OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 2 — Feb. 10, 2009

Spectral prediction model for color prints on paper with fluorescent additives

Roger David Hersch  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 47, Issue 36, pp. 6710-6722 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1024 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



I propose a model for predicting the total reflectance of color halftones printed on paper incorporating fluorescent brighteners. The total reflectance is modeled as the additive superposition of the relative fluorescent emission and the pure reflectance of the color print. The fluorescent emission prediction model accounts for both the attenuation of light by the halftone within the excitation wavelength range and for the attenuation of the fluorescent emission by the same halftone within the emission wavelength range. The model’s calibration relies on reflectance measurements of the optically brightened paper and of the solid colorant patches with two illuminants, one including and one excluding the UV components. The part of the model predicting the pure reflectance relies on an ink-spreading extended Clapper–Yule model. On uniformly distributed surface coverages of cyan, magenta, and yellow halftone patches, the proposed model predicts the relative fluorescent emission with a high accuracy (mean Δ E 94 = 0.42 under a D65 standard illuminant). For optically brightened paper exhibiting a moderate fluorescence, the total reflectance prediction improves the spectral reflectance prediction mainly for highlight color halftones, comprising a proportion of paper white above 12%. Applications include the creation of improved printer characterization tables for color management purposes and the prediction of color gamuts for new combinations of optically brightened papers and inks.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.2810) Image processing : Halftone image reproduction
(260.2510) Physical optics : Fluorescence
(330.1710) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color, measurement

ToC Category:
Image Processing

Original Manuscript: August 7, 2008
Revised Manuscript: November 4, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: November 5, 2008
Published: December 12, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Roger David Hersch, "Spectral prediction model for color prints on paper with fluorescent additives," Appl. Opt. 47, 6710-6722 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. A.S Viggiano, “Modeling the color of multi-colored halftones,” Proc. TAGA 44-62 (1990).
  2. K. Iino and R. S. Berns, “Building color management modules using linear optimization I. Desktop,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 42, 79-94 (1998).
  3. R. Balasubramanian, “Optimization of the spectral Neugebauer model for printer characterization,” J. Electron. Imaging 8, 156-166 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Rogers, “A generalized Clapper-Yule model of halftone reflectance,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 402-407 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. R. D. Hersch, P. Emmel, F. Crété, and F. Collaud, “Spectral reflection and dot surface prediction models for color halftone prints,” J. Electron. Imaging 14, 033001 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Bugnon, M. Brichon, and R. D. Hersch, “Model-based deduction of CMYK surface coverages from visible and infrared spectral measurements of halftone prints,” Proc. SPIE 6493, 649310 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. A. J. Calabria and D. C. Rich, “Brigher is better? Investigating spectral color prediction of ink on optically brightened substrate,” Proceedings IS&T/SID 11th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2003), pp. 288-293.
  8. International Color Consortium, “The effects of fluorescence in the characterization of imaging media,” Summary of CIE Publication 163, www.icc.org.
  9. F. R. Clapper and J. A. C. Yule, “The effect of multiple internal reflections on the densities of halftone prints on paper,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 600-603 (1953). [CrossRef]
  10. K. Nassau, The Physics and Chemistry of Color (Wiley, 1983).
  11. P. Emmel, “Physical models for color prediction,” in Digital Color Imaging, G. Sharma, ed. (CRC, 2003), pp. 173-238.
  12. F. Grum, “Colorimetry of fluorescent materials,” in Optical Radiation Measurements, Volume 2, Color Measurements, F. Grum and C. J. Bartelson, eds. (Academic, 1980), pp. 235-288.
  13. R. Donaldson, “Spectrophotometry of fluorescent pigments,” Br. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 210-214 (1954). [CrossRef]
  14. E. Allen, “Separation of the spectral radiance factor curve of fluorescent substrates into reflected and fluoresced components,” Appl. Opt. 12, 289-293 (1973). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Emmel and R. D. Hersch, “Spectral prediction model for a transparent fluorescent ink on paper,” in Proceedings IS&T/SID 6th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 1998), pp. 116-122.
  16. T. Shakespeare and J. Shakespeare, “A fluorescent extension to the Kubelka-Munk model,” Color Res. Appl. 28, 4-14(2003). [CrossRef]
  17. G. L. Rogers, “Spectral model of a fluorescent ink halftone,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1975-1981 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. R. D. Hersch, P. Donzé, and S. Chosson, “Color images visible under UV light,” Proc. SIGGRAPH 2007, ACM Trans. Graph. 26 (3), Article 75, 1-9 (2007).
  19. L. Yang, “Spectral model of halftone on a fluorescent substrate,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 49, 179-184 (2005).
  20. D. R. Wyble and R. S. Berns, “A critical review of spectral models applied to binary color printing,” Color Res. Appl. 25, 4-19(2000). [CrossRef]
  21. M. E. Demichel, Procédé 26, 17-21 (1924).
  22. D. B. Judd, “Fresnel reflection of diffusely incident light,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 29, 329-332 (1942).
  23. J. L. Saunderson, “Calculation of the color pigmented plastics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 727-736 (1942). [CrossRef]
  24. H. E. J. Neugebauer, “The theoretical basis of multicolor letterpress printing,” Color Res. Appl. 30, 322-331 (2005). [CrossRef]
  25. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982), Table 1(1.2.1 ), pp. 4-6.
  26. In all equations, the attenuation of light exiting though the print-air interface is modeled by the Fresnel diffuse transmittance term (1−ri). When performing measurements, this would imply that an integrated sphere is used to capture all exiting irradiance components. If a measurement instrument is used that captures the exiting radiance perpendicularly (θ=0°) or at a small angle (θ=8°), the exit attenuation term (1−ri)=0.386 appearing in Eqs. should, according to radiometric considerations, be replaced by the attenuation of the radiance across the print-air interface due both to Fresnel transmittivity and to cone spreading (1−rs(θ))/(nprint)2 in the present case (1−0.0438)/(1.532)=0.408 (see ). However, since both terms are numerically close one to another and since the print-air interface is not perfectly flat, I do not recommend performing these changes. This is consistent with observations by C. Kortüm who did not observe, for diffusely reflecting media, significant reflectance factor differences between collimated 45°/0° and integrated sphere 45°/d or d/0° measurement geometries .
  27. R. Bala, R. Eschbach, and Y. Zhao, “Substrate fluorescence: bane or boon?,” in Proceedings IS&T/SID 15th Color Imaging Conference (Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007), pp. 12-17.
  28. M. Hebert and R. D. Hersch, “Classical print reflection models: a radiometric approach,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 48, 363-374 (2004).
  29. G. Kortüm, “Optical geometry of the measurement arrangement,” in Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer, 1969), pp. 170-175.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited