OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 3, Iss. 1 — Jan. 29, 2008

Measuring perceived video quality of MPEG enhancement by people with impaired vision

Matthew Fullerton, Russell L. Woods, Fuensanta A. Vera-Diaz, and Eli Peli  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 24, Issue 12, pp. B174-B187 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (923 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We used a new method to measure the perceived quality of contrast-enhanced motion video. Patients with impaired vision ( n = 24 ) and normally sighted subjects ( n = 6 ) adjusted the level of MPEG-based enhancement of 8 videos ( 4 min each) drawn from 4 categories. They selected the level of enhancement that provided the preferred view of the videos, using a decreasing-step-size staircase procedure. Most patients made consistent selections of the preferred level of enhancement, indicating an appreciation of and a perceived benefit from the MPEG-based enhancement. The selections varied between patients and were correlated with letter contrast sensitivity, but the selections were not affected by training, experience, or video category. We measured just noticeable differences directly for videos and mapped the image manipulation (enhancement in our case) onto an approximately linear perceptual space. These tools and approaches will be of value in other evaluations of the image quality of motion video manipulations.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
(100.2980) Image processing : Image enhancement
(110.3000) Imaging systems : Image quality assessment
(330.1800) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision - contrast sensitivity
(330.3790) Vision, color, and visual optics : Low vision

Original Manuscript: April 19, 2007
Revised Manuscript: August 16, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: September 28, 2007
Published: November 8, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Matthew Fullerton, Russell L. Woods, Fuensanta A. Vera-Diaz, and Eli Peli, "Measuring perceived video quality of MPEG enhancement by people with impaired vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, B174-B187 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. U. S. Census Bureau, "U.S. interim projections by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin," (U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Population Projections Branch). Available at http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/usinterimproj/ (2004).
  2. N. Congdon, B. O'Colmain, C. C. Klaver, R. Klein, B. Munoz, D. S. Friedman, J. Kempen, H. R. Taylor, and P. Mitchell, "Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States," Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 122, 477-485 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Seddon and C. A. Chen, "The epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration," Int. Ophthalmol. Clin. 44, 17-39 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Bunce and R. Wormald, "Leading causes of certification for blindness and partial sight in England & Wales," BMC Public Health 6, 1-7 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Mitchell and C. Bradley, "Quality of life in age-related macular degeneration: a review of the literature," Health Qual. Life Outcomes 4, 97 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. T. Timberlake, M. A. Mainster, E. Peli, R. A. Augliere, E. A. Essock, and L. E. Arend, "Reading with a macular scotoma I. Retinal location of scotoma and fixation area," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 27, 1137-1147 (1986).
  7. K. J. Ciuffreda, Amblyopia: Basic and Clinical Aspects (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991), pp. 343-348.
  8. J. B. Hassell, E. L. Lamoureux, and J. E. Keeffe, "Impact of age related macular degeneration on quality of life," Br. J. Ophthamol. 90, 593-596 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Packer and C. Kirchner, "Who's watching? A profile of the blind and visually impaired audience for television and video" (American Foundation for the Blind). Available at http://www.afb.org/section.asp?SectionID=3&=140&=1232 (1997).
  10. B. J. Cronin and S. R. King, "The development of the descriptive video service," J. Vis. Impair. Blind. 84, 503-506 (1990).
  11. E. Peli, E. M. Fine, and A. T. Labianca, "Evaluating visual information provided by audio description," J. Vis. Impair. Blind. 90, 378-385 (1996).
  12. E. Peli and T. Peli, "Image enhancement for the visually impaired," Opt. Eng. 23, 47-51 (1984).
  13. E. Peli, L. E. Arend, Jr., and G. T. Timberlake, "Computerized image enhancement for low vision: New technology, new possibilities," J. Vis. Impair. Blind. 80, 849-854 (1986).
  14. L. Isenberg, A. Luebker, and G. E. Legge, "Image enhancement of faces for normal and low vision (abstract)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 30, S396 (1989).
  15. E. Peli, R. B. Goldstein, G. M. Young, C. L. Trempe, and S. M. Buzney, "Image enhancement for the visually impaired: simulations and experimental results," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 2337-2350 (1991).
  16. L. Myers, S. Rogers, M. Kabrisky, and T. Burns, "Image perception and enhancement for the visually impaired," IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. , Sept./Oct., 14(5), 594-602 (1995). [CrossRef]
  17. S. J. Leat, G. Omoruyi, A. Kennedy, and E. Jernigan, "Generic and customized digital image enhancement filters for the visually impaired," Vision Res. 45, 1991-2007 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Peli, E. Lee, C. L. Trempe, and S. Buzney, "Image enhancement for the visually impaired: the effects of enhancement on face recognition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1929-1939 (1994). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Tang, J. Kim, and E. Peli, "Image enhancement in the JPEG domain for people with vision impairment," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 2013-2023 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. Peli, E. M. Fine, and K. Pisano, "Video enhancement of text and movies for the visually impaired," in Low Vision: Research and New Developments in Rehabilitation, A.C.Kooijman, P.L.Looijestijn, J.A.Welling, and G.J.van der Wildt, eds. (IOS Press, 1994), pp. 191-198.
  21. E. M. Fine, E. Peli, and N. Brady, "Evaluating video enhancement for visually impaired viewers," in Proceedings of Vision '96: V International Conference on Low Vision (ONCE, 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 85-92.
  22. E. Peli, "Recognition performance and perceived quality of video enhanced for the visually impaired," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 25, 543-555 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Fullerton and E. Peli, "People with visual impairment prefer TV viewing using a contrast enhancement consumer product," in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2007), Vol. 38, paper 15.4, pp. 975-978. [CrossRef]
  24. J. Kim, A. Vora, and E. Peli, "MPEG-based image enhancement for the visually impaired," Opt. Eng. 43, 1318-1328 (2004). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Fullerton and E. Peli, "Post-transmission digital video enhancement for people with visual impairments," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 15-24 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. Peli, "Simple 1-D enhancement for head-mounted low vision aid," Vis. Impair. Res. 1, 3-10 (1999). [CrossRef]
  27. R. W. Massof, "High-tech help for low vision," NASA Tech Briefs 17, 20-22 (1993).
  28. E. Peli, J. Kim, Y. Yitzhaky, R. B. Goldstein, and R. L. Woods, "Wideband enhancement of television images for people with visual impairment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 937-950 (2004). [CrossRef]
  29. J. Tang, E. Peli, and S. Acton, "Image enhancement using a contrast measure in the compressed domain," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 10, 289-292 (2003). [CrossRef]
  30. E. Peli, "Image enhancement for impaired vision: the challenge of evaluation," in Proceedings of the 1st International IEEE Symposium on Research on Assistive Technologies (IEEE Computer Society, 2007), pp. 47-58.
  31. E. A. Krupinski, "Using the human observer to assess medical image display quality," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 927-932 (2006). [CrossRef]
  32. E. A. Krupinski, H. Roehrig, and J. Fan, "Influence of 8-bit vs. 11-bit digital medical displays on observer performance and visual search," in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2007), Vol. 38, paper 15.1, pp. 965-966. [CrossRef]
  33. E. Peli, "Enhancement of retinal images: pros and problems," Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 17, 477-482 (1993). [CrossRef]
  34. R. Hamberg and H. de Ridder, "Continuous assessment of perceptual image quality," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2573-2577 (1995). [CrossRef]
  35. M. A. Webster, M. A. Georgeson, and S. M. Webster, "Neural adjustments to image blur," Nat. Neurosci. 5, 839-840 (2002). [CrossRef]
  36. Due to a rounding error in the experimental code, only 97 of 213 (46%) of these first double-reversals with an intermediate step within the postexploratory phase correctly transitioned the staircase to the 1 JND (settled) stage (thus delaying the transition to another reversal where there was no intermediate step, or to one with an intermediate step where the error did not occur). There was no significant effect on the Enhancement Level selected by patients whose staircases experienced this error (Wilcoxon Signed Rank, z23=−0.17, p=0.86) nor was there any significant effect on chosen level when staircases naturally did not reach the 1 JND level, compared to those that transitioned correctly (Wilcoxon Signed Rank, z9⩽−0.15, p⩾0.44).
  37. J. E. Kitchin and I. Bailey, "Task complexity and visual acuity in senile macular degeneration," Aust. J. Optom. 64, 235-242 (1981).
  38. F. L. Ferris, 3rd, A. Kassoff, G. H. Bresnick, and I. Bailey, "New visual acuity charts for clinical research," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 94, 91-96 (1982).
  39. I. L. Bailey, S. N. Fitz, and G. A. Akinlabi, "Contrast sensitivity and efficiency at search and detection tasks (Abstract)," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 2771 (2003).
  40. R. A. Applegate, H. C. Howland, R. P. Sharp, A. J. Cottingham, and R. W. Yee, "Corneal aberrations and visual performance after radial keratotomy," J. Refract. Surg. 14, 397-407 (1998). [PubMed]
  41. Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, Modern Image Quality Assessment, Synthesis Lectures on Image, Video & Multimedia Processing (Morgan & Claypool, 2006), 146 pp.
  42. V. Kayargadde and J. B. Martens, "Perceptual characterization of images degraded by blur and noise: model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1178-1188 (1996). [CrossRef]
  43. V. Kayargadde and J. B. Martens, "Perceptual characterization of images degraded by blur and noise: experiments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1166-1177 (1996). [CrossRef]
  44. G. M. Johnson and M. D. Fairchild, "Sharpness rules," in Proceedings of the 8th IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering (Society for Imaging Science and Technology/Society for Information Display, 2000), pp. 24-30.
  45. E. Peli, "Perception and interpretation of high-pass filtered images," Opt. Eng. 31, 74-81 (1992). [CrossRef]
  46. M. Garcia-Perez, "Forced-choice staircases with fixed step sizes: asymptotic and small-sample properties," Vision Res. 38, 1861-1881 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. M. A. Garcia-Perez, "Yes-no staircases with fixed step sizes: psychometric properties and optimal setup," Optom. Vision Sci. 78, 56-64. (2001). [CrossRef]
  48. J. Lubin, "A visual discrimination model for imaging system design and evaluation," in Vision Models for Target Detection, E.Peli, ed. (World Scientific, 1995), pp. 245-283.
  49. A. B. Watson, "The spatial standard observer: a human vision model for display inspection," in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2006), Vol. 31, paper 31.1, pp. 1312-1315. [CrossRef]
  50. E. Peli, "Test of a model of foveal vision by using simulations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1131-1138 (1996). [CrossRef]
  51. E. Peli, "Contrast sensitivity function and image discrimination," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 283-293 (2001). [CrossRef]
  52. E. Peli and G. A. Geri, "Discrimination of wide-field images as a test of a peripheral-vision model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 294-301 (2001). [CrossRef]
  53. E. Peli and A. Lang, "Appearance of images through a multifocal intra ocular lens," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 302-309 (2001). [CrossRef]
  54. J. Xia, S. L. Qin, L. Liu, I. Heynderickx, and H. C. Yin, "The just noticeable difference in chromaticity, black level, white level and contour rendering in natural images," in Proceedings of the 12th International Display Workshops in conjunction with Asia Display 2005 (Society for Information Display, 2005), pp. 1821-1824.
  55. E. Peli, T. R. Hedges, J. Tang, and D. Landmann, "A binocular stereoscopic display system with coupled convergence and accommodation demands," in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (Society for Information Display, 2001), Vol. 32, paper 53.2, pp. 1296-1299. [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited