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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 5 — May. 5, 2006

Real-time photodisplacement microscope for high-sensitivity simultaneous surface and subsurface inspection

Toshihiko Nakata, Kazushi Yoshimura, and Takanori Ninomiya  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 12, pp. 2643-2655 (2006)

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We have developed a new photodisplacement microscope system for practical use that achieves high-sensitivity simultaneous real-time imaging of surface and subsurface structures from a single space-frequency multiplexed interferogram. In this system a linear region of photothermal displacement is excited on the sample surface for subsurface imaging by a line-focused intensity-modulated laser beam. Surface information such as reflectivity and topography along with the displacement is detected with a charge-coupled device sensor-based parallel heterodyne interferometer. Surface and subsurface information components are space-frequency multiplexed into the sensor signal as orthogonal functions based on a frequency-optimized undersampling scheme, allowing each to be discretely reproduced by using a real-time Fourier analysis technique. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that this system is effective, simultaneously imaging reflectivity, topography, and photodisplacement for the detection of subsurface lattice defects in silicon, at a remarkable speed of only 0.26   s / 256 × 256 pixel area. This new microscope is promising for nondestructive hybrid surface and subsurface inspection and other applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.1520) Detectors : CCD, charge-coupled device
(040.2840) Detectors : Heterodyne
(070.6020) Fourier optics and signal processing : Continuous optical signal processing
(110.5120) Imaging systems : Photoacoustic imaging
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects

Original Manuscript: July 12, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: October 25, 2005

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Toshihiko Nakata, Kazushi Yoshimura, and Takanori Ninomiya, "Real-time photodisplacement microscope for high-sensitivity simultaneous surface and subsurface inspection," Appl. Opt. 45, 2643-2655 (2006)

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