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Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 4 — Apr. 12, 2006

Experimental characterization of focusing by high-numerical-aperture zone plates

Rajesh Menon, Dario Gil, and Henry I. Smith  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA A, Vol. 23, Issue 3, pp. 567-571 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.23.000567


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Abstract

High-numerical-aperture zone plates have important applications in high-resolution optical maskless lithography as well as scanning confocal microscopy. We describe two methods to experimentally characterize the focusing properties, i.e., the point-spread function, of such diffractive lenses. The first method uses spot exposures in photoresist and the second uses a conventional knife-edge scan. The experimental results agree well with rigorous theoretical calculations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1380) Diffraction and gratings : Binary optics
(080.3630) Geometric optics : Lenses
(090.1970) Holography : Diffractive optics
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

History
Original Manuscript: May 27, 2005
Revised Manuscript: August 2, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: August 3, 2005

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Rajesh Menon, Dario Gil, and Henry I. Smith, "Experimental characterization of focusing by high-numerical-aperture zone plates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 567-571 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-23-3-567


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References

  1. R. Menon, A. A. Patel, D. Gil and H. I. Smith, 'Maskless lithography,' Mater. Today , February 2005, pp. 26-33. [CrossRef]
  2. L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, 'Sharper images by focusing soft X-rays with photon sieves,' Nature 414, 184-188 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Menon, D. Gil, G. Barbastathis, and H. I. Smith, 'Photon sieve lithography,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 342-345 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. D. Gil, R. Menon, and H. I. Smith, 'Fabrication of high-numerical-aperture phase zone plates with a single lithography exposure and no etching,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2956-2960 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. D. W. Prather and S. Shi, 'Formulation and application of the finite-difference time-domain method for the analysis of axially symmetric diffractive optical elements,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1131-1142 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Gil, R. Menon, D. J. D. Carter, and H. I. Smith,' Lithographic patterning and confocal imaging with zone plates,' J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2881-2885 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. Tiziani, R. Achi, R. N. Kramer, and L. Wiegers, 'Theoretical analysis of confocal microscopy with microlenses,' Appl. Opt. 35, 120-125 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. J. Dallas, H. H. Barrett, R. E. Wagner, H. Roehrig, and C. N. West, 'Finite-length line-spread function,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2039-2044 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, 1984), Chap. 3.

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