OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 4, Iss. 13 — Dec. 2, 2009

Thin film metal coated fiber optic hydrophone probe

Rupa Gopinath Minasamudram, Piyush Arora, Gaurav Gandhi, Afshin S. Daryoush, Mahmoud A. El-Sherif, and Peter A. Lewin  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 48, Issue 31, pp. G77-G82 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (480 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Our purpose is to improve the performance sensitivity of a fiber sensor used as a fiber optic hydrophone probe (FOHP) by the addition of nanoscale thin film gold coating. The fiber is designed to provide a uniform and spatial averaging free response up to 100 MHz by etching down to an active diameter of approximately 9 μm . The performance sensitivity of straight cleaved (i.e., full size core and cladding) uncoated, tapered uncoated, and tapered thin film gold-coated fiber sensors was compared in the frequency range from 1.5 to 20 MHz in the presence of acoustic amplitude pressure levels as high as 6 MPa . An unprecedented voltage sensitivity of 245 dB relative to 1 V / μ Pa ( 560 mV / MPa ) was measured for a thin film gold-coated FOHP by optimizing the gold coating thickness.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.7170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ultrasound
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
(170.1065) Medical optics and biotechnology : Acousto-optics

Original Manuscript: June 19, 2009
Revised Manuscript: September 16, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: September 16, 2009
Published: October 2, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 13 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Rupa Gopinath Minasamudram, Piyush Arora, Gaurav Gandhi, Afshin S. Daryoush, Mahmoud A. El-Sherif, and Peter A. Lewin, "Thin film metal coated fiber optic hydrophone probe," Appl. Opt. 48, G77-G82 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. A. Lewin, “High frequency biomedical and industrial ultrasound applications,” in Proceedings of the International Congress on Ultrasonics, doi:10.3728/ICUltrasonics (CEA, 2007). Vienna.1796_lewin_plenary. [CrossRef]
  2. S. Umchid, R. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, P. A. Lewin, A. S. Daryoush, L. Bansal, and M. El-Sherif, “Development of calibration techniques for ultrasound probes in the frequency range from 1 to 100 MHz,” Ultrasonics 49, 306-311(2009). [CrossRef]
  3. P. Morris, A. Hurrell, and P. Beard, “Development of 50 MHz Fabry-Perot type fiber optic hydrophone for the characterization of medical ultrasound fields,” Proc. Inst. Acoust. 28, 717-725 (2006).
  4. V. Wilkens, Ch. Koch, and W. Molkenstruck, “Frequency response of a fiber-optic dielectric multilayer hydrophone,” in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1113-1116.
  5. P. Fomitchov and S. Krishnaswamy, “Response of a fiber Bragg-grating ultrasound sensor,” Opt. Eng. 42, 956-963(2003). [CrossRef]
  6. B.-O. Guan, H.-Y. Tam, S.-T. Lau, and H. L. W. Chan, “Ultrasonic hydrophone based on distributed Bragg reflector fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 169-171 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Staudenraus and W. Eisenmenger, “Fibre-optic probe hydrophone for ultrasonic and shock-wave measurements in water,” Ultrasonics 31, 267-273 (1993). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Mu, S. Umchid, A. S. Daryoush, and P. A. Lewin, “Optical hydrophone for broadband medical ultrasound,” in International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1-4. [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Parsons, C. A. Cain, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Cost-effective assembly of a basic fiber-optic hydrophone for measurement of high-amplitude therapeutic ultrasound fields,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 1432-1440 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. S. Daryoush, “RF and microwave photonics in biomedical applications,” in Microwave Photonics: Devices and Applications, S. Iezekiel, ed. (Wiley, 2009), pp 241-256.
  11. R. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. Umchid, L. Bansal, A. S. Daryoush, P. A. Lewin, and M. El-Sherif, “Improved fiber optic hydrophone sensors,” in Ultrasonic Symposium (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2319-2322.
  12. P. A. Lewin, “Practical implementations and technology of measurement devices,” in Ultrasonic Exposimetry, M. C. Ziskin and P. A. Lewin, eds, (CRC Press, 1992), pp 185-215.
  13. P. A. Lewin, “Behaviour of the piezoelectric probe in high pressure amplitude acoustic fields,” in Proceedings of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, R. W. Gill and M. J. Dadd, eds. (Academic, 1985).
  14. S. W.Meeks and R. Y.Ting, “Evaluation of PVF2 for underwater shock-wave sensor applications,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 1010-1012 (1984). [CrossRef]
  15. P. A. Lewin, J. M. Gilmore, and M. E. Schafer, “PVDF sensors for quantitative acoustic shock wave measurements,” in Ultrasonics International '89 Conference Proceedings (Butterworths, 1989).
  16. K. Srinivasan, “Noise cancelled optical receivers in fiber optic hydrophone up to 100 MHz,” M.S. thesis (Drexel University, 2007).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited