OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 7 — Jul. 17, 2006

Optical characterization of a reference instrument for gloss measurements in both a collimated and a converging beam geometry

Mario Noël, Joanne Zwinkels, and Jian Liu  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 45, Issue 16, pp. 3712-3720 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.003712


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (317 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A reference instrument has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada for rapid, reproducible specular gloss measurements. The design and validation of this instrument for specular gloss measurements in accordance with standard methods for paints and plastics at 20°, 60°, and 85° geometries [American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D523 and the International Organization for Standards (ISO) 2813] have been recently reported. These standard methods require a collimated beam geometry. Here we present the optical design considerations and characterization of this instrument to extend its gloss measurement capabilities to specular gloss measurements of paper samples at 75° geometry in accordance with standard test methods requiring a converging beam geometry (ASTM D1223 and TAPPI T480). This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported reference instrument that provides direct traceability for both types of standard gloss method and applications. The design challenge was to convert from a collimated beam to converging beam geometry while meeting the rigorous requirements of beam uniformity at the sample and receptor apertures specified in the 75° geometry test methods. We describe the innovative design to achieve this degree of functionality and reference instrument performance. The instrument's optical performance has been characterized theoretically and by comparison with measurement results. The light collection and detection systems have been analyzed via Monte Carlo simulation and ray tracing. The instrument validation includes comparison of the measurement results with theoretical gloss values for quartz, black glass, Vitrolite, and mirror gloss working standards, giving agreement of better than 0.32 % . Measurement validation also involved participation in the Collaborative Testing Services program interlaboratory comparison measurements of 75° gloss for white papers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.1840) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Densitometers, reflectometers
(120.4570) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical design of instruments
(120.4800) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical standards and testing
(120.5700) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Reflection

History
Original Manuscript: June 23, 2005
Revised Manuscript: November 9, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: November 16, 2005

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Mario Noël, Joanne Zwinkels, and Jian Liu, "Optical characterization of a reference instrument for gloss measurements in both a collimated and a converging beam geometry," Appl. Opt. 45, 3712-3720 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-16-3712


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. Beland and J. M. Bennett, "Effect of local microroughness on the gloss uniformity of printed paper surfaces," Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. E. N. Dalal and K. M. Natale-Hoffman, "The effect of gloss on colour," Color Res. Appl. 24, 369-376 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Trezza and J. M. Krochta, "Specular reflection, gloss, roughness, and surface heterogeneity of biopolymer coatings," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 79, 2221-2229 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Aida, "Glossiness of colored papers and its applications to specular glossiness measuring instruments," Syst. Comput. Jpn. 28, 95-112 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Budde and C. X. Dodd, "Stability problems in gloss measurements," J. Coat. Technol. 52, 44-48 (1980).
  6. American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Standard D523-89: Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss (ASTM, 1989).
  7. International Organization for Standards, ISO 2813-1994: Paints and Varnishes—Determination of Specular Gloss of Nonmetallic Paint Films at 20 Degrees, 60 Degrees and 85 Degrees (ISO, 1994). [PubMed]
  8. American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM D1223-93: Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss of Paper and Paperboard at 75 Degrees (ASTM, 1998).
  9. Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, TAPPI T480 om-99: Specular Gloss of Paper and Paperboard at 75 Degrees (TAPPI, 1998).
  10. W. Budde, "The calibration of gloss reference standard," Metrologia 16, 89-93 (1980). [CrossRef]
  11. W. Budde, "A reference instrument for 20°, 60°, and 85° gloss measurements," Metrologia 16, 1-5 (1980). [CrossRef]
  12. M. E. Nadal and E. A. Thompson, "NIST reference goniophotometer for specular gloss measurements," J. Coat. Technol. 73, 73-80 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Liu, M. Noël, and J. C. Zwinkels, "Design and characterization of a versatile reference instrument for rapid, reproducible specular gloss measurements," Appl. Opt. 44, 4631-4638 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Wright, C. L. Sanders, and D. Gignac, "Design of glass filter combinations for photometers," Appl. Opt. 8, 2449-2455 (1969). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage, Characterizing Illuminance Meters and Luminance Meters, Publ. CIE 69 (CIE, 1987).
  16. W. Czepluch, "Specular gloss according to ISO 2813 influences of angular tolerances," in Proceedings of European Coating Show, Nurnberg, Germany (1995), pp. 271-276.
  17. Zemax Optical Design Program: User's Guide, Focus Software Incorporated.
  18. W. Budde and C. X. Dodd, "Stability problems in gloss measurements," J. Coat. Technol. 52, 44-48 (1980).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited