OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 11 — Nov. 26, 2007

Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips

David Hinks, Lina M. Cárdenas, Rolf G. Kuehni, and Renzo Shamey  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 24, Issue 10, pp. 3371-3378 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (505 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Presented are intra- and inter-observer variability data comparing the unique-hue (UH) selections of sets of males and females, using two different visual experimental procedures incorporating Munsell color chips of varying hue but identical chroma and value. Although 34 of the 40 Munsell hue chips were selected by at least one observer as a UH, selections were generally repeatable. In addition, intra-observer variability represented approximately 15% of inter-observer variability. Also, when only three consecutive Munsell chips were viewed at a time, females showed significantly larger intra-observer variability than males, especially when making unique green selections. However, variability in UH selections was statistically insignificant between males and females when all Munsell chips were viewed simultaneously. No correlation was found between UH selections or intra-observer variability and hue ordering ability.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.1720) Vision, color, and visual optics : Color vision
(330.5020) Vision, color, and visual optics : Perception psychology

ToC Category:
Vision, Color, and Visual Optics

Original Manuscript: March 27, 2007
Revised Manuscript: July 13, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: July 27, 2007
Published: September 25, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 11 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

David Hinks, Lina M. Cárdenas, Rolf G. Kuehni, and Renzo Shamey, "Unique-hue stimulus selection using Munsell color chips," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 3371-3378 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. Hering, Grundzüge der Lehre vom Lichtsinn (Springer, 1905-1911).
  2. L. M. Hurvich and D. Jameson, transl., Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense (Harvard U. Press, 1964).
  3. E. Hering, Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne (Gerold, 1872-1874).
  4. M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2005).
  5. M. L. Rubin, "Spectral hue loci of normal and anomalous trichromates," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 52, 166-172 (1961). [PubMed]
  6. M. Ayama, T. Nakatsue, and P. E. Kaiser, "Constant hue loci of unique hue binary balanced hues at 10, 100, and 1000 Td," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1136-1144 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Pridmore, "Unique and binary hues as functions of luminance and illuminant color temperature, and relations with invariant hues," Vision Res. 39, 3892-3908 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. B. E. Schefrin and J. S. Werner, "Loci of spectral unique hues throughout the life span," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 305-317 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Nerger, V. J. Vollbrecht, and C. J. Ayde, "Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1225-1232 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. M. A. Webster, E. Miyahara, G. Malkoc, and V. E. Raker, "Variations in normal color vision. II. Unique hues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1545-1555 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Webster, S. M. Webster, S. Bharadwaj, R. Verma, J. Jaikuma, G. Mada, and E. Vaithilingham, "Variations in normal color vision. III. Unique hues in Indian and United States Observers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1951-1962 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. G. Malkoc, P. Kay, and M. A. Webster, "Variations in normal color vision. VI. Binary hues and hue scaling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2154-2168 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. I. Abramov and J. Gordon, "Seeing unique hues," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2143-2153 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. R. G. Kuehni, "Determination of unique hues using Munsell color chips," Color Res. Appl. 26, 61-66 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. R. G. Kuehni, "Variability in unique hue selection: a surprising phenomenon," Color Res. Appl. 29, 158-162 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Wuerger, P. Atkinson, and S. Cropper, "The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanism," Vision Res. 45, 3210-3223 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Raz, J. Fan, and M. I. Posner, "Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 9978-9983 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Hansen and K. R. Gegenfurtner, "Higher level chromatic mechanisms for image segmentation," J. Vision 6, 239-59 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Farnsworth, "The Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue dichotomous tests for color vision," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 568-574 (1943). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Ishihara, Series of Plates Designed as Tests for Colour-Blindness (Kanehara, 1917).
  21. J. Neitz, Manual: Neitz Test of Color Vision (Western Psychological Services, 2001).
  22. A. M. Derrington, J. Krauskopf, and P. Lennie, "Chromatic mechanisms in lateral geniculate nucleus of macaque," J. Physiol. (London) 357, 241-265 (1984).
  23. G. H. M. Waaler, "The heredity of two types of normal colour vision," in Avandlinger Utgitt av det Norske Videnskap-Akademi (Universitetsforlaget, 1967).
  24. S. R. Cobb, "The unique green phenomenon and colour vision," Clin. Genet. 7, 274-279 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. Richards, "Differences among color normals: classes I and II," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1047-1055 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. V. J. Volbrecht, J. L. Nerger, and C. E. Harlow, "The bimodality of unique green revisited," Vision Res. 37, 407-416 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M. Neitz, T. W. Kraft, and J. Neitz, "Expression of L cone pigment gene subtypes in females," Vision Res. 38, 3213-3219 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited