OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 4 — Apr. 10, 2007

Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

C. B. Roller, B. P. Holland, G. McMillen, D. L. Step, C. R. Krehbiel, K. Namjou, and P. J. McCann  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 46, Issue 8, pp. 1333-1342 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1447 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in the expired breath of crossbred calves received at a research facility was performed using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Exhaled NO (eNO) concentrations were measured using NO absorption lines at 1912.07cm1 and employing background subtraction. The lower detection limit and measurement precision were determined to be 330 parts in 1012 per unit volume. A custom breath collection system was designed to collect lower airway breath of spontaneously breathing calves while in a restraint chute. Breath was collected and analyzed from calves upon arrival and periodically during a 42 day receiving period. There was a statistically significant relationship between eNO, severity of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in terms of number of times treated, and average daily weight gain over the first 15 days postarrival. In addition, breathing patterns and exhaled CO2 showed a statistically significant relationship with BRD morbidity.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption

Original Manuscript: May 5, 2006
Revised Manuscript: September 19, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 6, 2006
Published: February 20, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

C. B. Roller, B. P. Holland, G. McMillen, D. L. Step, C. R. Krehbiel, K. Namjou, and P. J. McCann, "Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in beef cattle using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 46, 1333-1342 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. D. Snowder, L. D. V. Vleck, L. V. Cundiff, and G. L. Bennett, "Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves," J. Anim. Sci. 83, 1247-1261 (2005). [PubMed]
  2. M. Phillips, "Detection of volatile organic compounds in breath," in Disease Markers in Exhaled Breath, N.Marczin, S.A.Kharitonov, M.H.Yacoub, and P.J.Barnes, eds. (Dekker, 2002), pp. 219-231.
  3. T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, "Current status of clinical breath analysis," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. D. H. Yates, "Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma," Immunol. Cell Biol. 79, 178-190 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. R. Taylor, M. W. Pijnenburg, A. D. Smith, and J. C. De Jongste, "Exhaled nitric oxide measurements: clinical application and interpretation," Thorax 61, 817-827 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. E. Gustafsson, A. M. Leone, M. G. Persson, N. P. Wiklund, and S. Moncada, "Endogenous nitric oxide is present in the exhaled air of rabbits, guinea pigs and humans," Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 181, 852-857 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Alving, E. Weitzberg, and J. M. Lundberg, "Increased amount of nitric oxide in exhaled air of asthmatics," Eur. Respir. J. 6, 1368-1370 (1993). [PubMed]
  8. M. Bernareggi, G. Rossoni, E. Clini, E. Pasini, T. Bachetti, G. Cremona, N. Ambrosino, and F. Berti, "Detection of nitric oxide in exhaled air of different animal species using a clinical chemiluminescence analyzer," Pharmacol. Res. 39, 221-224 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. U. Schedin, B. O. Röken, G. Nyman, C. Frostell, and L. E. Gustafsson, "Endogenous nitric oxide in the airways of different animal species," Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand. 41, 1133-1141 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich, J. D. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. J. McCann, and M. A. Camp. "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B doi: (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Konstantin, A. I. Nadezhdinskii, and I. A. Adamouskaya, "Human breath trace gas content study by tunable diode laser spectroscopy technique," Infrared Phys. Technol. 37, 181-192 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. C. B. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, M. Camp, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Nitric oxide breath testing using tunable-diode laser absorption spectroscopy: application in monitoring respiratory inflammation," Appl. Opt. 41, 6018-6029 (2002).
  13. C. Roller, K. Namjou, J. Jeffers, W. Potter, P. J. McCann, and J. Grego, "Simultaneous measurement of NO and CO2 in human breath using a single IV-VI mid-infrared laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 107-109 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. E. V. Stepanov, P. V. Zyrianov, and V. A. Miliaev, "Single-breath NO detection with tunable diode lasers for pulmonary disease diagnosis," in ALT'98 Selected Papers on Novel Laser Methods in Medicine and Biology, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Pustovoy, and G. P. Kuz'min, eds., Proc. SPIE 3829, 103-109 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. K. Namjou, P. J. McCann, and W. T. Potter, "Breath testing with a mid-IR laser spectrometer," in Application of Tunable Diode and Other Infrared Sources for Atmospheric Studies and Industrial Processing Monitoring II, A. Fried, ed., Proc. SPIE 3758, 74-80 (1999).
  16. K. D. Skeldon, M. G. M. Gibson, C. A. Wyse, L. C. McMillan, S. D. Monk, C. Longbottom, and M. J. Padgett, "Development of high-resolution real-time sub-ppb ethane spectroscopy and some pilot studies in life science," Appl. Opt. 44, 4712-4721 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Wyse, A. Cathcart, R. Sutherland, S. Ward, L. McMillan, G. Gibson, M. Padgett, and K. Skeldon, "Effect of maximal dynamic exercise on exhaled ethane and carbon monoxide levels in human, equine, and canine athletes," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 141, 239-246 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. G. K. Jim, C. W. Booker, C. S. Ribble, P. T. Guichon, and B. E. Thorlakson, "A field investigation of the economic impact of respiratory disease in feedlot calves," Can. Vet. J. 34, 668-673 (1993). [PubMed]
  19. T. E. Whittum, N. E. Woolen, L. J. Perino, and E. T. Littledike, "Relationships among treatment for respiratory tract disease, pulmonary lesions evident at slaughter and rate of weight gain in feedlot cattle," J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 209, 814-818 (1996).
  20. P. Reinhold, G. Becher, and M. Rothe, "Evaluation of the measurement of leukotriene B4 concentrations in exhaled breath condensate as a noninvasive method for assessing mediators of inflammation in the lungs of calves," Am. J. Vet. Res. 61, 742-749 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Reinhold, A. Langenberg, J. Seifert, M. Rothe, and G. Becher, "Ammonia and urea in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in corresponding blood samples," Eur. Respir. J. 20, (Suppl. 38), 428s (2002).
  22. J. P. Spinhirne, J. A. Koziel, and N. K. Chirase, "Sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds in bovine breath by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A 1025, 63-69 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. M. Fligger, A. S. Waldvogel, H. Pfister, and T. W. Jungi, "Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spontaneous bovine bronchopneumonia," Vet. Pathol. 36, 397-405 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. S. Yoo, M. S. Rutherford, S. K. Maheswaran, S. Srinand, and T. R. Ames, "Induction of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages in response to Pasteurella haemolytica A1," Microb. Pathog. 20, 361-375 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. L. Mason, Z. Yang, T. W. Olchowy, Z. Jian, and P. N. Bochsler, "Nitric oxide production and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by bovine alveolar macrophages," Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 53, 15-27 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. L. Mason and P. N. Boschsler, "Evaluation of nitric oxide production by bovine alveolar macrophages," in Proceedings: The American Association of Bovine Practitioners (2000), pp. 183-184.
  27. T. M. Wizemann, C. R. Gardner, J. D. Laskin, S. Quinones, S. K. Durham, N. L. Goller, S. T. Ohnishi, and D. L. Laskin, "Production of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in the lung during acute endotoxemia," J. Leukoc. Biol. 56, 759-768 (1994). [PubMed]
  28. R. Forster, A. Dubois, W. Briscoe, and A. Fisher, The Lung: Physiologic Basis of Pulmonary Function Tests (Year Book Medical, 1986).
  29. Y. Yu and J. Pawliszyn, "On-line monitoring of breath by membrane extraction with sorbent interface coupled with CO2 sensor," J. Chromatog. A 1056, 35-41 (2004).
  30. J. K. Schubert, K. H. Spittler, G. Braun, K. Geiger, and J. Guttmann, "CO(2)-controlled sampling of alveolar gas in mechanically ventilated patients," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 486-492 (2001). [PubMed]
  31. S. C. George, M. Hogman, S. Permutt, and P. E. Silkoff, "Modeling pulmonary nitric oxide exchange," J. Appl. Physiol. 96, 831-839 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. Wert, A. Fried, S. Rauenbuehler, J. Walega, and B. Henry, "Design and performance of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for airborne formaldehyde measurements," J. Geophy. Res. 108, 4350-4358 (2003). [CrossRef]
  33. P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, "The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 57, 131-139 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited