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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 3 — Mar. 7, 2007

SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses

Robert E. Eplee, Jr., Frederick S. Patt, Robert A. Barnes, and Charles R. McClain  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 5, pp. 762-773 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.000762


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Abstract

The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's Calibration and Validation (Cal∕Val) team has undertaken an analysis of the mission-long Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) solar calibration time series to assess the long-term degradation of the solar diffuser reflectance over 9 years on orbit. The SeaWiFS diffuser is an aluminum plate coated with YB71 paint. The bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the diffuser was not fully characterized before launch, so the Cal∕Val team has implemented a regression of the solar incidence angles and the drift in the node of the satellite's orbit against the diffuser time series to correct for solar incidence angle effects. An exponential function with a time constant of 200 days yields the best fit to the diffuser time series. The decrease in diffuser reflectance over the mission is wavelength dependent, ranging from 9% in the blue ( 412   nm ) to 5% in the red and near infrared ( 670 865   nm ) . The Cal∕Val team has developed a methodology for computing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for SeaWiFS on orbit from the diffuser time series corrected for both the varying solar incidence angles and the diffuser reflectance degradation. A sensor noise model is used to compare on-orbit SNRs computed for radiances reflected from the diffuser with prelaunch SNRs measured at typical radiances specified for the instrument. To within the uncertainties in the measurements, the SNRs for SeaWiFS have not changed over the mission. The on-orbit performance of the SeaWiFS solar diffuser should offer insight into the long-term on-orbit performance of solar diffusers on other instruments, such as the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer [currently flying on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites], the Visible and Infrared Radiometer Suite [scheduled to fly on the NASA National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellites] and the Advanced Baseline Imager [scheduled to fly on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite Series R (GOES-R) satellites].

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(120.5630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Radiometry
(230.1980) Optical devices : Diffusers
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and ocean optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 24, 2006
Revised Manuscript: September 1, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 6, 2006
Published: January 25, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Robert E. Eplee, Jr., Frederick S. Patt, Robert A. Barnes, and Charles R. McClain, "SeaWiFS long-term solar diffuser reflectance and sensor noise analyses," Appl. Opt. 46, 762-773 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-46-5-762


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References

  1. C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, B. G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992), Vol. 3.
  2. R. A. Barnes and R. E. Eplee, "The SeaWiFS solar diffuser," in SeaWiFS Calibration Topics, Part 1, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 39, pp. 54-61.
  3. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Changes in the radiometric stability of SeaWiFS determined from lunar and solar-based measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 4649-4664 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 23.
  5. R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, Jr., G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, "Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques," Appl. Opt. 40, 6682-6700 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. R. E. Eplee, Jr., R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, "SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit," in Earth Observing Systems IX, W. L. Barnes and J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE 5542, 1-13 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. R. E. Eplee, Jr., S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, "Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629639 (2006).
  8. A. C. Tribble, R. Lukis, E. Watts, V. A. Borisov, S. A. Demidov, V. A. Denisenko, A. A. Gorodetskiy, V. K. Grishin, S. F. Nauma, V. K. Sergeev, and S. P. Sokolova, "United States and Russian thermal control coating results in low earth orbit," J. Spacecraft Rockets 33, 160-166 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Barnes and E. F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Calibration coefficients," Appl. Opt. 42, 1629-1647 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Barnes and E. F. Zalewski, "Reflectance-based calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Conversion to radiance," Appl. Opt. 42, 1648-1650 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Xiong, H. Erives, S. Xiong, X. Xie, J. Esposito, J. Sun, and W. Barnes, "Performance of terra MODIS solar diffuser and solar diffuser stability monitor," in Earth Observing Systems X, J. J. Butler, ed., Proc. SPIE 5882, 58820S (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. R. E. Wolfe, W. Esaias, A. I. Lyapustin, and X. Xiong, "MODIS solar diffuser earthshine modeling and analysis," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629607 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. X. Xie, X. Xiong, R. E. Wolfe, and A. I. Lyapustin, "Improvement of MODIS RSB calibration by minimizing the earthshine impact on solar diffuser observations," in Earth Observing Systems XI, J. J. Butler and X. Xiong, eds., Proc. SPIE 6296, 629609 (2006).
  14. B. L. Markham, J. L. Barker, E. Kaita, J. Sieferth, and R. Morfitt, "On-orbit performance of the Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric calibrators," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 265-286 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, and C. R. McClain, Prelaunch Acceptance Report for the SeaWiFS Radiometer, NASA Tech. Memo 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994), Vol. 22.

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