Results are presented illustrating a straightforward algorithm to be used for real-time monitoring of oxygenation levels in blood cells and tissue based on the visible spectrum of hemoglobin. Absorbance images obtained from the visible reflection of white light through separate red and blue bandpass filters recorded by monochrome charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are combined to create enhanced images that suggest a quantitative correlation between the degree of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in red blood cells. The filter bandpass regions are chosen specifically to mimic the color response of commercial 3-CCD cameras, representative of detectors with which the operating room laparoscopic tower systems are equipped. Adaptation of this filter approach is demonstrated for laparoscopic donor nephrectomies in which images are analyzed in terms of real-time <i>in vivo</i> monitoring of tissue oxygenation.
Vol. 2, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics
Nicole J. Crane, Zachary D. Schultz, and Ira W. Levin, "Contrast Enhancement for in Vivo Visible Reflectance Imaging of Tissue Oxygenation," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 797-803 (2007)