An updating procedure is described for improving the robustness of multivariate calibration models based on near-infrared spectroscopy. Employing a single blank sample containing no analyte, repeated spectra are acquired during the instrumental warm-up period. These spectra are used to capture the instrumental profile on the analysis day in a way that can be used to update a previously computed calibration model. By augmenting the original spectra of the calibration samples with a group of spectra collected from the blank sample, an updated model can be computed that incorporates any instrumental drift that has occurred. This protocol is evaluated in the context of an analysis of physiological levels of glucose in a simulated biological matrix designed to mimic blood plasma. Employing data of calibration and prediction samples acquired over approximately six months, procedures are studied for implementing the algorithm in conjunction with calibration models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression. Over the range of 1–20 mM glucose, the final algorithm achieves a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.79 mM when the augmented PLS model is applied to data collected 176 days after the collection of the calibration spectra. Without updating, the original PLS model produces a seriously degraded SEP of 13.4 mM.
Vol. 2, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics
Kirsten E. Kramer and Gary W. Small, "Blank Augmentation Protocol for Improving the Robustness of Multivariate Calibrations," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 497-506 (2007)