OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 8, Iss. 7 — Aug. 1, 2013

Temperature control of water-based substances by CO2 laser for medical applications

Luc Lévesque  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 52, Issue 16, pp. 3856-3863 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (595 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Temperature of water-based substances is investigated by aiming a pulsed CO2 laser beam at the water–air surface. This method of controlling temperature is believed to be flexible in medical applications as it avoids the use of thermal devices, which are often cumbersome and generate rather larger temperature swing with time. The control of temperature in this laser method is modeled by the heat conduction equation. In this investigation, it is assumed that the energy delivered by the CO2 laser is confined within a very thin surface layer of roughly 10 μm. It is shown that the temperature can be very well controlled by a CO2 laser at a steady temperature, and we demonstrate that the method can be adapted to work in tandem with another laser beam.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects
(350.3850) Other areas of optics : Materials processing
(280.6780) Remote sensing and sensors : Temperature

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: February 28, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 29, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 1, 2013
Published: May 31, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Luc Lévesque, "Temperature control of water-based substances by CO2 laser for medical applications," Appl. Opt. 52, 3856-3863 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968). [CrossRef]
  2. G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200 nm to 200 μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Prahl, “Optical absorption of water,” (2001), http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/water/index.html .
  4. S. G. Warren, “Optical constants of ice from the ultraviolet to the microwave,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1206–1225 (1984). [CrossRef]
  5. H. G. Tompkins, A User’s Guide to Ellipsometry (Academic, 1993).
  6. A. Katzir, Laser and Optical Fibers in Medicine (Academic, 1993).
  7. B. V. Slaughter, S. S. Khurshid, O. Z. Fisher, A. Khademhosseini, and N. A. Peppas, “Hydrogels in regenerative medicine,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3307–3329 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Wang, J. L. Mynar, M. Yoshida, E. Lee, M. Lee, K. Okuro, K. Kinbara, and T. Aida, “High-water-content mouldable hydrogels by mixing clay and a dendritic molecular binder,” Nature 463, 339–343 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Ion, Laser Processing of Engineering Materials, Principles, Procedures and Industrial Application (Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005), pp. 434–436.
  10. Y. Zhang, T. Gong, W. J. Liu, J. Q. Wei, X. F. Zhang, K. L. Wang, M. L. Zhong, and D. H. Wu, “Angle-dependent light emission from aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes under CO2 laser irradiation,” Nanotechnology 18, 075710 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Fatimah, M. Ishak, and S. N. Aqida, “CO2 laser cutting of glass fiber reinforced polymer composite,” in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 36 of IOP Conference Series (IOP, 2012), 012033.
  12. G. B. Arfken, H. J. Weber, and F. E. Harris, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 6th ed. (Elsevier Academic, 2005), pp. 611–618.
  13. E. Butkov, Mathematical Physics (Addison-Wesley, 1968), pp. 296–299.
  14. Y. Yener and S. Kakaç, Heat Conduction, 4th Ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2008), pp. 210–212.
  15. M. N. Özişik, Heat Conduction (Wiley, 1980), pp. 276.
  16. K. W. Guan, Y.-Q. Jiang, C.-S. Sun, and H. Yu, “A two-layer model of laser interaction with skin: a photothermal effect analysis,” Opt. Laser Technol. 43, 425–429 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Torres, M. Motamedi, J. A. Pearce, and A. J. Welch, “Experimental evaluation of mathematical models for predicting the thermal response of tissue to laser irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 597–606 (1993). [CrossRef]
  18. B. Anvari, T. E. Milner, B. S. Tanenbaum, S. Kimmel, L. O. Svaasand, and J. S. Nelson, “Selective cooling of biological tissues: application for thermally mediated therapeutic procedures,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 241–252 (1995). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Haemmerich, D. J. Schutt, I. dos Santos, J. G. Webster, and D. M. Mahvi, “Measurement of temperature-dependent specific heat of biological tissues,” Physiol. Meas. 26, 59–67 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Peng, A. Juzeniene, J. Chen, L. O. Svaasand, T. Warloe, K.-E. Giercksky, and J. Moan, “Lasers in medicine,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 056701 (2008). [CrossRef]
  21. L. Lévesque and R. G. Sabat, “Thermal lensing investigation on bulk ceramics and thin-film PLZT using visible and far-infrared laser beams,” Opt. Mater. 33, 460–465 (2011). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited