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Optical Materials Express

Optical Materials Express

  • Editor: David J. Hagan
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 2013
  • pp: 339–345
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Spectroscopy and laser operation of Ho:CaYAlO4

Dahua Zhou, Juqing Di, Changtai Xia, Xiaodong Xu, Feng Wu, Jun Xu, Deyuan Shen, Ting Zhao, Adam Strzęp, Witold Ryba-Romanowski, and Radosław Lisiecki  »View Author Affiliations


Optical Materials Express, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 339-345 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OME.3.000339


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Abstract

Single crystals of Ho-doped CaYAlO4 crystals with 1.0% and 0.5% holmium concentration have been grown by Czochralski technique in N2 atmosphere. Due to the randomly distributing of Ca2+ and Y3+ ions in the crystal structure, the doped Ho3+ ions show a broad absorption and fluorescence bands. So it can be efficiently utilized to obtain ultrafast pulse generation in time range of pico- or even femtoseconds. Moreover, Ho:CYA laser was operated pumped by Tm:fiber laser, and the maximum output laser power of 2.38 W for 1.0% Ho:CaYAlO4 was obtained.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

To the best of our knowledge, there are no papers concerning the crystal growth and laser operation of Ho:CYA. Through the conventional Czochralski growth methods, undoped and Ho-doped CYA crystals were obtained. And, absorption and fluorescence spectra were investigated at room temperature. Ho:CYA crystal laser operation experiments was carried out. Tm:fiber laser was used as an excitation source. The maximum output laser power was 2.38 W for 1.0% Ho-doped CYA (slope efficiency was 48.3%).

2. Crystal growth

CaCO3, Al2O3, Y2O3 and Ho2O3 powders (5N purity) were used as starting materials for the crystal growth. Firstly, undoped CYA single crystal was grown by the Czochralski technique. According to [22

22. J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, “Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er, Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 287–306 (1994). [CrossRef]

], the equilibrium distribution coefficients of Ca and Y differs a lot, therefore obtaining crystal deprived of color centers are nontrivial. In our experiments, however, the undoped CYA crystal was transparent and colorless, as shown in [25

25. A. A. Kaminskii, X. Xu, O. Lux, H. Rhee, H. J. Eichler, J. Zhang, D. H. Zhou, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, and J. Xu, “High-order stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal CaYAlO4 crystal-host for Ln3+-lasant ions,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(4), 306–311 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Crystals with nominal formula Hox:CaY1-xAlO4 (x = 0.01, 0.005) were grown by the Czochralski method. CaYAlO4 crystal rod cut along the <100> direction was used as a seed. The growth atmosphere was N2. The growth temperature was set to 1810°C. All the growth processes are similar to that when we grow neodymium or erbium doped CYA crystals [19

19. D. Z. Li, X. D. Xu, S. S. Cheng, D. H. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, C. T. Xia, J. Xu, J. Zhang, H. M. Zhu, and X. Y. Chen, “Polarized spectral properties of Nd3+ ions in CaYAlO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 199–205 (2010). [CrossRef]

,23

23. D. H. Zhou, X. D. Xu, X. Y. Chen, H. M. Zhu, D. Z. Li, J. Q. Di, C. T. Xia, F. Wu, and J. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped CaYAlO4,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(4), 730–735 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

Finally, Ho-doped CYA crystals with good optical quality were obtained, as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photograph of as-grown 1.0% Ho:CYA single crystal.
. It can be seen that the crystal-melt interface is low arched, and the crystallization front is most flat. Moreover, the 1.0% Ho-doped CYA crystal well developed two planes along the <001> direction, and two (101) planes well developed at the end of the 0.5% Ho-doped CYA crystal, corresponding to the Hartman-Perdok theory (HPT) [16

16. C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, “Growth morphology of tetragonal ABCO4 compounds: theory and observations on Czochraski grown crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 171(3-4), 392–400 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Although a low pulling speed was used to prevent inclusions in the growing process, much iridium particles can be found in the as-grown crystal surface due to the high growth temperature. At last, for the 1.0% Ho-doped CYA crystal, the Ca/Y ratio is determined to be 0.98 through inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) experiments. Therefore, we believe the Ca and Y contents are not of much difference, although they occupy the same lattice position randomly.

3. Spectroscopy properties

For spectroscopic measurements, a disk sample was cut from the Ho-doped CYA crystal and optically polished with the thickness of about 1.0 mm. Two surfaces of the disk sample were perpendicular to the <100> axis. The polarized absorption spectra were measured by a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 spectrophotometer at room temperature. The unpolarized fluorescence spectrum was recorded on FLSP920 spectrometer. Xenon lamp coupled with monochromator was used as an excitation source. Polarized emission spectra were recorded on DongWoo Optron DM711 monochromator coupled with PbS semiconductor detector. 488 nm line of Ar+ laser was used as an excitation source.

Room temperature polarized absorption spectra of Ho-doped CYA are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Polarized absorption spectra of 1.0% Ho:CYA.
and Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Polarized absorption spectra of 0.5% Ho:CYA.
. It can be easy seen that there are two primary peaks in both polarized spectra. In the E||a polarized direction, the absorption peaks around 1922 nm is much higher than the other one at 1980 nm while in the E||c direction, there are much coincidence between the two absorption peaks at 1948 nm and 1990 nm. So, the pump laser wavelength was chosen at 1922 nm. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Unpolarized emission spectra of 0.5% and 1.0% Ho:CYA crystal.
shows the room temperature unpolarized fluorescence spectra of Ho3+ 5I75I8 transition, in which six minor peaks are pointed out. Compared with other Ho-doped crystals, such as YAG [15

15. H. Chen, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, H. Yang, D. Y. Tang, T. Zhao, and X. F. Yang, “In-band pumped highly efficient Ho:YAG ceramic laser with 21 W output power at 2097 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1575–1577 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], LuAG [10

10. D. W. Hart, M. Jani, and N. P. Barnes, “Room-temperature lasing of end-pumped Ho:Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 728–730 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], KLuW [26

26. X. Mateos, V. Jambunathan, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “CW lasing of Ho in KLu(WO4)2 in-band pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20793–20798 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the optical spectra curve of Ho-doped CYA are more smooth. Attributing to the crystal’s disorder structure, the fluorescence spectra are almost a smooth line with a wide FWHM (full width at half maximum). Moreover, the room temperature polarized fluorescence spectra of 1.0% Ho-doped CYA are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Polarized emission spectra of 1.0% Ho:CYA crystal.
.Strong dependence of crystal anisotropy on polarized emission can be clearly observed. Intensity of emission for light with electrical vector polarized parallel to crystallographic axis a is more than order times stronger contrary to light with electrical vector polarized parallel to axis c. Shape of the line differs with polarization. The most prominent line in E||c polarized spectrum is blue-shifted 25 nm in comparison to strongest line in E||a polarized spectrum. Such a broad emission bands can be efficiently utilized to obtain ultrafast pulse generation in time range of pico- or even femtoseconds.

4. Laser experiments

The Ho-doped CYA crystals were c-cut with the dimensions of 4 × 4 × 20 mm3, and antireflection-coated at 1.9~2.1 μm for laser experiments. The setup used in our experiments is shown schematically in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of the in-band pumped Ho:CYA crystal laser.
. The Tm-doped fiber laser was used as pumping source, and the operating wavelength of the fiber laser was turned to be 1922 nm by employing a volume Bragg grating. More detailed information about the pump laser could be found in [15

15. H. Chen, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, H. Yang, D. Y. Tang, T. Zhao, and X. F. Yang, “In-band pumped highly efficient Ho:YAG ceramic laser with 21 W output power at 2097 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1575–1577 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pump fiber laser was collimated by a 30 mm focal length plano-convex lens and focused to a beam of ~300 μm in diameter at the center of Ho-doped CYA crystal with a 200 mm focal length lens. Moreover, a simple two mirror resonator was adopted. The input coupler (IC) was a plane mirror with high reflectively (>99.8%) at the lasing wavelength in the range of 2050~2250 nm and high transmission (> 95%) at the pumping wavelength around 1850~1960 nm. The output coupler (OC) was concave mirror (radius of curvature = 100 mm), with transmission of 5% at 2000~2250 nm and high reflectivity at the pump wavelength. Thecrystal samples were wrapped with indium foil and mounted on a water cooled heat sink maintaining at 20°C. In addition, the physical length of the resonator was 38 mm.

In addition, output wavelength of the 1.0 at.% Ho-doped CYA laser was measured to be 2092 nm (as shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Output laser spectrum of the 1.0% Ho:CYA crystal.
) using a 0.55 m monochromator of 0.05 nm specified resolution at 438.8 nm (Omni-λ500, Zolix). The laser line width was 5.0 nm. Because of the broad absorption and emission spectra of Ho-doped CYA crystal, it was believed that much higher output power can be scaled, and Q-switched laser operation experiments are in progress.

5. Conclusion

High optical quality Ho-doped CYA crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. Polarized absorption spectra were investigated and analyzed. Emission spectra showed a wide band due to the randomly distributing of Ca2+ and Y3+ ions. At last, pumped by the Tm-doped fiber laser at 1922 nm, the maximum output power were 2.38 W and 1.70 W for 1.0% and 0.5% Ho-doped CYA crystal, respectively. More modified experiments are in progress, and high output power are believed to scaled. In conclusion, the results of our study of the optical properties and laser experiments permit us to conclude about the potential of this crystal for application as a laser material in infrared area.

Acknowledgments

This work is partially supported by Science and Technology Innovation Project of Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (Y24ZC5150G) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (No. 11DZ1140301). And the author Dahua Zhou sincerely thanks Dr. Yang Fei for the help of drawing the laser schematic diagram.

References and links

1.

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials: spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm lasers I: theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 92–103 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 12(9), 678–680 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]

5.

C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 104–111 (1996). [CrossRef]

6.

I. F. Elder and M. J. P. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF,” Opt. Commun. 145(1-6), 329–339 (1998). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Yu, U. N. Singh, N. P. Barnes, and M. Petros, “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 23(10), 780–782 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

B. Q. Yao, G. Li, P. B. Meng, G. L. Zhu, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(12), 857–861 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

A. A. Lagatsky, X. Han, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, J. A. Gupta, C. T. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond (191 fs) NaY(WO4)2 Tm,Ho-codoped laser at 2060 nm,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3027–3029 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. W. Hart, M. Jani, and N. P. Barnes, “Room-temperature lasing of end-pumped Ho:Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 728–730 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Y. L. Tang, L. Xu, M. J. Wang, Y. Yang, X. D. Xu, and J. Q. Xu, “High-power gain-switched Ho:LuAG rod laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 120–124 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, L. J. Cooper, and R. B. Williams, “Efficient single-axial-mode operation of a Ho:YAG ring laser pumped by a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2396–2398 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient in-band pumped Ho:LuLiF4 2 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 420–422 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. Chen, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, H. Yang, D. Y. Tang, T. Zhao, and X. F. Yang, “In-band pumped highly efficient Ho:YAG ceramic laser with 21 W output power at 2097 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1575–1577 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, “Growth morphology of tetragonal ABCO4 compounds: theory and observations on Czochraski grown crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 171(3-4), 392–400 (1997). [CrossRef]

17.

W. Y. Wang, X. L. Yan, X. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Q. Hu, and J. F. Zhou, “Study of single-crystal growth of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 by the floating-zone method,” J. Cryst. Growth 219(1-2), 56–60 (2000). [CrossRef]

18.

E. F. Kustov, V. P. Petrov, D. S. Petrova, and J. P. Udalov, “Absorption and luminescence spectra of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in monocrystals of CaYAlO4,” Phys. Status Solidi A 41(2), 379–383 (1977). [CrossRef]

19.

D. Z. Li, X. D. Xu, S. S. Cheng, D. H. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, C. T. Xia, J. Xu, J. Zhang, H. M. Zhu, and X. Y. Chen, “Polarized spectral properties of Nd3+ ions in CaYAlO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 101(1-2), 199–205 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

P. O. Petit, J. Petit, Ph. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions in Yb:CaYAlO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(7), 1093–1097 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

D. Z. Li, X. D. Xu, H. M. Zhu, X. Y. Chen, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, J. Ma, F. Wu, C. T. Xia, and J. Xu, “Characterization of laser crystal Yb:CaYAlO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(7), 1650–1654 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, “Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er, Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 3(4), 287–306 (1994). [CrossRef]

23.

D. H. Zhou, X. D. Xu, X. Y. Chen, H. M. Zhu, D. Z. Li, J. Q. Di, C. T. Xia, F. Wu, and J. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped CaYAlO4,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(4), 730–735 (2012). [CrossRef]

24.

Y. Zaouter, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, G. L. Leclin, F. Druon, P. Georges, J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “47-fs diode-pumped Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 119–121 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

A. A. Kaminskii, X. Xu, O. Lux, H. Rhee, H. J. Eichler, J. Zhang, D. H. Zhou, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, and J. Xu, “High-order stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal CaYAlO4 crystal-host for Ln3+-lasant ions,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(4), 306–311 (2012). [CrossRef]

26.

X. Mateos, V. Jambunathan, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “CW lasing of Ho in KLu(WO4)2 in-band pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20793–20798 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, and E. D. Filer, “Ho:Ho upconversion: applications to Ho lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(6), 1212–1219 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.5680) Lasers and laser optics : Rare earth and transition metal solid-state lasers
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials

ToC Category:
Laser Materials

History
Original Manuscript: September 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 10, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 14, 2012
Published: February 1, 2013

Citation
Dahua Zhou, Juqing Di, Changtai Xia, Xiaodong Xu, Feng Wu, Jun Xu, Deyuan Shen, Ting Zhao, Adam Strzęp, Witold Ryba-Romanowski, and Radosław Lisiecki, "Spectroscopy and laser operation of Ho:CaYAlO4," Opt. Mater. Express 3, 339-345 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?URI=ome-3-3-339


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References

  1. B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials: spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys.19(4), 855–866 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, and C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm lasers I: theoretical,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(1), 92–103 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Continuous-wave operation at 2.1 μm of a diode-laser-pumped, Tm-sensitized Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser at 300 K,” Opt. Lett.12(9), 678–680 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Lee, G. Han, and N. P. Barnes, “Ho:Tm lasers II: experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(1), 104–111 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. I. F. Elder and M. J. P. Payne, “Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF,” Opt. Commun.145(1-6), 329–339 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Yu, U. N. Singh, N. P. Barnes, and M. Petros, “125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.23(10), 780–782 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Q. Yao, G. Li, P. B. Meng, G. L. Zhu, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(12), 857–861 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. A. A. Lagatsky, X. Han, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, J. A. Gupta, C. T. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond (191 fs) NaY(WO4)2 Tm,Ho-codoped laser at 2060 nm,” Opt. Lett.35(18), 3027–3029 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. W. Hart, M. Jani, and N. P. Barnes, “Room-temperature lasing of end-pumped Ho:Lu3Al5O12,” Opt. Lett.21(10), 728–730 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. L. Tang, L. Xu, M. J. Wang, Y. Yang, X. D. Xu, and J. Q. Xu, “High-power gain-switched Ho:LuAG rod laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.8(2), 120–124 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B79(5), 559–561 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, L. J. Cooper, and R. B. Williams, “Efficient single-axial-mode operation of a Ho:YAG ring laser pumped by a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.29(20), 2396–2398 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient in-band pumped Ho:LuLiF4 2 μm laser,” Opt. Lett.35(3), 420–422 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Chen, D. Y. Shen, J. Zhang, H. Yang, D. Y. Tang, T. Zhao, and X. F. Yang, “In-band pumped highly efficient Ho:YAG ceramic laser with 21 W output power at 2097 nm,” Opt. Lett.36(9), 1575–1577 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. F. Woensdregt, H. W. M. Janssen, A. Gloubokov, and A. Pajaczkowska, “Growth morphology of tetragonal ABCO4 compounds: theory and observations on Czochraski grown crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth171(3-4), 392–400 (1997). [CrossRef]
  17. W. Y. Wang, X. L. Yan, X. Wu, Z. G. Zhang, B. Q. Hu, and J. F. Zhou, “Study of single-crystal growth of Tm3+:CaYAlO4 by the floating-zone method,” J. Cryst. Growth219(1-2), 56–60 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. E. F. Kustov, V. P. Petrov, D. S. Petrova, and J. P. Udalov, “Absorption and luminescence spectra of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in monocrystals of CaYAlO4,” Phys. Status Solidi A41(2), 379–383 (1977). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Z. Li, X. D. Xu, S. S. Cheng, D. H. Zhou, F. Wu, Z. W. Zhao, C. T. Xia, J. Xu, J. Zhang, H. M. Zhu, and X. Y. Chen, “Polarized spectral properties of Nd3+ ions in CaYAlO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B101(1-2), 199–205 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. P. O. Petit, J. Petit, Ph. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions in Yb:CaYAlO4,” Opt. Mater.30(7), 1093–1097 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Z. Li, X. D. Xu, H. M. Zhu, X. Y. Chen, W. D. Tan, J. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, J. Ma, F. Wu, C. T. Xia, and J. Xu, “Characterization of laser crystal Yb:CaYAlO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(7), 1650–1654 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. J. A. Hutchinson, H. R. Verdun, B. H. T. Chai, B. Zandi, and L. D. Merkle, “Spectroscopic evaluation of CaYAlO4 doped with trivalent Er, Tm, Yb and Ho for eyesafe laser applications,” Opt. Mater.3(4), 287–306 (1994). [CrossRef]
  23. D. H. Zhou, X. D. Xu, X. Y. Chen, H. M. Zhu, D. Z. Li, J. Q. Di, C. T. Xia, F. Wu, and J. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped CaYAlO4,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(4), 730–735 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Zaouter, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, G. L. Leclin, F. Druon, P. Georges, J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “47-fs diode-pumped Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.31(1), 119–121 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. A. Kaminskii, X. Xu, O. Lux, H. Rhee, H. J. Eichler, J. Zhang, D. H. Zhou, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, and J. Xu, “High-order stimulated Raman scattering in tetragonal CaYAlO4 crystal-host for Ln3+-lasant ions,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(4), 306–311 (2012). [CrossRef]
  26. X. Mateos, V. Jambunathan, M. C. Pujol, J. J. Carvajal, F. Díaz, M. Aguiló, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “CW lasing of Ho in KLu(WO4)2 in-band pumped by a diode-pumped Tm:KLu(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Express18(20), 20793–20798 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, and E. D. Filer, “Ho:Ho upconversion: applications to Ho lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B20(6), 1212–1219 (2003). [CrossRef]

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