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Photonics Research

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February


Interference of Quantum Beats in Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometry

  • Jing Qiu, Yong-Sheng Zhang, Jun-Heng Shi, Shensheng Han, and You-Zhen Gui
  • received 12/24/2014; accepted 02/24/2015; posted 02/27/2015; Doc. ID 231297
  • [full text: PDF (485) KB)]
  • Abstract: Quantum beats can be produced in the fourth-order interference such as in Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer by using photons with different frequencies. Here we present theoretically the appearance of interference of quantum beats when the HOM interferometer is combined with a Franson-type interferometer. This interesting phenomenon can help us get a better understanding of the bi-photon amplitude superposition nature of bi-photon and we expect that it may provide a new way in quantum metrology.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors

(PBTD)Soliton Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Topological Insulator Bi2Te3 Nanosheets at 2 μm

  • Ke Yin, Bin Zhang, Jing Hou, Lei Li, Xuanfeng Zhou, and Tian Jiang
  • received 01/06/2015; accepted 02/23/2015; posted 02/24/2015; Doc. ID 231613
  • [full text: PDF (564) KB)]
  • Abstract: We reported diverse soliton operations in a thulium /holmium-doped fiber laser by taking advantages of a tapered fiber based topological insulator (TI) Bi2Te3 saturable absorber. The saturable absorber had a non-saturable loss is ~53.5 % and a modulation depth of 9.8 %. Stable fundamental mode-locked solitons at 1909.5 nm with distinct Kelly sidebands on the output spectrum, a pulse repetition rate of 21.5 MHz and a measured pulse width of 1.26 ps were observed in the experiments. By increasing the pump power, both bunched solitons with soliton number up to 15 and harmonically mode-locked solitons with harmonic order up to 10 were obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first report of both bunched solitons and harmonically mode-locked solitons in a fiber laser at 2 μm region incorporated with the topological insulators.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
  • (140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
  • (140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials

Conversion of out-of-phase to in-phase order in coupled laser arrays with second harmonics

  • Chene Tradonsky, Vishwa Pal, Nir Davidson, Asher Friesem, Micha Nixon, Eitan Ronen, and Ronen Chriki
  • received 01/12/2015; accepted 02/22/2015; posted 02/24/2015; Doc. ID 232228
  • [full text: PDF (2476) KB)]
  • Abstract: A novel method for converting an array of out-of-phase lasers into one of in-phase lasers that can be tightly focused is presented. The method exploits second harmonic generation and can be adapted for different laser arrays geometries. Experimental and calculated results, presented for negatively coupled lasers formed in a square, honeycomb, and triangular geometries are in good agreement.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3290) Lasers and laser optics : Laser arrays
  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (140.3325) Lasers and laser optics : Laser coupling
  • (140.3515) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, frequency doubled

(PBTD)Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators

  • Grzegorz Sobon
  • received 01/06/2015; accepted 02/18/2015; posted 02/18/2015; Doc. ID 231874
  • [full text: PDF (727) KB)]
  • Abstract: The paper summarizes the recent achievements in the area of ultrafast fiber lasers mode-locked with so called low-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene, topological insulators (Bi₂Te₃, Bi₂Se₃, Sb₂Te₃), and transition metal sulfide semiconductors, like molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂). The most important experimental achievements are described and compared. Additionally, new original results on ultra-short pulse generation at 1.94 μm wavelength using graphene are presented. The designed Tm-doped fiber laser utilizes multi-layer graphene as saturable absorber and generates 654 fs pulses at 1940 nm wavelength, which are currently the shortest pulses generated from a Tm-doped fiber laser with a graphene-based saturable absorber.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
  • (140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

Ultra-thin, planar, broadband, dual-polarity plasmonic metalens

  • Zhongyi Guo, Wei Wang, Rongzhen Li, Jingran Zhang, Yi Liu, Xinshun Wang, and Shiliang Qu
  • received 01/06/2015; accepted 02/17/2015; posted 02/18/2015; Doc. ID 234647
  • [full text: PDF (4230) KB)]
  • Abstract: An ultra-thin, planer, broadband metalens composed of metal rectangular split-ring resonators (MRSRR) have been designed, which shows dual-polarity characteristics for the different type of circularly polarized (CP) light incidence. The designed metalens can be considered as the focusing lens and diverging lens under the LCP and RCP light incidence, respectively. The phase discontinuity of the cross-polarized transmission light is produced by the optical-axis rotation through modulating two arms’ lengths of the MRSRR. The MRSRR metalens posses a wavelength-controllable focal length and a relative larger chromatic aberration (CA) compared with the conventional lenses. And the focal length change from 9 to 7 μm with incident wavelength from 740 to 950 nm. The dual-polarity flat metalens opens a door for new applications of phase discontinuity devices, and it will promote the fabricating capability of the on-chip or fiber-embedded optical devices.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (080.3630) Geometric optics : Lenses
  • (120.5060) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase modulation
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

High-Q ring resonators directly written in As2S3 chalcogenide glass films

  • Avi Zadok, Levy Shahar, and Matvey Klebanov
  • received 01/20/2015; accepted 02/16/2015; posted 02/18/2015; Doc. ID 232805
  • [full text: PDF (1107) KB)]
  • Abstract: Planar ring resonator waveguides are fabricated in thin films of As2S3 chalcogenide glass, deposited on silica-on-silicon substrates. Waveguide cores are directly written by scanning the focused illumination of a femto-second Ti:Sapphire laser at a central wavelength of 810 nm, through a two-photon photo-darkening process. A large photo-induced index change of 0.3-0.4 refractive index units is obtained. The radius of the ring resonator is 1.9 mm, corresponding to a transmission free spectral range of 9.1 GHz. A high loaded (intrinsic) Q value of 110,000 (180,000) is achieved. The thermal dependence of the resonator transfer function is characterized. The results provide the first report of directly-written high-Q ring resonators in chalcogenide glass films, and demonstrate the potential of this simple technique towards fabrication of planar light-guide circuits in these materials.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
  • (130.2755) Integrated optics : Glass waveguides
  • (160.5335) Materials : Photosensitive materials

(PBTD) Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers

  • Dong Mao, Biqiang Jiang, Xuetao Gan, Chaojie Ma, yu chen, Chujun Zhao, Han Zhang, Jianbang Zheng, and Jianlin Zhao
  • received 12/08/2014; accepted 02/16/2015; posted 02/18/2015; Doc. ID 229140
  • [full text: PDF (460) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a low-threshold soliton fiber laser passively mode locked with two different types of film-like topological insulator based saturable absorbers, one of which is fabricated by mixing Bi2Te3 with deionized water, as well as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and then evaporating them in a Petri dish, while the other of which is prepared by directly dropping Bi2Te3 solution on the PVA film. Both Bi2Te3-PVA films exhibit outstanding features of low loss, high flexibility, and easy synthesis. Incorporating Bi2Te3-PVA films into fiber lasers, stable single-soliton emissions are obtained at a low pump power of 13 mW. Our results suggest that the Bi2Te3 can work as a promising mode locker for ultrafast lasers, while PVA is an excellent host for fabricating high-performance film-based saturable absorbers.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2410) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, erbium
  • (140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (140.3538) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, pulsed
  • (060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

(PBTD) Few-layer MoS2-deposited microfiber as highly-nonlinear photonic device for pulse shaping in a fiber laser

  • Zhi-Chao Luo, Aiping Luo, Meng Liu, Xu-De Wang, Qiuyi Ning, and Wen-Cheng Xu
  • received 01/06/2015; accepted 02/15/2015; posted 02/17/2015; Doc. ID 231632
  • [full text: PDF (1440) KB)]
  • Abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as attractive mediums for fabricating versatile optoelectronic devices. Recently, few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2), as a shining 2D material, has been discovered to possess both the saturable absorption effect and large nonlinear refractive index. Herein, by virtue of the unique nonlinear optical properties of MoS2, we fabricated a highly-nonlinear saturable absorption photonic device by depositing the few-layer MoS2 onto the microfiber. With the proposed MoS2 photonic device, apart from conventional soliton patterns, the mode-locked pulses could be shaped into some new soliton patterns, i.e., multiple soliton molecules, localized chaotic multi-pulse and double-scale soliton clusters. Our findings indicate that the few-layer MoS2-deposited microfiber could operate as a promising highly-nonlinear photonic device for the related nonlinear optics applications.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
  • (160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials

(PBTD)Sign of differential reflection and transmission in pump-probe spectroscopy of graphene on dielectric substrate

  • Xiao-Qing Yan, Jian-Guo Tian, Zhi-Bo Liu, Xin Zhao, Xiang-Tian Kong, Chengmin Gao, Jun Yao, and Yongsheng Chen
  • received 12/24/2014; accepted 02/13/2015; posted 02/13/2015; Doc. ID 231254
  • [full text: PDF (827) KB)]
  • Abstract: Pump-probe differential reflection and transmission spectroscopy is a very effective tool to study the nonequilibrium carrier dynamics process of graphene. The reported sign of differential reflection from graphene on dielectric substrate is not explicitly explained and not consistent. Here, we study the differential reflection and transmission signal of graphene on dielectric subtract based on Maxwell's equations. The results reveal the sign of differential reflectivity changes with the incident direction of probe beam with respect to substrate. The obtained theory can be applied to predict the differential signal of other two dimensional materials placed on various dielectric substrates.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
  • (310.6870) Thin films : Thin films, other properties
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

(PBTD)Dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser with switchable wavelength spacing based on graphene saturable absorber

  • Xinhuan Feng, Jingjuan Zhou, Aiping Luo, Zhi-Chao Luo, Xudong Wang, and Bai-Ou Guan
  • received 01/06/2015; accepted 02/13/2015; posted 02/17/2015; Doc. ID 231522
  • [full text: PDF (594) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose and demonstrate a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) fiber laser with switchable wavelength spacing based on graphene saturable absorber (GSA) and a WaveShaper. By virtue of the excellent saturable absorption ability of graphene, the linewidths of the lasing wavelengths could be effectively reduced and eventually SLM operation can be obtained. The linewidths of both wavelengths are measured to be narrower than 7.3 KHz. The obtained results suggest that the graphene could be a good candidate of nonlinear optical material for the applications of related photonic fields such as SLM oscillations generation for microwave generation and optical sensing.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (140.3570) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, single-mode
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

Silicon high-speed BPSK modulator with a single-drive push-pull high speed travelling wave electrode

  • Jinting Wang, Linjie Zhou, haike zhu, Rui Yang, Yanyang Zhou, Lei Liu, Tao Wang, and Jianping Chen
  • received 11/28/2014; accepted 02/12/2015; posted 02/13/2015; Doc. ID 228707
  • [full text: PDF (2660) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation using a silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with a π-phase-shift voltage (Vπ) of -4.5 V. The single-drive push-pull travelling wave electrode has been optimized using numerical simulations with a 3 dB electro-optic bandwidth of 35 GHz. 32 Gbps BPSK constellation diagram is measured with an error vector magnitude of 18.9%.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
  • (130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
  • (130.4110) Integrated optics : Modulators

Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers

  • Huaijin Zhang, Shuxian Wang, and Haohai Yu
  • received 12/24/2014; accepted 02/12/2015; posted 02/13/2015; Doc. ID 231453
  • [full text: PDF (1604) KB)]
  • Abstract: Due to the manifestation of fascinating physical phenomena and materials science, two-dimensional (2D) materials recently attract enormous research interest in the fields of electronics and optoelectronics. Along with the in-depth investigations of nonlinear properties about saturable absorption, many 2D materials show the potential application in optical switches for the passive pulsed lasers. However, the eigen band-gap determines the responding wavelength band and constrains the applications. In this paper, based on the band-gap engineering, some different kinds of 2D broadband saturable absorbers were detailedly reviewed, including the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), vanadium dioxide (VO2), graphene and Bi2Se3 topological insulator. The results suggest the band-gap modification should play important roles in 2D broadband saturable materials and would provide some inspirations for the exploration and design of 2D nano devices.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
  • (140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
  • (140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
  • (140.3538) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, pulsed

(PBTD)Passive Q-switching and Q-switched Mode-locking Operations of 2 µm Tm:CLNGG Laser with MoS2 Saturable Absorber Mirror [Invited]

  • Lingchen Kong, Guoqiang Xie, peng yuan, Liejia Qian, Shuxian Wang, Haohai Yu, and Huaijin Zhang
  • received 01/06/2015; accepted 02/12/2015; posted 02/27/2015; Doc. ID 231881
  • [full text: PDF (623) KB)]
  • Abstract: With MoS2 as saturable absorber, passive Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking Operations of Tm-doped Calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet (Tm:CLNGG) laser were experimentally demonstrated. The Q-switched laser emitted a maximum average output power of 62 mW and the highest pulse energy of 0.72 µJ. The Q-switched mode locking was also observed in the experiment. The research results will open the applications of MoS2 at mid-infrared wavelength.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
  • (140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
  • (140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
  • (140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
  • (140.5680) Lasers and laser optics : Rare earth and transition metal solid-state lasers

(PBTD)Few-layer MoS₂ saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited]

  • Robert Woodward, Richard Howe, Guohua Hu, Felice Torrisi, MENG ZHANG, Tawfique Hasan, and Edmund Kelleher
  • received 01/06/2015; accepted 02/01/2015; posted 02/11/2015; Doc. ID 231538
  • [full text: PDF (6234) KB)]
  • Abstract: Few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) is emerging as a promising quasi two-dimensional material, further extending the library of suitable layered nanomaterials with exceptional optical properties for use in saturable absorber devices that enable short-pulse generation in laser systems. In this article, we catalog and review factors affecting the nonlinear optical properties of few-layer MoS₂, recent progress in processing and integration into saturable absorber devices, and the current status of MoS₂-based pulsed lasers.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
  • (230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
  • (140.3538) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, pulsed
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

January


Scintillations of optical vortex in randomly inhomogeneous medium

  • Valerii Aksenov, Valeriy Kolosov, and Valeriy Kolosov
  • received 10/08/2014; accepted 01/28/2015; posted 01/28/2015; Doc. ID 224153
  • [full text: PDF (347) KB)]
  • Abstract: The comparative numerical and analytical analysis of scintillation indices of the vortex Laguerre-Gaussian beam and the и non-vortex doughnut hole and Gaussian beams propagating in the randomly inhomogeneous atmosphere has been performed. It has been found that the dependence of the scintillation index at the axis of the optical vortex on the turbulence intensity at the path has the form of a unit step. It has been shown that the behavior of scintillations in the cross sections of vortex and non-vortex beams differs widely.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
  • (010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
  • (050.4865) Diffraction and gratings : Optical vortices
  • (260.6042) Physical optics : Singular optics

A tunable near-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber based on phase-change materials

  • Minghui Hong, Yiguo Chen, xiong li, Xiangang Luo, and Stefan Maier
  • received 12/18/2014; accepted 01/26/2015; posted 01/28/2015; Doc. ID 230906
  • [full text: PDF (1262) KB)]
  • Abstract: A tunable plasmonic perfect absorber with a tuning range of ~650 nm is realized by introducing a 20 nm-thick phase-change material Ge₂Sb₂Te₅ (GST) layer into the metal-dielectric-metal configuration. The absorption at the plasmonic resonance is kept above 0.96 across the whole tuning range. Here we study this extraordinary optical response numerically and reveal the geometric conditions which support this phenomenon. This work shows a promising route to achieve tunable plasmonic devices for multi-band optical modulation, communication and thermal imaging.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (310.4165) Thin films : Multilayer design
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
  • (310.6188) Thin films : Spectral properties
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

(PBTD)Nanosecond-pulsed, multi-wavelength passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped bulk laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber

  • Fei Lou, Ru-Wei Zhao, Jingliang He, Zhitai Jia, Xian-cui Su, Zhao-Wei Wang, Jia Hou, and Baitao Zhang
  • received 11/14/2014; accepted 01/21/2015; posted 01/26/2015; Doc. ID 226807
  • [full text: PDF (942) KB)]
  • Abstract: A compact saturable absorber mirror (SAM) based on few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoplatelets was fabricated, and successfully used as an efficient saturable absorber for the passively Q-switched solid-state laser at 1 μm wavelength. Pulses as short as 182 ns were obtained from a ytterbium-doped (Yb:LGGG) bulk laser Q-switched by the MoS2 SAM, which we believe to be the shortest one ever achieved from the MoS2 SAs based Q-switched bulk lasers. A maximum average output power of 0.6 W was obtained with a slope efficiency of 24%, corresponding to single pulse energy up to 1.8 μJ. The results indicate the promising potential of few-layer MoS2 nanoplatelets as nonlinear optical switch for achieving efficient pulsed bulk lasers.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
  • (140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
  • (160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

December


Investigation on Random Distributed Feedback Raman Fiber Laser with Linear Polarized Output

  • Xueyuan Du, hanwei zhang, Xiaolin Wang, Pu Zhou, and Zejin Liu
  • received 11/20/2014; accepted 12/27/2014; posted 01/07/2015; Doc. ID 227225
  • [full text: PDF (1007) KB)]
  • Abstract: A random distributed feedback fiber laser with linear polarized output at 1178nm is presented. Linear polarization is realized by fiber coiling in a half-opened cavity of a polarization maintaining random fiber laser structure. The single linear polarization laser output power reaches ~3W with PER >14dB. Further investigations on the coiling technique and additional feedback are also studied. So far as we know, this is the first reported linear polarized random distributed feedback Raman fiber laser.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2420) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, polarization-maintaining
  • (140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
  • (290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh

Raman tensor elements of wurtzite AlN

  • feng huang, Wei Zheng, Ruisheng Zheng, Honglei Wu, and Fadi Li
  • received 10/28/2014; accepted 12/17/2014; posted 01/07/2015; Doc. ID 225675
  • [full text: PDF (889) KB)]
  • Abstract: Angle dependence of optical phonon modes for m-plane (1100) and c-plane (0001) surface of an AlN bulk single crystal is investigated at room temperature by backscattering Raman spectroscopy for parallel and perpendicular polarization vectors of incoming and scattered light. Raman selection rules for wurtzite AlN are calculated according to measured scattering geometries to illustrate the angle dependence. The variations in intensities of phonon modes are discussed and compared to calculated scattering intensities, yielding the Raman tensor elements of several modes normalized to that of the E2 mode: |a/d|=1.8 and |b/d|=0.7, |c/d|=0.7, and |a/d|=0.4 for the A1(TO), E1(TO), and A1(LO) phonon modes, respectively. Furthermore, the Raman tensor elements of wurtzite AlN are compared with that of wurtzite ZnO reported in previous work, revealing the differences of Raman tensor between AlN and ZnO.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
  • (290.5860) Scattering : Scattering, Raman
  • (290.5855) Scattering : Scattering, polarization

SIMO Detection Schemes for Underwater Optical Wireless Communication under Turbulence

  • Zhengyuan Xu, Weihao Liu, and Liuqing Yang
  • received 10/21/2014; accepted 12/14/2014; posted 01/27/2015; Doc. ID 225438
  • [full text: PDF (545) KB)]
  • Abstract: In underwater optical wireless communication (UOWC), channel is characterized by the abundant scattering/absorption effects and optical turbulence. Most studies on the UOWC are limited to the scattering/absorption effects. However experimental studies in the literature indicate that the underwater optical turbulence can cause severe communication quality degradation. In this paper, the UOWC channel with both scattering/absorption and turbulence taken into consideration is characterized, and a spatial diversity receiver scheme, say a SIMO scheme, based on a LED source and multiple detectors is proposed to mitigate the deep fading. The Monte-Carlo based statistical simulation method is introduced to evaluate the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the system. It is shown that spatial diversity can reduce channel fading effectively and extend communication range remarkably.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
  • (010.4455) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic propagation

Articles 1 to 20 of 21 Next Page >>





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