OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editors: Andrew Dunn and Anthony Durkin
  • Vol. 7, Iss. 1 — Jan. 4, 2012

Spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurements on well-defined textured surfaces: direct observation of shadowing, masking, inter-reflection, and transparency effects

Larry Wilen and Bivash R. Dasgupta  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA A, Vol. 28, Issue 11, pp. 2414-2427 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2476 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present results for the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for samples of uniform rectangular and triangular grooves constructed from polydimethylsilicone replicas. The measurements are performed with the detector in the plane of incidence, but with varying groove orientations with respect to that plane. The samples are opaque in some cases and semitransparent in others. By measuring the BRDF for colored samples over a wide spectral range, we explicitly probe the effect of sample albedo, which is important for inter-reflections. For the opaque samples, we compare the results with exact theoretical results either taken from the literature (for the triangular geometry) or worked out here (for the rectangular geometry). For both geometries, we also extend the theoretical results to finite length grooves. There is generally very good agreement between theory and the experiment. Shadowing, masking, and inter-reflection are clearly observed, as well as effects that may be due to polarization and asperity scattering. For semitransparent samples, we observe the effect of increasing transparency on the BRDF.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
(290.1483) Scattering : BSDF, BRDF, and BTDF

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: June 17, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 21, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: September 22, 2011
Published: October 31, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 7, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Larry Wilen and Bivash R. Dasgupta, "Spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurements on well-defined textured surfaces: direct observation of shadowing, masking, inter-reflection, and transparency effects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2414-2427 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. V. G. Baranoski and A. Krishnaswamy, “An introduction to light interaction with human skin,” RITA 11, 33-62 (2004).
  2. A. Krishnaswamy and G. V. G. Baranoski, “A biophysically-based spectral model of light interaction with human skin,” Comput. Graph. Forum 23, 331-340 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Dozier and T. H. Painter, “Multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing of alpine snow properties,” Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 32, 465-494 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Thompson, “A snapshot of canopy reflectance models and a universal model for the radiation regime,” Remote Sens. Rev. 18, 197-225 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Dorsey and H. Rushmeier, “Advanced material appearance modeling,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2009 Courses (ACM, 2009), article 3. [CrossRef]
  6. K. E. Torrance and E. M. Sparrow, “Theory for off-specular reflection from roughened surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 1105-1112 (1967). [CrossRef]
  7. S. K. Nayar and M. Oren, “Visual appearance of matte surfaces,” Science 267, 1153-1156 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Oren and S. K. Nayar, “Generalization of the Lambertian model and implications for machine vision,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 14, 227-251 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Koenderink, A. J. van Doorn, K. J. Dana, and S. K. Nayar, “Bidirectional reflection distribution function of thoroughly pitted surfaces,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 31, 129-144 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Pont and J. J. Koenderink, “Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of specular surfaces with hemispherical pits,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2456-2466 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Pont and J. J. Koenderink, “Reflectance from locally glossy thoroughly pitted surfaces,” Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 98, 211-222 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Geake, M. Geake, and B. H. Zellner, “Experiments to test theoretical models of the polarization of light by rough surfaces,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 210, 89-112. (1984).
  13. S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, Y. Shkuratov, G. Videen, J. Eversol, and M. Hart, “Backscatter by surfaces composed of small spherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3871-3877 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. A. Ovcharenko, S. Y. Bondarenko, E. S. Zubko, Y. G. Shkuratov, G. Videen, R. M. Nelson, and W. D. Smythe, “Particle size effect on the opposition spike and negative polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 394-403 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. G. Shkuratov and Y. S. Grynko, “Scattering by semitransparent particles of different shapes and media consisting of these particles in geometric optics approximation: consequences for photometry and spectroscopy of the planetary regoliths,” Icarus 173, 16-28. (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. G. Shkuratov, D. G. Stankevich, D. V. Petrov, P. C. Pinet, A. M. Cord, Y. H. Daydou, and S. D. Chevrel, “Interpreting photometry of regolith-like surfaces with different topographies: shadowing and multiple scatter,” Icarus 173, 3-15 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Xia and G. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical considerations and nomenclature for reflectance,” NBS Monograph 160 (National Bureau of Standards, 1977).
  19. J. Koenderink and S. Pont, “The secret of velvety skin,” Mach. Vis. Appl. 14, 260-268 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Weyrich, P. Peers, W. Matusik, and S. Rusinkiewicz, “Fabricating microgeometry for custom surface reflectance,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28, 32 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Hašan, M. Fuchs, W. Matusik, H. Pfister, and S. Rusinkiewicz, “Physical reproduction of materials with specified subsurface scattering,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29, 61 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Shkuratov, D. V. Petrov, and G. Videen, “Classical photometry of pre-fractal surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 2081-2092 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. D. A. Haner, B. T. McGuckin, and C. J. Bruegge, “Polarization characteristics of spectralon illuminated by coherent light,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6350-6356 (1999). [CrossRef]
  24. Labsphere technical guide “Reflectance materials and coatings,” http://www.labsphere.com/uploads/technical-guides/a-guide-to-reflectance-materials-and-coatings.pdf.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited