OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 6 — May. 26, 2009

Complete optical neurophysiology: toward optical stimulation and recording of neural tissue

Fred A. Wininger, Jennifer L. Schei, and David M. Rector  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 10, pp. D218-D224 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (531 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Direct optical methods to stimulate and record neural activity provide artifact-free, noninvasive, and noncontact neurophysiological procedures. For stimulation, focused mid-infrared light alters membrane potential and activates individual neural processes. Simultaneous intrinsic scattered light parameters, including birefringence changes, can record neural activity with signals similar to potentiometric dyes. The simultaneous combination of optical stimulation and optical recording techniques provide the potential for powerful tools that may someday remove the need for invasive wires during electrophysiological recordings.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation

Original Manuscript: July 22, 2008
Revised Manuscript: October 7, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: January 30, 2009
Published: March 2, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Fred A. Wininger, Jennifer L. Schei, and David M. Rector, "Complete optical neurophysiology: toward optical stimulation and recording of neural tissue," Appl. Opt. 48, D218-D224 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. L. Babb, E. Mariani, G. M. Strain, J. P. Lieb, H. V. Soper, and P. H. Crandall, “A sample and hold amplifier system for stimulus artifact suppression,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 44, 528-531 (1978). [CrossRef]
  2. W. M. Klop, A. Hartlooper, J. J. Briare, and J. H. Frijns, “A new method for dealing with the stimulus artefact in electrically evoked compound action potential measurements,” Acta Otolaryngol. 124, 137-143 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. T. O'Keeffe, G. M. Lyons, A. E. Donnelly, and C. A. Byrne, “Stimulus artifact removal using a software-based two-stage peak detection algorithm,” J. Neurosci. Methods 109, 137-145 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. S. Polikov, P. A. Tresco, and W. M. Reichert, “Response of brain tissue to chronically implanted neural electrodes,” J. Neurosci. Methods 148, 1-18 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Zecevic, M. Djurisic, L. B. Cohen, S. Antic, M. Wachowiak, C. X. Falk, and M. R. Zochowski , “Imaging nervous system activity with voltage-sensitive dyes,” in Current Protocols in Neuroscience (Wiley, 2003), Chap. 6, unit 6.17. [CrossRef]
  6. R. D. Airan, E. S. Hu, R. Vijaykumar, M. Roy, L. A. Meltzer, and K. Deisseroth, “Integration of light-controlled neuronal firing and fast circuit imaging,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 17, 587-592 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. R. Kain and S. Ganguly, “Overview of genetic reporter systems,” in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Wiley, 2001), Chap. 9, unit 9.6. [CrossRef]
  8. G. Mayer and A. Heckel, “Biologically active molecules with a 'light switch',” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45, 4900-4921 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. Wells, C. Kao, E. D. Jansen, P. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Application of infrared light for in vivo neural stimulation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 064003 (2005).
  10. C. P. Richter, R. Bayon, A. D. Izzo, M. Otting, A. D. Izzo, C. P. Richter, E. D. Jansen, and J. T. Walsh, Jr., “Laser stimulation of the auditory nerve,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38, 745-753 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. J. Foust, R. M. Beiu, and D. M. Rector, “Optimized birefringence changes during isolated nerve activation,” Appl. Opt. 44, 2008-2012 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Wells, C. Kao, P. Konrad, T. Milner, J. Kim, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, and E. D. Jansen, “Biophysical mechanisms of transient optical stimulation of peripheral nerve.,” Biophys. J. 93, 2567-2580 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. D. Wells, S. Thomsen, P. Whitaker, E. D. Jansen, C. C. Kao, P. E. Konrad, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “Optically mediated nerve stimulation: identification of injury thresholds,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39, 513-526 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. M. Rector, K. M. Carter, P. L. Volegov, and J. S. George, “Spatio-temporal mapping of rat whisker barrels with fast scattered light signals,” NeuroImage 26, 619-627 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. J. Foust, J. L. Schei, M. J. Rojas, and D. M. Rector, “In vitro and in vivo noise analysis for optical neural recording,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 044038 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. J. Foust and D. M. Rector, “Optically teasing apart neural swelling and depolarization,” Neuroscience 145, 887-889(2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Villringer and B. Chance, “Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function,” Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. B. Cohen, R. D. Keynes, and B. Hille, “Light scattering and birefringence changes during nerve activity,” Nature 218, 438-441 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. I. Tasaki, A. Watanabe, R. Sandlin, and L. Carnay, “Changes in fluorescence, turbidity, and birefringence associated with nerve excitation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61, 883-888 (1968). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, “Noninvasive detection of changes in membrane potential in cultured neurons by light scattering,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382-9386(1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. M. Carter, J. S. George, and D. M. Rector, “Simultaneous birefringence and scattered light measurements reveal anatomical features in isolated crustacean nerve,” J. Neurosci. Methods 135, 9-16 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. Furusawa, “The depolarization of crustacean nerve by stimulation or oxygen want,” J. Physiol. 67, 325-342(1929). [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited