OSA's Digital Library

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics


  • Editor: Gregory W. Faris
  • Vol. 2, Iss. 6 — Jun. 13, 2007

Ultra long high resolution beam by multi-zone rotationally symmetrical complex pupil filter

Yingshun Xu, Janak Singh, Colin J. R. Sheppard, and Nanguang Chen  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 10, pp. 6409-6413 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (207 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



An ultra long high resolution beam with extension of depth of focus (DoF) in the axial direction as well as high resolution in the transverse direction has been demonstrated by a seven-zone rotationally symmetrical complex pupil filter imposed at the aperture of a focusing lens. Both amplitude and phase of the transmitted light are modulated in different zones. The scalar diffraction theory is used to optimize the zone parameters. Simulation results show that extended DoF of the beam is increased by 16 times while the spot size at the beam waist is reduced to 0.7 times.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1220) Diffraction and gratings : Apertures
(100.6640) Image processing : Superresolution
(170.5810) Medical optics and biotechnology : Scanning microscopy

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: February 26, 2007
Revised Manuscript: April 18, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: May 7, 2007
Published: May 10, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Yingshun Xu, Janak Singh, Colin J. R. Sheppard, and Nanguang Chen, "Ultra long high resolution beam by multi-zone rotationally symmetrical complex pupil filter," Opt. Express 15, 6409-6413 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).
  2. G. Toraldo di Francia, "Super-gain antennas and optical resolving power," Nuovo Cimento, Suppl. 9, 426-435 (1952). [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. R. Sheppard and Z. S. Hegedus, "Axial behavior of pupil-plane filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 643-647 (1988). [CrossRef]
  4. W. T. Welford, "Use of annular aperture to increase focal depth," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 50,749-753 (1960). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Ando, "Phase-shifting apodizer of three or more portions," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31,557-567 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. T. R. M. Sales and G. M. Morris, "Fundamental limits of optical superresolution," Opt. Lett. 22, 582-584 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. J. R. Sheppard, G. Calvert, and M. Wheatland, "Focal distribution for superresolving toraldo filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 849-856 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, Z. J. Laczik, and V. Sarafis, "Optimized pupil-plane filters for confocal microscope point-spread function engineering," Opt. Lett. 25, 245-247 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Wang and F. Gan, "High focal depth with a pure-phase apodizer," Appl. Opt. 40, 5658-5662 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. H. Wang, L. Shi, G. Yuan, W. Tan and T. Chong, "Subwavelength and super-resolution nondiffraction beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171102 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Yun, L. Liu, J. Sun and D. Liu, "Three-dimensional superresolution by three-zone complex pupil filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 272-277 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. T. R. M. Sales and G. M. Morris, "Diffractive superresolution elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1637-1646 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. V. F. Canales and M. P. Cagigal, "Pupil filter design by using a Bessel functions basis at the image plane," Opt. Express 14, 10393-10402 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Ben-Eliezer, E. Marom, N. Konforti, and Z. Zalevsky, "Radial mask for imaging systems that exhibit high resolution and extended depths of field," Appl. Opt. 45, 2001-2013 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. J. R. Sheppard, "Synthesis of filters for specified axial properties," J. Mod. Optic. 43, 525-536 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Martinez-Corral, M. Caballero, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. Swoger, "Tailoring the axial shape of the point spread function using the Toraldo concept," Opt. Express 10, 98-103 (2002). [PubMed]
  17. J. A. Davis, C. S. Tuvey, O. López-Coronado, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, and C. Iemmi, "Tailoring the depth of focus for optical imaging systems using a Fourier transform approach," Opt. Lett. 32, 844-846 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Zalevsky, A. Shemer, A. Zlotnik, E. B. Eliezer, and E. Marom, "All-optical axial super resolving imaging using a low-frequency binary-phase mask, " Opt. Express 14, 2631-2643 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. M. de Juana, J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, "Design of superresolving continuous phase filters," Opt. Lett. 28, 607-609 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Jabbour and S. Kuebler, "Vector diffraction analysis of high numerical aperture focused beams modified by two- and three-zone annular multi-phase plates," Opt. Express 14, 1033-1043 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig 3.
Fig 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited