions on the emissions of Er3+ in the NaYF4 NCs is discussed in detail here. In addition, we constructed EDPOWAs by using NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs as the gain medium. The measured optical gain of the EDPOWA doped with NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs was enhanced by ~2dB in comparison with that doped with NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs.

2. Results and discussions

The characterizations of double-doped NaYF4:2%Er3+,20%Yb3+ are summarized in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Characterization data for double-doped NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs. (A) TEM image; (B) HRTEM image; (C) FFT pattern of a single nanocrystal; (D) histogram of the particle sizes obtained from TEM images of 400 NCs; (E) XRD pattern.
. From the TEM image (Fig. 1A), it is easily seen that the monodisperse NCs has a spherical shape. The samples codoped with Ce3+ ions at different concentrations possess a similar morphology to the double-doped ones. From the corresponding HRTEM image (Fig. 1B), the lattice fringes were indicative of the high crystallinity of these particles, and the measured lattice spacing is 0.275 nm, which corresponds to the (200) planes of α-NaYF4 NCs. The fast Fourier transformation (FFT) pattern (Fig. 1C) reveals that the sample is cubic phase. A histogram of the particle size distribution from TEM images is given in Fig. 1D. The particle sizes range from 14 to 27 nm, the average size is determined to be approximately 20 nm. Moreover, the XRD data is shown in Fig. 1E, which reveals that the sample is pure cubic phase, all the strong peaks are consistent with the calculated pattern for cubic NaYF4 crystal (JCPDS files No. 77-2042), and no other impurity peaks can be detected from the XRD patterns. In addition, FTIR spectrum of the as-prepared NCs was recorded, as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The FTIR spectrum of the oleic acid-coated NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs.
. The band at around 3450 cm−1 can be assigned as O–H stretching. The strong absorption peaks at 2850 and 2917 cm−1 are attributable to the symmetric and asymmetric C–H stretching of the oleic acid coating, respectively. In addition, bands at 1553 and 1462 cm−1 can be assigned to be the asymmetric and symmetric stretching of the carboxylate group (COO) of the oleic acid coating, respectively. The results indicate that the NCs have been coated with oleic acid.

With the excitation of a 980 nm laser diode, the UC emission spectra of the triple-doped NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs with different Ce3+ concentrations (0 mol%, 2 mol%, 4 mol%, and 10 mol%) were recorded at room temperature, as shown in Fig. 3A
Fig. 3 (A) UC emission spectra of the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 10% Ce3+. (B) Plot of relative UC emission intensities vs. codoped Ce3 + ion concentrations. (C) DC emission spectra of the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 10% Ce3 + . (D) Energy level diagrams of Yb3+, Er3+, and Ce3+ ions, and possible processes of populations and emissions.
. The Yb3+ ions act as sensitizers due to their high absorption coefficient at 980 nm and transfer the absorbed energy to neighboring Er3+ ions. The spectrum of the double-doped NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs exhibits several intense UC emission peaks, which are attributed to the 4G11/24I15/2 (~378 nm), 2H9/24I15/2 (~411 nm), 2H11/24I15/2 (~525 nm), 4S3/24I15/2 (~544 nm), and 4F9/24I15/2 (~658 nm) transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. As shown in Fig. 3A, the UC luminescence of the double-doped NaYF4 sample (without Ce3+ ions) is the strongest one among the four samples. Upon doping small concentration of Ce3+ ions (2%) into the double-doped NaYF4 NCs, the intensities of UV and visible UC emission were all drastically quenched. It is obvious that with the increase of Ce3+ concentration from 2% to 10%, the UC emission intensities of Er3+ are gradually reduced, and when the concentration of Ce3+ reaches 10%, the UC emissions of Er3+ are almost extinguished entirely.

In addition, the dependence of the UC emission intensity on the doping concentration of Ce3+ ions in the NaYF4 sample was investigated, as shown in Fig. 3B. It is clear that the UC emission intensities decrease obviously with adding 2% Ce3+ ions into the double-doped NaYF4 NCs, and the least affected one (~544 nm) has been reduced to ~50% compared to that of the sample without Ce3+ ions, indicating that the energy transfer from Er3+ to Ce3+ ions is highly efficient here since several emission bands of Er3+ ions match well with the f-f absorptions of Ce3+ ions. It obviously exhibits that the quenching of red emission (~658 nm) is stronger than those of the green emissions (~525 nm and ~544 nm) by adding Ce3+ ions and increasing their concentration. When the Ce3+ concentration is 2%, the emission intensities of the green emissions peaked at 525 and 544 nm reduce by 63% and 52%, respectively, while the intensity of the red emission peaked at 658 nm decreases by 78%, compared to those of the sample without Ce3+ ions. The above results show that the UC emissions of Er3+ ions have been suppressed efficiently by codoping Ce3+ ions.

To investigate the effects of codoped Ce3+ ions on the 1.53 µm emission of Er3+ ions, we recorded the infrared emission spectra of the triple-doped NaYF4 NCs with different Ce3+ concentrations (0 mol%, 2 mol%, 4 mol%, and 10 mol%) under 980 nm excitation, as shown in Fig. 3C. The emission of 1535 nm is assigned to the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er3+, and the addition of Ce3+ ions influenced the emission intensity of 1535 nm band evidently. By adding 2% Ce3+ ions into the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs, the integrated emission intensity of 1535 nm is about 6 times stronger than that of the sample without Ce3+ ions. However, when a higher concentration (~10%) of Ce3+ ions was used, the intensity of 1535 nm emission decreased relatively, even lower than that of the sample without Ce3+. It could be attribute to the occurrence of the phonon-assisted ET from Er3+ to Ce3+, 4I13/24I15/2: 2F5/22F7/2 when the concentration of Ce3+ ions is too high [27

27. S. X. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5050–5054 (2006). [CrossRef]

,28

28. E. Sani, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Effect of Cerium codoping on Er:BaY2F8 crystals,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8980–8992 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is obvious that the near-infrared emission around 1535 nm of Er3+ ions has been drastically enhanced by codoping a certain amount (~2%) of Ce3+ ions into the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs, which means that the performance of EDPOWAs could be improved remarkably by this approach.

To further investigate the effects of codoped Ce3+ ions on the UC and near-infrared emissions of Er3+, we measured the lifetimes of Er3+ ions in the triple-doped NaYF4 NCs with different Ce3+ concentrations, as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Emission decay curves of Er3+ in the NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs (excited at 980 nm, monitored at 544 nm and 658 nm corresponding to the 4S3/24I15/2 and 4F9/24I15/2 transitions, respectively).
. Each decay curve can be well fitted by using a single exponential function I(t) = I0exp(−t/τ), where I0 is an intensity parameter for t = 0, and τ is the excited state lifetime. Obviously, with increasing the concentration of Ce3+ ions, the lifetimes of 4S3/2, and 4F9/2 states of Er3+ ions in NaYF4 NCs decrease gradually owing to the occurrence of the ETs of, 4S3/24F9/2 (Er3+): 2F5/22F7/2 (Ce3+) and 4F9/24I9/2 (Er3+): 2F5/22F7/2 (Ce3+). Additionally, the lifetime reduction of the 4F9/2 level is more than that of the 4S3/2 level, indicating that the ET 4F9/24I9/2 (Er3+): 2F5/22F7/2 (Ce3+) is more effective than the ET 4S3/24F9/2 (Er3+): 2F5/22F7/2 (Ce3+), which is in good agreement with the measured results of the UC emission intensities.

By dispersing NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs into SU-8 2005 polymer matrix, we constructed EDPOWA and measured their performances. The SU-8 2005 polymer was diluted in toluene. NaYF4 NCs (1 wt %) were added into the above solution, and it was dissolved at room temperature by ultrasonic treatment for 20 min. Waveguides of dimensions, 4 μm height by 8 μm width were fabricated by standard photolithography and wet etching technology of a thin silicon dioxide layer based on a silicon substrate. The SU-8 2005 polymer dispersed with NCs was spin-coated on the silicon dioxide layer and pre-annealed at 90 °C for 20 min. Then, the waveguide channels were cured by the photo mask using UV light at a 365 nm for 8 s and then baked at 95 °C for 10 min. Finally, a thin PMMA-GMA was used as the top cladding. The refractive indices of the materials were measured using ellipsometry method (J. A. Woollam., Co. M2000). The refractive indices of the core and cladding were 1.578 and 1.495 at 1535 nm wavelength, respectively. Figure 5A
Fig. 5 (A) Experimental setup for measuring the optical gain of the waveguide amplifier; (B) SEM image of the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs-doped polymer waveguide amplifier; (C) Relative gain as a function of pump power (980 nm) with 0.1 mW input signal powers (1535 nm) in an 4 μm high, 8 μm wide and 1.3 cm long NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ and NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs-dispersed polymer waveguide.
is a SEM image of the NaYF4 NCs dispersed SU-8 2005 polymer rectangular waveguide amplifier (without top cladding), indicating that the size of the waveguide amplifier is 4 μm high and 8 μm wide.

Figure 5B shows the schematics of the experimental setup for the optical gain measurement. Gain measurement of the NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ and NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs dispersed polymer waveguide amplifier was carried out as the signal light source in the wavelength range of 1510-1590 nm (Santec TSL-210) as the signal source and a 976 nm laser diode as the pump source. Both the pump and signal sources were coupled into a single output optical fiber by a 980/1535 nm wavelength division multiplexer and together butt coupled to a single output fiber. The relative gain was determined from the ratio of the out-put signal observed on the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA, Ando AQ-6315A) when both the pump and signal beams are coupled to the polymer waveguide to the signal power without the pump.

Figure 5C shows the measured relative gain as a function of pump power in a 1.3 cm long waveguide. The relative gain gradually increases with the increase of pump power. When the pump power is 210 mW and the input signal power is 0.1 mW, the maximum gain of about 4.0 dB (3.08 dB cm−1) at 1535 nm was obtained. In addition, the optical gain of the EDPOWA doped with NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs was enhanced by ~2dB in comparison with that doped with NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs. This result shows that the improved 1.53 µm emission is very important for the EDPOWA.

3. Conclusion

In summary, we synthesized NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs via a solvothermal method, and the NCs could be easily dispersed in organic solvents and polymer matrices. The UC and DC emission spectra of the NCs with different concentration of Ce3+ ions were investigated in detail. The results showed that the addition of a certain amount of Ce3+ ions enhanced the 1.53 µm emission of Er3+ by ~6 times via the phonon-assisted ET (4I11/24I13/2 (Er3+): 2F5/22F7/2 (Ce3+)) while the UC emissions of Er3+ were quenched effectively. Using NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+NCs doped SU-8 2005 polymer as gain medium, we constructed an EDPOWA and measured its performance. A relative optical gain of the EDPOWA doped with NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ NCs was enhanced by ~2dB in comparison with that doped with NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NCs in 1.3 cm long waveguide. This work would provide a new strategy to improve the performance of EDPOWAs effectively.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the NSFC (grants 51072065, 61178073, 61177027, 61077041, 60908031, 60908001, and 61077033), the Program for NCET in University (No: NCET-08-0243), the Opened Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList) Cross-discipline Foundation.

References and links

1.

S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 79–83 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 176–178 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

J. A. Dorman, J. H. Choi, G. Kuzmanich, and J. P. Chang, “Elucidating the effects of a rare-earth oxide shell on the luminescence dynamics of Er3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10333–10340 (2012). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. B. Mao, J. Y. Huang, R. Ostroumov, K. L. Wang, and J. P. Chang, “Synthesis and Luminescence properties of erbium-doped Y2O3 nanotubes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(7), 2278–2285 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

S. H. Bo, J. Hu, Z. Chen, Q. Wang, G. M. Xu, X. H. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Core-shell LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystal doped sol–gel materials as waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 665–669 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

C. Chen, D. Zhang, T. Li, D. Zhang, L. Song, and Z. Zhen, “Erbium-ytterbium codoped waveguide amplifier fabricated with solution-processable complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041119 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

D. Zhang, C. Chen, C. Chen, C. Ma, D. Zhang, S. Bo, and Z. Zhen, “Optical gain at 1535 nm in LaF3:Er,Yb nanoparticle-doped organic-inorganic hybrid material waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161109 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

J. W. Stouwdam, G. A. Hebbink, J. Huskens, and F. van Veggel, “Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles with excellent luminescent properties in organic media,” Chem. Mater. 15(24), 4604–4616 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

J. W. Stouwdam and F. C. van Veggel, “Improvement in the luminescence properties and processability of LaF3/Ln and LaPO4/Ln nanoparticles by surface modification,” Langmuir 20(26), 11763–11771 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. Wang, J. Hu, D. Tang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Er,Yb nanocrystals and their polymer hybrid materials for potential optical-amplification applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 17(16), 1597–1601 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

K. L. Lei, C. F. Chow, K. C. Tsang, E. N. Y. Lei, V. A. L. Roy, M. H. W. Lam, C. S. Lee, E. Y. B. Pun, and J. S. Li, “Long aliphatic chain coated rare-earth nanocrystal as polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(35), 7526–7529 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

F. Wang, Y. Han, C. S. Lim, Y. H. Lu, J. Wang, J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, C. Zhang, M. H. Hong, and X. G. Liu, “Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping,” Nature 463(7284), 1061–1065 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. S. Liu, D. T. Tu, H. M. Zhu, R. F. Li, W. Q. Luo, and X. Y. Chen, “A strategy to achieve efficient dual-mode luminescence of Eu3+ in lanthanides doped multifunctional NaGdF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 22(30), 3266–3271 (2010). [CrossRef]

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K. Nagamatsu, S. Nagaoka, M. Higashihata, N. J. Vasa, Z. Meng, S. Buddhudu, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, and T. Teshima, “Influence of Yb3+ and Ce3+ codoping on fluorescence characteristics of Er3+-doped fluoride glass under 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Mater. 27(2), 337–342 (2004). [CrossRef]

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26.

M. Wang, C. C. Mi, Y. X. Zhang, J. L. Liu, F. Li, C. B. Mao, and S. K. Xu, “NIR-responsive silica-coated NaYbF4:Er/Tm/Ho upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles with tunable emission colors and their applications in immunolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(44), 19021–19027 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

S. X. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5050–5054 (2006). [CrossRef]

28.

E. Sani, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Effect of Cerium codoping on Er:BaY2F8 crystals,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8980–8992 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(250.4480) Optoelectronics : Optical amplifiers
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Fluorescent and Luminescent Materials

History
Original Manuscript: October 17, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 6, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 25, 2012
Published: January 17, 2013

Citation
Xuesong Zhai, Jie Li, Shusen Liu, Xinyang Liu, Dan Zhao, Fei Wang, Daming Zhang, Guanshi Qin, and Weiping Qin, "Enhancement of 1.53 μm emission band in NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+,Ce3+ nanocrystals for polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Mater. Express 3, 270-277 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-2-270


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References

  1. S. Bo, J. Wang, H. Zhao, H. Ren, Q. Wang, G. Xu, X. Zhang, X. Liu, and Z. Zhen, “LaF3: Er,Yb doped sol–gel polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B91(1), 79–83 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. S. Chan, “Er3+–Yb3+ codoped polymeric optical waveguide amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(2), 176–178 (2004). [CrossRef]
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