OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

| EXPLORING THE INTERFACE OF LIGHT AND BIOMEDICINE

  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 1, Iss. 6 — Jun. 13, 2006

High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

Yan Zhang, Barry Cense, Jungtae Rha, Ravi S. Jonnal, Weihua Gao, Robert J. Zawadzki, John S. Werner, Steve Jones, Scot Olivier, and Donald T. Miller  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 10, pp. 4380-4394 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.004380


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (792 KB) Open Access





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report the first observations of the three-dimensional morphology of cone photoreceptors in the living human retina. Images were acquired with a high-speed adaptive optics (AO) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) camera. The AO system consisted of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and bimorph mirror (AOptix) that measured and corrected the ocular and system aberrations at a closed-loop rate of 12 Hz. The bimorph mirror was positioned between the XY mechanical scanners and the subject’s eye. The SD-OCT system consisted of a superluminescent diode and a 512 pixel line scan charge-coupled device (CCD) that acquired 75,000 A-scans/s. This rate is more than two times faster than that previously reported. Retinal motion artifacts were minimized by quickly acquiring small volume images of the retina with and without AO compensation. Camera sensitivity was sufficient to detect reflections from all major retinal layers. The regular distribution of bright spots observed within C-scans at the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions and at the posterior tips of the OS were found to be highly correlated with one another and with the expected cone spacing. No correlation was found between the posterior tips of the OS and the other retinal layers examined, including the retinal pigment epithelium.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1080) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Active or adaptive optics
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography
(330.4300) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision system - noninvasive assessment
(330.4460) Vision, color, and visual optics : Ophthalmic optics and devices
(330.5370) Vision, color, and visual optics : Physiological optics

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

History
Original Manuscript: April 18, 2006
Revised Manuscript: May 8, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: May 8, 2006
Published: May 15, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Yan Zhang, Barry Cense, Jungtae Rha, Ravi S. Jonnal, Weihua Gao, Robert J. Zawadzki, John S. Werner, Steve Jones, Scot Olivier, and Donald T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4380


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distance by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2421 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Liang, D. Williams, and D. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11,2884-2892 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002). [PubMed]
  9. N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1537-1539 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted). [PubMed]
  12. Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. A. Riggs and J. C. Armington, J. C., "Motions of the retinal image during fixation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 315-321 (1954). [CrossRef]
  16. American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2000).
  17. C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comparitive Neurology 292, 497-523 (1990). [CrossRef]
  18. D. R. Williams, "Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye," Vision Res. 28, 433-454 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, "The relationship of primate foveal cones to the pigment epithelium," J. Ultrastructure Res. 67, 23-32 (1979). [CrossRef]
  20. R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagogytosis of extrafoveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977). [CrossRef]
  21. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Multimedia

Multimedia FilesRecommended Software
» Media 1: AVI (2894 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2445 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited