OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 9 — Sep. 26, 2007

On-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using an ocean surface reflectance model

P. Jeremy Werdell, Sean W. Bailey, Bryan A. Franz, André Morel, and Charles R. McClain  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 23, pp. 5649-5666 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.005649


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1746 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Recent advances in global biogeochemical research demonstrate a critical need for long-term ocean color satellite data records of consistent high quality. To achieve that quality, spaceborne instruments require on-orbit vicarious calibration, where the integrated instrument and atmospheric correction system is adjusted using in situ normalized water-leaving radiances, such as those collected by the marine optical buoy (MOBY). Unfortunately, well-characterized time-series of in situ data are scarce for many historical satellite missions, in particular, the NASA coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and the ocean color and temperature scanner (OCTS). Ocean surface reflectance models (ORMs) accurately reproduce spectra observed in clear marine waters, using only chlorophyll a ( C a ) as input, a measurement for which long-term in situ time series exist. Before recalibrating CZCS and OCTS using modeled radiances, however, we evaluate the approach with the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Using annual C a climatologies as input into an ORM, we derive SeaWiFS vicarious gains that differ from the operational MOBY gains by less than ± 0.9 % spectrally. In the context of generating decadal C a climate data records, we quantify the downstream effects of using these modeled gains by generating satellite-to-in situ data product validation statistics for comparison with the operational SeaWiFS results. Finally, we apply these methods to the CZCS and OCTS ocean color time series.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(030.5620) Coherence and statistical optics : Radiative transfer
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Remote Sensing

History
Original Manuscript: March 8, 2007
Revised Manuscript: May 18, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: May 22, 2007
Published: August 8, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
P. Jeremy Werdell, Sean W. Bailey, Bryan A. Franz, André Morel, and Charles R. McClain, "On-orbit vicarious calibration of ocean color sensors using an ocean surface reflectance model," Appl. Opt. 46, 5649-5666 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-23-5649


Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. H. R. Gordon and M. H. Wang, "Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical-thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS--a preliminary algorithm," Appl. Opt. 33, 443-452 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937-24954 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Antoine, A. Morel, H. R. Gordon, V. F. Banzon, and R. H. Evans, "Bridging ocean color observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends," J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi: (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, "A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products," Remote Sen. Environ. 102, 12-23 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. H. R. Gordon, "In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors," Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265-278 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. R. E. Eplee, Jr., W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6701-6718 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, "Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry," Appl. Opt. 46, 5068-5082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee Jr., F. S. Patt, H. H. Kieffer, T. C. Stone, G. Meister, J. J. Butler, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS measurements of the Moon with the U.S. Geological Survey lunar model," Appl. Opt. 43, 5838-5854 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, "Validation of atmospheric correction over oceans," J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209-17217 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, "A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909-10924 (1988a). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709-722 (1977). [CrossRef]
  13. T. P. Boyer, J. I. Antonov, H. E. Garcia, D. R. Johnson, R. A. Locamini, A. V. Mishonov, M. T. Pitcher, O. K. Baranova, and I. V. Smolyar, World Ocean Database 2005, S. Levitus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006).
  14. R. H. Evans and H. R. Gordon, "Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': a retrospective examination," J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293-7307 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, and M. M. Jacobs, "Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean," Appl. Opt. 14, 417-427 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, "Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function," Appl. Opt. 41, 6289-6306 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. R. Gordon, "Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness," Appl. Opt. 44, 241-248 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Morel and J. L. Mueller, "Normalized water-leaving radiance and remote sensing reflectance: bidirectional reflectance and other factors," in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Vol. III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols, J. L. Mueller, G. S. Fargion, and C. R. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 32-59.
  19. H. Loisel and A. Morel, "Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: a reexamination," Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847-858 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, "The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 61, 27-56 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 14129-14142 (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. E. Boss, W. S. Pegau, M. Lee, M. Twardowski, E. Shybanov, G. Korotaev, and F. Baratange, "Particulate backscattering ratio at LEO 15 and its use to study particle composition and distribution," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, "Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters," Appl. Opt. 44, 1667-1680 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters," Deep-Sea Res. , Part A 39, 1835-1855 (1992). [CrossRef]
  25. D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, "Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean," Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343-383 (1991). [CrossRef]
  26. D. A. Caron, H. G. Dam, P. Kremer, E. J. Lessard, L. P. Madin, T. C. Malone, J. M. Napp, E. R. Peele, M. R. Roman, and M. J. Youngbluth, "The contribution of microorganisms to particulate carbon and nitrogen in surface waters of the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda," Deep-Sea Res. , Part I 42, 943-972 (1995). [CrossRef]
  27. D. M. Karl, "A sea of change: biogeochemical variability in the North Pacific subtropical gyre," Ecosystems 2, 181-214 (1999). [CrossRef]
  28. A. M. Ciotti, J. J. Cullen, and M. R. Lewis, "A semi-analytical model of the influence of phytoplankton community structure on the relationship between light attenuation and ocean color," J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1559-1578 (1999). [CrossRef]
  29. H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, "Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean," J. Geophys. Res. 111, doi: (2006). [CrossRef]
  30. A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, J. Ras, and K. Oubelkheir, "Natural variability of phytoplankton absorption in oceanic waters: influence of the size structure of algal populations," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004). [CrossRef]
  31. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, "Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033-31,044 (1998). [CrossRef]
  32. D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, M. J. Behrenfeld, and C. R. McClain, "Colored dissolved organic matter and its influence on the satellite-based characterization of the ocean biosphere," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: (2005). [CrossRef]
  33. L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, "An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671-689 (1981). [CrossRef]
  34. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43-53 (1981). [CrossRef]
  35. M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. M. Sullivan, and P. L. Donaghay, "Modeling the spectral shape of absorption by chomophoric dissolved organic matter," Mar. Chem. 89, 69-88 (2004). [CrossRef]
  36. H. R. Gordon, "Dependence of diffuse reflectance of natural waters on the Sun angle," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1484-1489 (1989). [CrossRef]
  37. A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Radiation transport within oceanic (case 1) water," J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004). [CrossRef]
  38. P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, "Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation," EOS Trans. AGU 84, 379 (2003). [CrossRef]
  39. P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, "An improved in situ bio-optical data set for ocean color development and satellite data product validation," Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122-140 (2005). [CrossRef]
  40. A. V. Mishonov and W. D. Gardner, "Assessment and correction of the historical beam attenuation data from HOT--ALOHA & BATS stations," Oceanogr. 16, 51 (2003).
  41. S. B. Hooker, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Science Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 614.8, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 USA (personal communication, 2007).
  42. K. J. Voss and A. Morel, "Bidirectional reflectance function for oceanic waters with varying chlorophyll concentrations: measurements versus prediction," Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 698-705 (2005). [CrossRef]
  43. M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, "Beam attenuation and chlorophyll concentration as alternative optical indices of phytoplankton biomass," J. Mar. Res. 64, 431-451 (2006). [CrossRef]
  44. A. F. Michaels and A. H. Knap, "Overview of the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic time-series study and the hydrostation S program," Deep Sea Res. , Part II 43, 157-198 (1996). [CrossRef]
  45. D. M. Karl and R. Lukas, "The Hawaiian ocean time-series (HOT) program: Background, rationale, and field implementation," Deep Sea Res. , Part II 43, 129-156 (1996). [CrossRef]
  46. A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, T. F. Eck, I. Slutzker, C. Pietras, and R. N. Halthore, "Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 501-522 (2002). [CrossRef]
  47. D. M. Glover, S. C. Doney, A. J. Mariano, R. H. Evans, and S. J. McCue, "Mesoscale variability in time series data: satellite-based estimates for the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic time-series study (BATS) site," J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002). [CrossRef]
  48. T. L. Hayward, "The nutrient distribution and primary production in the central North Pacific," Deep-Sea Res. 34, 1593-1627 (1987). [CrossRef]
  49. A. F. Michaels, A. H. Knap, R. L. Dow, K. Gunderson, R. J. Johnson, J. Sorensen, A. Close, G. A. Knauer, S. E. Lohrenz, V. A. Asper, M. Tuel, and R. Bidigare, "Seasonal patterns of ocean biogeochemisty at the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda atlantic time-series study site," Deep-Sea Res. Part I 41, 1013-1038 (1994). [CrossRef]
  50. N. B. Nelson, D. A. Siegel, and A. F. Michaels, "Seasonal dynamics of colored dissolved material in the Sargasso Sea--implications for biogeochemistry and remote sensing," Deep-Sea. Res. Part I 45, 931-957 (1998). [CrossRef]
  51. M. E. Ondrusek, R. R. Bidigare, K. Waters, and D. M. Karl, "A predictive model for estimating rates of primary production in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean," Deep-Sea Res. Part II 48, 1837-1864 (2001). [CrossRef]
  52. C. C. Trees, D. K. Clark, R. R. Bidigare, M. E. Ondrusek, and J. L. Mueller, "Accessory pigments versus chlorophyll a concentrations within the euphotic zone: a ubiquitous relationship," Limnol. Oceanogr. 45, 1130-1143 (2000). [CrossRef]
  53. S. B. Hooker, L. Van Heukelem, C. S. Thomas, H. Claustre, J. Ras, R. Barlow, H. Sessions, L. Schlüter, J. Perl, C. Trees, V. Stuart, E. Head, L. Clementson, J. Fishwick, C. Llewellyn, and J. Aiken, The Second SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-2) (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2005).
  54. H. R. Gordon, "Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the oceans in the visible," Rem. Sens. Environ. 22, 103-126 (1987). [CrossRef]
  55. S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, S. J. Flora, K. R. Lykke, and D. K. Clark, "Stray-light correction algorithm for spectrographs," Metrologia 40, S81-S84 (2003). [CrossRef]
  56. B. A. Franz, P. J. Werdell, G. Meister, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. R. McClain, F. S. Patt, and D. Thomas, "The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS," Proc. SPIE 5882, doi: (2005). [CrossRef]
  57. D. A. Antoine, J. M. André, and A. Morel, "Oceanic primary production. 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (CZCS) chlorophyll," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 57-70 (1996). [CrossRef]
  58. W. W. Gregg, F. S. Patt, and W. E. Esaias, "Initial analysis of ocean color data from the ocean color and temperature scanner. II. Geometric and radiometric analyses," Appl. Opt. 38, 5692-5702. [PubMed]
  59. W. W. Gregg, M. E. Conkright, J. E. O'Reilly, F. S. Patt, M. H. Wang, J. A. Yoder, and N. W. Casey, "NOAA-NASA coastal zone color scanner reanalysis effort," Appl. Opt. 41, 1615-1628 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, "Ocean-color optical property data derived from the Japanese ocean color and temperature scanner and the French polarization and directionality of the Earth's reflectances: a comparison study," Appl. Opt. 41, 974-990 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. G. C. Feldman, W. D. Robinson, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, N. Kuring, F. S. Patt, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, "The coastal zone color scanner," http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/CZCS/ (2007).
  62. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, and W. W. Broenkow, "Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: comparison between ship determinations and coastal zone color scanner estimates," Appl. Opt. 22, 20-36 (1983a). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  63. J. L. Mueller, "Nimbus-7 CZCS: Confirmation of its radiometric sensitivity decay rate through 1982," Appl. Opt. 24, 1043-1047 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. Bailey, "SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach utilizing simultaneous in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties," in In situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997-2000): Protocols, and Data QC and Analysis, G. S. Fargion, R. Barnes, and C. McClain, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001).
  65. J. M. André and A. Morel, "Atmospheric corrections and interpretations of marine radiances in CZCS imagery, revisited," Oceanol. Acta 14, 3-22 (1991).
  66. J. G. Acker, The Heritage of SeaWiFS: A Retrospective on the CZCS NIMBUS Experiment Team (NET) Program (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994).
  67. M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, and H. Kawamura, "Calibration of the ocean color and temperature sensor," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 37, 1484-1495 (1999a). [CrossRef]
  68. G. Zibordi, B. Holben, S. B. Hooker, F. Mélin, J.-F. Berthon, I. Slutzker, D. Giles, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, K. Rutledge, C. Schuster, and A. Al Mandoos, "A network for standardized ocean color validation measurements," EOS Trans. AGU 87, 293 (2006). [CrossRef]
  69. E. Bosc, A. Bricaud, and D. Antoine, "Seasonal and interannual variability in algal biomass and primary production in the Mediterranean Sea, as derived from 4 years of SeaWiFS observations," Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18, doi: (2004). [CrossRef]
  70. S. W. Brown and B. C. Johnson, "Advances in radiometry for ocean color," Proc. SPIE 5151, 441-453 (2003). [CrossRef]
  71. G. Meister, E. J. Kwiatkowska, B. A. Franz, F. S. Patt, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, "Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ocean color polarization correction," Appl. Opt. 44, 5524-5535 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited